16 October 2007

2069) Archival Evidence for Armenian Massacres of Turks, II

The following is the English translation of a Turkish history book's chapter exploring the "ethnic cleansing" crimes of the Armenians, utilizing archival evidence. The reader should bear in mind that most of these records were prepared internally, and cannot be construed as "Turkish propaganda."

Part I may be accessed here.

Following is translation of Chapter 9-B of “Arşiv Belgeleriyle Tehcir - Ermeni İddiaları ve Gerçekler [Armenian Allegations and the Truth – With Archival Documents]”, Necdet Sevinç, Avrasya Bir Yayın, (Ankara, 2003).

Translated by: Hüseyin Avsaroglu – Kayseri, October 2007.

Here, the author chronicles the Armenian atrocities against the Muslim population prior to the deportation order of April 1915. There is immense evidence in Ottoman archives clearly proving the Ottoman decree of relocation was in self defense. If only the Diaspora could face up to historical facts.

Chapter IX-B

Various Armenian Methods to Kill Muslims

The situation faced by the Turks as well as the Ottoman Empire during World War I can be understood upon reading the following information. Hunchak Organization which believed that an Armenian Republic could be founded by terrorist methods 1 published organized instructions on how to kill the Muslims, and how to demolish the cities. One of the articles from the “Hınçakyan İhtilal Komitesi Azası’nın Vezaifine (Vazifesine) Dair Talimat” [The Duties of Hunchak Revolutionary Committee Members] instructions booklet is as follows:

Article 8: Each Committee should have a chief executioner with a team of executioners around him who share his values. Duties of this team include getting rid of those who disobey within and around the committee with the orders of the Committee. There are three methods of punishment: (1) warning, (2) beating, (3) death. There are three methods of death: (1) dagger, (2) revolver, (3) choking or poisoning.”

Methods of blowing up buildings are described as: “…Methods to be used for blowing up homes and other buildings: (1) solid dynamite, (2) dynamite solution, salicylic chemical, (3) derivatives of explosives prepared with gunpowder!” 2

Another similar document titled “Müdafaa-i Şahsiyye İçin Talimat [Instructions of Self Protection]” and bearing the signature of Toman was printed in 1910 and was distributed by the thousands. Although it poses as a self protection, this document actually prescribes various ways of wiping out Muslims. On page 4, after explaining which weapons should be used under each circumstance, it goes on to explain how to raid on villages and set them on fire as follows:

“There are three kinds of villages. (1) Armenian villages among other Armenian villages that are habited by Armenians, (2) Villages habited by Armenians but located among villages which are habited by others, (3) Villages where Armenians live altogether with others.

“In all three types of villages, organizations bear no difference. They all should join the “forces” with their ammunition and weapons. The forces are divided as (1) stationary and (2) mobile. Each force should be assigned a chief and an assistant to the chief. The mobile and stationary forces should each elect an experienced chieftain for their village. These chieftains will be the ultimate authority in the villages and all the forces in that village will be under his command. These chieftains will be the representatives of the government and of the armed forces in their villages. All village chieftains will get together to elect three persons in their district as temporary armed command commissions. These government representatives (Erkanı Harbiye Heyeti) and the commander will have the power to collect arms from disabled users and redistribute them to more experienced persons during skirmishes. Messengers should be formed to inform nearby village forces in case of a surprise attack on a village. If the Armenians living as minority among others find themselves under attack and if they are unable to get help in time, they should collect their valuables and move in to other Armenian villages.

“In villages where the enemy numbers are fewer than Armenians, the former should be asked to leave if they have not done so on their own. Those who do not leave could be taken as hostage depending on the situation and the decision of the government.

“During skirmishes, doors will be kept open and those who are escaping from the army or police forces will be allowed to enter. Civilians wandering around without weapons should be forbidden. The villagers have to pay for any weapons lost to the enemy. Weapons taken over from the enemy belong to whoever confiscates them.”

“In order to attack villages:

1) Fortification points of enemy villages must be known.
2) The escape routes must be decided beforehand and kept under control of the outpost.
3) Villages that may aid to enemy must be explored beforehand and must be prevented.
4) Only three sides of the village to be attacked must be kept under siege. One side must appear like an escape route for the residents. (If contained from all four sides, the enemy may counter attack and endanger our victory.) Only a small contingent should be hidden on the fourth side to press and to inflict casualties on them. Actually, the real reason to leave an open side is to assure speedy victory by dividing the enemy’s forces, more so than allowing an escape route to them.
5) Attacking at dawn would surprise the enemy. Attacking earlier would cause us losses while waiting for the light.
6) In order to create chaos and commotion, fires must be started in different places at the same time and expanded. Necessary equipment must be prepared beforehand.
7) If there are no cavalrymen among the attackers, spare horses must be brought along to carry the wounded and the dead bodies into the Armenian villages so that they cannot be identified.

“A few days before the attack, strong and reliable agents selected by our Chief Armed Forces (Erkanı Harbiye Heyeti) must be sent to the targeted village. They must stay there as long as it requires to collect the necessary information. Consequent attack preparations must be planned based on these agents’ reports.” 3

While the Turkish Army was fighting on multiple fronts, thousands of kilometers away from their homes, Armenians were busy preparing brutal plans to eradicate their neighbors of 900 years. An Armed Chief Commander is going to be elected in each city, every Armenian will carry out the orders of this Chief of Armed Forces, agents will be sent to whichever village will be attacked, fire will be started in various places at dawn, and bullets will be raining on the Turks who flee their homes in panic. This was their plan.

Armenians who could publish in their newspapers 4 their belief that the Turks must be eradicated to achieve a peaceful existence on earth, became agents of atrocities that even the most fearsome and sadistic murderers could not imagine. Thus they prepared their end by earning hatred of Turks who ran for reprisals.

The Ottoman Government collected soldiers on July 21, 1914 and declared war on November 11th of the same year. Armenians of Zeitun did not miss this opportunity and while the government was busy with war preparations, they started their rebellion on August 17, 1914.

Armenian rebellions will not be described in this book. Only Van and Zeitun rebellions will be mentioned as samples to justify the relocation order of the Ottoman Government.

Zeitun Rebellion

The first Armenian rebellion following the order to enlist men for the army started on August 17, 1914 in Zeitun, which is now the Suleymanli borough of Kahraman Maraş. Armenians stopped paying their taxes to the government following their call to arms. They ran away from serving the Ottoman Military, and called the citizens to rebel against the government.

They held up young men on their way to enroll in the army, and robbed them. Those coming from mountain villages were ambushed on the road and killed. They raided a group of 100 Andinir Turks on their way through Ferens on August 17th while the latter were returning home after being discharged from the army. They killed most of these Turks and stole their money. They opened fire on the gendarmerie who were trying to collect vehicles from the village. At the Kaymakampınari site on the road to Marash, they killed some of the Turkish civilians of Beshanlı village. 5

In order to ambush the ammunition which was going to be transferred from Marash to the gendarmerie forces in Zeitun, they laid in ambush at the least known passages and out of place roads. When the ammunition safely arrived at its destination because of successful rerouting, they ambushed the gendarmerie forces on their return path and killed 6 of the group of 17 and heavily wounded the rest.

They attacked the gendarmerie patrolling Zeitun and the Marash governor who was sent there to contain the unrest. They attacked the municipality, laid siege on government buildings and took over ammunition and weapons. They demanded release of detained Armenians.

The government forces followed the rebels into the Tekiyye Monastery which is located up on a hill overseeing all of Zeitun. However, the rebels numbering 700-800 killed the governor of Marash along with 25 gendarmerie soldiers and wounded the remaining 36. These armed bandits were able to run away using their location and night time conditions to their advantage. They killed any Turk along their way and set on fire barns, houses, and villages on their escape route.

In the villages of Dönekli, Akcharlı, Kümperli, Fatmali, Hartalp, and Önek alone, 27 barns, 3 estate homes, and 62 houses were set ablaze. They also took with them the farm animals belonging to these village folks. 6

Upon following the bandits’ activities, it was discovered that these uprisings were staged to aid the British invasion forces. Melkom, one of the ringleaders of Zeitun confessed that “the leaders had taken orders to aid the British forces landing on the Mediterranean Coast from shores of Iskenderun”. It was understood that the planner and leader of this operation were the Hinchak Committee Chief Çakıroglu Panos, his brother Yenidünya, Ağyaoğlu with his 4 sons, Solakoglu Mesrop and Emanuel. They all belonged to the wealthiest families in town and they had been bestowed high compliments by the Sultanate prior to this event. The 61 bandits apprehended included the bishop as well. Some of their weapons turned out to be stolen from the Turkish Army. 7

Cemal Pasha also mentions in his memoirs that these uprisings were staged with the orders of the British and French Commanders. He writes; “It was obvious to the enemy commanders that uprisings in the area starting with Iskenderun coasts, Dörtyol, Musabba, Halep, Antep, Urfa, and Zeitun would insert a wedge between Syria and Anatolia. At a time when the Turkish armed forces were engaged in fierce battles in Chanakkale, against the French and British forces, their commanders ordered the Armenians to start uprisings in these districts.” 8

When Bandits Took Over Van

At a time when Turkish Armed Forces were engaged in fierce battles in Chanakkale, Armenians volunteered to collaborate with their enemies French and British on the South and obeyed the Russian army commanders in the East. It is understood from the telegraph sent to the Russian Ambassador by Temren, the Russian Council in Van, that planning of the Russian invasion started in 1908. Temren asks how he should explain the existence of Russian nationals among the 12 Armenian rebels caught in the underground water systems. 9 The reply he received is not yet known to us.

Shortly afterwards, many adventurous Armenians posing as educators, priests, deputies, inspectors, etc. gathered in the Tashnak headquarters of Van, which the entire world knows is administered and manipulated by Russians.

The ringleaders were İshan and Aram. Both of these adventurers were Caucasus Armenians. Aram Manukian was born in Şusta town of Caucasus. Upon graduating from Armenian elementary and middle schools, he settled in the mountains and adopted terrorist means. Because he had masterminded the murdering 10 of Van Mayor Ali Riza Pasha by Alev Başyan in Batum, he was condemned to death. However, at the last minute he benefited form the general amnesty declared to honor the declaration of First Mesrutiyet [Constitutional Government]. After being pardoned, he taught for a short while, but then retreated to the mountains. 11

İshan on the other hand was condemned to death for crimes he committed in Russia. But, he saved his skin by escaping into Turkey.

After declaration of the constitutional government by the Ottoman Empire, Van’s fate was left to these two. Two others who were not much different from this duo were the Van deputies in the Ottoman Assembly: Vremian and Papazian.

These ringleaders organized the Van rebellion on behalf of the Russians and closed down the religious seminary school located in the Akhdamar island of Van. They seized the seminary’s assets and assigned the Tashnak committee members to the remote villages as religious clergy. A terrorist like themselves named Yeznik was dressed as minister and assigned to the post of Catogiggos’ assistant. A bloodthirsty a minister named Daniel who escaped form Istanbul since he had run into trouble with the security forces for organizing terrorist activities in Istanbul and various cities was assigned as advisor to him.

Others who joined the team of terrorist ringleaders were; a rebel named Rafael from Iran who posed as an inspector of Armenian schools, inspector of another school named Serkis, and Vartan and Osep, ill famed bandits of Van mountains from Karchikan. 12

Even though these people were bandits, they found strong support. Their closest allies were the British, French, and Russian counselors. Even Ishan, who was condemned to death in Russia, achieved Russian protection once he entered into Turkey. Most important strategies were being discussed at the Russian Councilors office with these ringleaders whose level of human abuse we explained above. 13

Atrocities started to occur in Van, when these bandits became administrators of the Tashnak Committee.

Immediately following the mobilization of young men into the army, Armenians started to set on fire Turks’ homes. The water works were clogged with animal corpses, water fountains and wells were polluted with the same. In an effort to provoke the majority of the population in the city, church bells were rang loudly during the call for the Muslim prayers. Oil lamps, which were lit on top of minarets to inform Moslems when it was time to break their fast during Ramadan, were shot and extinguished. Muslims were unable to go to the Mosque of Kizilcami because they were gunned on their way as the road passed through an Armenian district. Eventually, the call to prayer was no longer chanted, and the mosque became desolate, so its name was changed to Mosque under captive. 14 The situation in rural districts was more unbearable. A problem about the number of sheep turned into a riot in the Timar Township on February 14, 1915. The number of rebels exceeded one thousand at no time. Armenians armed with Russians pistols attacked the villages. They attacked the gendarmerie unit stationed at the Banat Village. The soldiers and their commander Captain Süleyman Efendi were killed.

Upon declaration of war, Russian soldiers along with Armenian volunteer battalions crossed the border into Turkish territory, and the local Armenians took up arms. They killed a few gendarmeries in the Havasor sub district, and Governor Kadı Ismail Efendi in the District of Gevaş. They attacked police stations and cut telegraph lines on the Gevaş – Bitlis road. They rained bullets for 8 hours on the house, where the ruler of the sub-district Akan of Mush was staying with the gendarmeries accompanying him on their way to Kümes Village. Commander of Bitlis gendarmerie regiment along with his detachment was ambushed on their way to Hizan at the Karkar Valley. Many fell, during the fight that lasted 7 hours between the Turkish armed forces and Armenian bandits. 15 In some districts, the revered township governors’ homes were set on fire. 16

Rebellion spread out all over Van, when teacher Osep was captured in Şitak with a distribution list of weapons and caches enough to arm an army corps. Well organized and heavily armed Armenians who seemed to be applying a pre-determined plan started slaughtering Muslims.

They blocked roads to Van, in order to prevent aid from reaching there. General Mafolski summarizes how the Armenians devoured the small gendarmerie force stationed in Van, how the Turks formed the 5th Squadron under the leadership of Kazim Bey to send to Van, that this squadron blockaded the Armenians in the citadel and the city center and how they came to the aid of Armenians as: “Upon hearing about the Van incident, it was decided to send General Turihin’s forces, later followed by General Nikolayef’s forces to aid the Armenians”. 17

During the uprising, the Ottoman Bank, Management of Public Debts of the Ottoman Empire, Post Office, and the Government Center were all blown up. Hamit Aga Kislasi (army barracks) and Muslim quarters were set on fire. Russian, French hats and Ottoman style fur caps with ‘Armenia is saved’ scribbled on them were found in trenches during the searches that followed. 18 Armenians who massacred the Muslims of Mahmudiye, converted the mosques into stables.

The District Governor informed the Central Government of the Armenian atrocities with a report dated March 15, 1915. Van Mayor Cevdet Bey’s report which was written 10 days later was more worrisome. Mayor Cevdet Bey reported on March 25, 1915, that the Armenians had undergone huge preparations to allow the Russian invasion of Van with great ease. 19

During this time, in Çölemerik, the Nestorians rebelled with Russian support. The limited number of Van gendarmerie forces was not sufficient to engulf the rebellion. Mayor Cevdet Bey had to retreat the night of May 16-17 under Armenian and Russian pressure. Armenians started slaughtering Muslims in the city of Van which was now invaded by Russia.

The German Ambassador Wangenheim explained the mayhem in his report to his Ministry of Foreign Affairs on May 25, 1915; “Armenians have rebelled in Van, attacked the Muslim villages and the citadel. The Turkish forces stationed at the citadel lost 300 soldiers. As a result of street fights which lasted for days, the city is now under rebel hands. On May 17th, the city was invaded by Russians, Armenians have sided with the enemy and started slaughtering Muslims. Eighty thousand Muslims have started to run away towards Bitlis." 20

Armenians who went on a killing spree of Muslims in Van, set on fire the house districts and shopping areas to eliminate those who took shelter in their homes and work places. We learn that the city has been burning for 4 days from a report dated May 21, 1915.

Hundred Thousand Muslims Were Slaughtered

Mustafa Gül writes 21 that 2,500 Muslims were slaughtered by 10,000 Armenians after Van fell to the enemy. This estimate which does not show any reference is quite conservative even if it only reflects those killed in the city center. Hulki Sarol, and Ergünöz Akchora who published valuable documents on the subject, are both in agreement that well above 10,000 Muslims were killed. Armenian sources that aim to keep the numbers they killed to a minimum also confirm that at least 10,000 Turks were killed. For example, the Armenian newspaper The Gochnak, published in the USA, reports on May 14, 1915* while announcing that Van is no longer an Ottoman city, and stating that all government buildings and army barracks are set on fire that “only 1,500 Turkish women and children remain in the city” 22, and we know these remaining 1,500 were also wiped out later by Armenian militia. 23

Ergünöz Akchora who wrote; “Turks living in Van were unbearably violated by Russians and Armenians. Thousands of them were thrown into Lake Van to drown.” He also states that “One million Muslims had to emigrate due to unbearable Armenian atrocities ... 700,000 of these emigrees, died on the way due to harsh road conditions. This information is available at the report presented by British Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the High Commissioner.” 24 Russians and Armenians who relied on the Russian forces attempted genocide of the Muslim inhabitants of the city center and vicinity of Van, such that; the number of Muslims killed on Agiro mountain in order to wipe out all settlers of Gevash and Vastan exceeded 3,000. 25 Those wiped out in Mahmudin and its district villages reached 2,000.” 26

* (Note: Holdwater suspects the "Gochnak" claim. The date is presented differently here, but the publication's nearer date would have been May 15, not May 14.)

In an attempt to conceal their murders Armenians were careful to wipe out witnesses as well, so around the Seyi Village, they literally cut to pieces 300 Jews who were passing through Hakkari as documented in the archives. Only between the villages Engil and Vastan, the number of Muslims murdered exceeded 10,000. Over 40,000 Muslim women, children and elderly were killed on the Shahotu Bridge by Russian soldiers either by being thrown into the water, or by being stabbed with daggers and knives. As mentioned in the archive documents “It can be concluded from the birth records of the Dersaadet (İstanbul), that 100,000 Muslims perished in Van and its vicinity.” 27

It is understood that even those who were escaping from the cities and villages were traced and murdered ferociously on the roads by Russian and Armenians. Four hundred people who were trying to cross by boats to West coast of Lake Van were gunned down or thrown back into the lake to drown around Adilcevaz and Ercish Villages where they had to take refuge due to stormy weather conditions. 28

Russians who collaborated in these murders cannot boast about this episode of their history.

Chief General Armed Forces of Russia wiped out 400,000 Turks from Ottoman Europe in order to clear land for Bulgaria during the 7 months following the 1877-1878 war and applied the same method to establish a puppet Armenian state during World War I.
This collaboration is so obvious that, the day following the occupation of Van, Russian Tsar and Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sazanoff, each published open declarations “to thank the Armenians for their aid”. 29

Russians assigned Aram Manukian (whose infamous atrocities as militia were mentioned in earlier chapters) as the mayor of Van 30 and allowed him to select his officers among Armenians. 31 This meant approving Manukian’s murders and providing venue for new massacres. While Lake Van was filled with the blood of innocent victims, Manukian would be promoted The Minsiter of Internal Affairs of Armenia for his genocide efforts. 32

Lake Van, a Pool of Blood

In an effort to prove how justifiable, unavoidably self protectionist, conscientiously humanitarian the Ottoman decision to relocate the Armenians was, one must observe the loathsome, brutal, savage atrocities committed by Armenians against the Muslims prior to the decree as recorded in archive documents. Here we will give a very brief summary. While the young Turkish men were defending their borders, their villages were burned down, under aged girls, young brides and mature women were brutally raped, mostly in front of crippled war veterans who were honorable men.

Sit Him on the Stake

Deputy of the Ottoman Government from Erzurum Karekin Pastirmacian (a.k.a. Armen Garo) and his bandits of 1200 men roamed around Muslim villages after the Russians violated their border with Turkey and assaulted women with rape, torture. Pregnant women’s bellies were cut open to remove their babies from their womb instantly killing both. Apart from killing the bride of Kaleş Ağa, from the Village of Kayak, his sons and other family members were killed by setting them on stake piles. In the Ağcaviran Village of Muş, Musa and Sadullah Beg along with 10 of their friends were killed in the Kire District when their eyes were carved out. 33

Babies were Bayoneted

Armenian Militia threw away up in the air a new born baby and butchered him by holding a sword right under him in the Kalafa Village belonging to Yomra sub-district of Trabzon. A lot of Muslims were ferociously murdered and their bodies were burned in the Ipsil, Hachavra and Solday Villages of Machka. 34

Strangled Masses

Even though their chief named Molla Hasan had surrendered with a white flag, the 57 residents (27 males, 12 women, and 18 children) of the Mirgehi Village from the Mahmudin sub-district of Van were strangled to death by the Armenian Militia who took away the girls with them. 35

Broiled on Skewers

A child from the village of Chariksiz was impaled on a spit and broiled like a leg of lamb. Four Turks’ dead bodies were found with their hands tied and their genitals stuck in their mouths between the Ahurik and Avzerik villages. In the village of Kavlit, a 7 year old girl named Fatma and a 9 year old Gülfaz were raped by their front and back numerous times. A 70 year old man named Alo from the same village was killed with his jaw bones broken by a dagger and his genitals inserted in his mouth. 36

Burned Alive

While a woman named Zeliha in the Village of Ustuci was baking bread in the oven, they threw her six month old son into the fire. When Zeliha resisted, the bandits pushed one of her legs into the fire as well. (This woman survived and lived for years after this event.) Many children were also collected from the same village and burned on bon fires. 37

Burned Inside Haystacks

All the Muslim men of the Kotur sub-district of Van were filled into a hay stack and set on fire. The women were gathered at another location and were raped. They raped and killed the town chief’s son as well as his daughter, Gülbeyaz. 38

Raped in Front of Their Dad

Another family victimized by Armenian atrocities was that of an accountant named Hasan Efendi from Van’s Halilaga district. He was terrorized along with his wife, daughter and his brother Hüseyin Efendi who was a teacher. A retired accountant named Beshir Efendi’s daughters Hayriye and Shadiye were raped in front of their mom, dad and their uncle Hayri Efendi. 39

We also learn from the Van Commander’s report that the same district’s 90 year old religious leader imam İsa Efendi, 70 year old retired teacher Rasif Efendi and Hayretiye Mosque’s imam Hacı Dervish Efendi were forced to ride around the town on donkeys for a few days. Later, their beards and moustache were cut off and human feces were smeared on their faces. Later, they were killed by being torn apart in piecemeal.

They killed retired teacher Rasif Efendi’s 60 year old wife by inserting a wooden log inside her vagina. 40 Armenians who forcibly entered into Haci Yakup Aga’s house tore apart people who were hiding inside. They were: wife of Cilingiroglu Süleyman Aga from the Halilaga district, retired accountant blind Halil Efendi, an accounting inscriber named Sitki Efendi and his wife, Haci Efendi’s young wife and his five children (two boys and three girls). Later, Armenians killed 200 Muslim women and children. 41

They tore apart the children

Armenians tore into pieces with dagger, the seven children of Seher after tearing her children away from her hands in the Mehmet Bey district of Van. Seher was Sadullah’s daughter and Cemal’s wife.

Blind Hamza’s son Abbas’ wife and their three daughters were torn into pieces. Halil Chavush’s wife Ayse, her sister, 80 year old Hacı Abdullah Efendi and his wife were terribly beaten and killed by smashing their heads with stones. 42 They urinated on the face of Mülazim Abdurrahman Efendi of Shabane district, later beat him up terribly and then killed him. 43

Families Slaughtered

Guardian Ali from Emin Paşa district, his wife, his daughter in law, his two cousins, and military official Bayram’s 7 year old son; Seyyit Chavush’s son Mustafa’s wife, her two children and Haci Kaya’s son İbrahim Chavush’s young wife were strangled to death. 44 Ayse, wife of Kasım from Camii Kebir District was forced to witness her two son’s strangling before she was also strangled to death.

In the Tebriz Kapısı district, 17 family members of Salih who was doing his military duty at the frontline were killed by tearing into pieces. The victims included Salih’s wife, 4 children aged 5 to 15, his brother, sister and their families. 45 Only from the Selim Bey district, over 300 Muslims were killed by being slaughtered. 46

Burned in Hospitals

Sheyhane Village’s 300 residents who were on their way to Van were rerouted to Zive Village by armed gunmen and killed en-masse. Forty-five people of Meydan Village and one fourth the total population of Timez, Ercik and Havasor villages were killed. From the Molla Kasım Village, 70 year old Fevzi Aga’s head was placed on his wife’s lap and cut off there. His daughter in law Hayriye was killed. Seventy people were killed from this village. Two of the brides named Fatma and Zahide from this village threw themselves from the bridge into Mermitçay river to escape their captors who were forcibly taking them to Van. Similarly, 17 young girls from the Bagdashan and Karaagach villages were taken towards Russia. 47 Eighty patients who could not find transportation from Van Hospital were burned alive. 48

From the Katirci street of Van, Peynirci Recep’s son Mahmut’s 4 sons along with his wife, and Lieutenant Hüsnü Efendi’s 12 year old daughter were taken forcibly. The girl was raped repeatedly even though she was shot in the head. 49

Nailed by his Hands

Second Lieutenant Sükrü Efendi’s 80 year old uncle Tayyar of Van was nailed to his door by his hands. His nose and ears were cut off and later his chin was also cut off before he was eventually killed.

Stake was drawn through his Mouth

During the Gevash uprising, the mayor sent Van representatives Munip Bey and Vremian of the Ottoman parliament to Gevaş for prevention of bloodshed. While they were in the government house, they saw an out of control oxen cart approaching them. Upon getting close to the cart they saw the terribly mutilated body of the Gevash Müftü. Armenians had drawn a stake large enough to be an axe handle inside this 70 year old man’s mouth. They had nailed his tongue on this wood after cutting it off. In order to fit his body into the small box behind the oxcart, they had cut off his legs and placed his shoes and head turban in his lap. Before putting his corpse on the oxcart and probably before killing him, they had burned his beard and his hands. 50

Meanly Raped

Toviroglu Misak’s bandits in January 1915, killed all the Muslim population of the Karameshe Village of Mush and raped the women. In addition, they also killed 12 people from the Molla Baba and Heşkervan Villages, everyone from the Ertichek, Agdad, Vartitipi, Semersheyh villages, and most people of the Frenk, Bulanik, Honk, Küt, Norgagag, Komla, Kamran, Semtros, Alvezerek, and Kötanan villages. All the inhabitants of the Kazanan village were gathered and burned alive.

Ottoman parliamentarian Karekin Pastırmacian’s bandits killed almost all the villagers of Yeramish and Agcaviran. In Malazgirt 53 villages were burned and razed; in the vicinity of Lize, the wounded Turkish soldiers returning home were put to the sword by this same parliamentarian’s bandits.

Berber Ilyas’s son Sevket and his two wives from Malazgirt’s Beksam village were forced to watch raping of their daughters. When they requested their child to be returned to them, they were killed atrociously by Kelekci Simon, Kalekasabalı Mardivagik of Dolabash village and Sirop of Kürek village.

The Sheikh whose Head was Skinned

The commencement court member of Malazgirt’s Adaköyü Hüseyin Bey and Administration member Samil Bey were killed savagely by their Armenian servant. The Armenians who entered major general İbrahim Pasha’s brother Ahmet Bey’s house ordered his wife to serve them drinks after removing her clothes. When she refused, they raped her oldest daughter. Also, strangled by Armenians were the notable citizens of Mush, Haci Murat, Reshit, Günaylı Hacı Mehmet, Cafer, Temir, Abdullah, Yusuf, Mehmet Han, and Nadir Han. They threw all the residents of 15 villages belonging to Cündi Ağa of Cibran Tribe with heavy weights tied to their feet and horse shoes nailed on their feet into the Gülnihal lake of Murat River. Armenians burned the Muslims who were emigrating through Mukilli road after filling them inside the Seyhelkarip dervish lodge. They skinned a religious man named Seyh Abdullah Gaffar. 51

Forced to Eat their Broiled Children

All atrocities endured by Turks as documented above were collected from Government archives’ Ottoman documents as referenced in Mehmet Hocaoglu’s research. The truth of these events is not doubted by any historian. Mehmet Hocaoglu referred to the evidence from archives in his publishing of 1973-1974. The same events were later mentioned in the book published by Government Archives in 2001.

It is deemed necessary to mention the authenticity of these “unbelievable” torture methods as they are described in detail. Similar stories that human beings like us find hard to believe have been published from time to time in the Military History Document Magazine of Military Historic and Strategic Research Department (ATASE).

In order to show that Turks were deliberately wiped out according to plan in their home country with violent methods, in other words victimized by genocide, we wish to present two documents:

Armenian Murders at Mergehu Village

Names of those who were killed Methods of Annihilation
Abdi’s son Hacı İbrahim Shooting and drawing the sword
Hacı İbrahimis son Abdi Shooting and drawing the sword
Abdi’s son Reşo Beating and cutting
Ömer’s son Sado Beating and cutting
Reso’s son Oso Beating and cutting
Canko’s son Kulu Passing the sword through his eye
Canko’s son Musu Passing the sword through his eye
Molla Hamit’s son Emin Passing the sword through his eye
Hamit’s son Molla Abdullah Passing the sword through his eye
Hacı’s son İbo Passing the sword through his eye
Hacı’s son Sado Passing the sword through his eye
Canko’s son Abdullah Cutting
Ahmet’s son İbo Splitting his abdomen
Ibo’s son İsmail Burning alive
Özü’s son Musto Shooting with gun
Seyyo’s son Mahmut Cutting
Bırro’s son Koçak Shooting with gun
Hüsnü’s son Musto Shooting with gun
Alo’s son Uso Shooting with gun
Peri’s son Maksut Shooting with gun
Peri’s son Hacı Shooting with gun
Hasanali’s son Mahmut Passing the sword
Hasanali’s son İbo Passing the sword
Abdullah’s son Mazgi Splitting his abdomen
Hasan’s son Suliş Shooting with gun
Mustafa’s son Mahmo Knifed
Hasan’s son Murat Knifed
Avsı’s son Uso Eyes gouged with sword
Mehmet’s son Lesko Wedged with dagger
Kasım’s son Abdullah Shooting with gun
Shepherd Adullah Shooting with gun
Mümin’s son Seymo Shooting with gun
Reso’s son Muammer Shooting with gun
Merzi’s son Paso Shooting with gun
Bitor’s son Gülü Shooting with gun
Yusuf’s son Murat Shooting and drawing the sword
Haci İbrahim’s son Cedo Shooting and drawing the sword
Faki Mehmet Shooting and drawing the sword
Abdulcebbar’s son Sülo Shooting and drawing the sword

Women Killed From the Same Village

Haci İbrahim’s wife, Kasi’s daughter Huso Shooting with gun
Aduz’s wife, Fati’s daughter Iso Shooting with gun
Reso’s wife, Zerresan’s daughter Amat Passing the sword
Iyso’s daughter Güllü Cutting her breast
Ibo’s wife, Sülü’s daughter Sülnü Splitting her abdomen and throwing her child into the stone oven
Ibo’s daughter Fatma Cutting and throwing into the stone oven
Fidan Hatun Burning in the stone oven
Musto’s wife, Hacı Han’s daughter Gülfiraz Cutting
Halil’s wife, Mehmet’s daughter Rahime Shooting with gun
Molla Süleyman’s wife, Haci Kerim’s daughter Binefs Burning in the stone oven
Dervish’s wife, Biro’s daughter Ruşi Burning in the stone oven
Sivno’s wife, Ali’s daughter Mahiye Cutting
Ahmet’s wife, Hacı’s daughter Hatı Cutting
Meho’s daughter Hacer Shooting and drawing the sword

Four women from the same village were killed by rape, five people — three of them women were wounded savagely. 52

In another document signed by Kaymakam Mehmet and dated March 15, 1915 53, it is recorded that Hacı Molla Sait of Kavlit Village was forced to strangle his daughter and every time he refused one of his organs was cut off and he was thus killed. Also documented in the same record are in the Sherefhane Village, Cündi Ağa’s servant Ahmo and her son were killed by being thrown into the burning stone oven; in Bilecik Village Mehmet Abdi’s wife Ayşe was first wounded by stabbing in three spots and then killed by cutting her arms. An even worse Armenian atrocity mentioned in the same document names a woman named Fato from Yaman Bordo village who was burned with her son in a stone oven. Another atrocity which seds chills through one’s spine is recorded in Perkal village. After burning their two sons by throwing them into the stone oven, Armenians wanted to force feed the mother and father with their children’s burned flesh. When they refused, the parents were killed and the grand mother Nezo Hatun lost her mind watching this scene. 54

It should be noted that these massacres were committed by the bandits under the guidance of Ottoman parliamentarians Pastirmacian and Papazian. Talat Pasha mentions in his memoirs that these striking realities were learned later. 55


1 Ki Young lee, “Ermeni Sorununun Doğuşu [Birth of the Armenian Question]”, (Ankara, 1998), p. 3.
2 “Ermeni Komiteleri [Armenian Committees] (1891-1895)”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 12.
3 Abdullah Yaman, “Ermeni Komitelerin Emelleri ve İhtilal Hareketleri [Aims and Revolutionary Activities of Armenian Committees]”, (İstanbul, 1973), pp. 126 – 128.
4 For the contents of the Hayastan paper’s 56th edition dated August 19, 1914 pls see: Ayhan Yalçın, “Belgelerin Işığında Türk-Ermeni Meselesi nin İçyüzü [Armenian-Turkish Conflict Based on Documents]”, (İstanbul, 1975), p. 232.
5 Mehmet Hocaoğlu “Arşiv Vesikalarıyla Ermeni Mezalimi ve Ermeniler [Armenians and Armenian Atrocities Based on Archive Documents]”, (İstanbul, 1976), p. 574.
6 Abdullah Yaman, ibid, pp. 256-258.
7 Abdullah Yaman, ibid, pp. 256-259.
8 Cemal Pasa “Hatiralar [Memoirs]” Prepared by Alpay Kabacali, (İstanbul, 2001), p. 426.
9 Yusuf Halaçoğlu “Ermeni Tehciri ve Gerçekler (1914-1918) [Armenian Relocation and the Truth Behind It (1914-1918)]” (Ankara, 2001), p.37.
10 Hasan Oktay, “Van Belediye Reisi Kapamacıyan Efendinin Ermeni Taşnak Komitesi Tarafından Katline Dair [About the Murder of Van Mayor Mr. Kapamaciyan by the Armenian Tashnak Committee]”, YTD, No:38, 2001, p. 842.
11 Abdullah Yaman, ibid, p. 328.
12 Mehmet Hocaoglu, ibid, p. 612, Abdullah Yaman, ibid, pp: 298-299.
13 Abdullah Yaman, ibid, p. 301.
14 Mehmet Hocaoglu, ibid, p. 620.
15 “Belgelerle Ermeni Sorunu [Armenian Problem with Documents]”, Historical Publications of the Turkish Republic Armed Forces Military History and Strategic Research Center, (Ankara 1983), p. 194.
16 Ergünöz Akçora, “Yaşayanların Dilinden ve Belgelerle Van ve Çevresindeki Ermenilerin Yaptığı Katliamlar [Eye Witness Accounts and Documents of Atrocities Committed by Armenians Around Van]”, 131st issue of TDAD, (İstanbul, 2000), p. 124.
17 General Maflofski, “Umumi Harpte Kafkas Cephesi (Eserin Tenkidi) [Caucasian Front During the Great War (A Criticism)]”, Translated by Kaymakam Nazmi, (Ankara, 1935), p. 134-135, as conveyed by Ergünöz Akçora, ibid, p.125.
18 Abdullah Yaman, ibid, p. 305, Mehmet Hocaoğlu, ibid, p. 615.
19 Askeri Tarih Belgeleri Dergisi [Historical Military Documents Pblication], 86th issue, (Ankara, 1987) Document No: 2051.
20 Wangenheim, Deutschisches und Armenien, 1914-1918. Published by: Johannes Lepsius, (Potsdam, 1919), p. 65, as mentioned by Nejat Göyünç, “Türk Ermeni İlişkileri ve Ermeni Soykırımı İddiaları, Ermeni Sorunu ve Bursa
Ermenileri [Turkish Armenian Relations and Armenian Allegations of Genocide, Armenian Problem and Bursa Armenians], (Bursa, 2000), p. 113.
21 Mustafa Gül, “Türk - Ermeni İlişkileri [Turkish – Armenian Relations]”, YTD, 38th issue, (Ankara, 2001), p. 194.
22 Abdullah Yaman, ibid, pp. 327-328.
23 Mehmet Hocaoğlu, ibid, p. 678.
24 Ergünöz Akçora, ibid, p. 223.
25 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapilan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 24.
26 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapilan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 19.
27 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapilan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 24.
28 Mehmet Hocaoğlu, ibid, p. 726.
29 Yusuf Halaçoğlu, ibid, p.39.
30 Yusuf Hikmet Bayur, “Türk İnkılabı Tarihi [History of Turkish Revolution]” C: 111/3, (Ankara, 1983), p. 21.
31 Kamuran Gürün, “Ermeni Dosyası [The Armenian File]”, (Ankara, 1988), p. 224.
32 Hasan Oktay, ibid, p. 842.
33 “Arşiv Belgelerine göre Kafkaslarda ve Anadoluda Ermeni Mezalimi - Cilt: 1 (1906-1918) [Armenian Atrocities in the Caucasus and Anatolia - Volume 1 (1906-1918)]”, (Ankara, 1995), p. 81.
34 “Arşiv Belgelerine göre Kafkaslarda ve Anadoluda Ermeni Mezalimi - Cilt: 1 (1906-1918) [Armenian Atrocities in the Caucasus and Anatolia - Volume 1 (1906-1918)]”, (Ankara, 1995), p. 235.
35 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 18.
36 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 18.
37 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 19.
38 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 19.
39 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 19.
40 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 20.
41 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 20.
42 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 20.
43 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 21.
44 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 21.
45 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 21.
46 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 21.
47 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 23.
48 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 24.
49 “Ermeniler Tarafindan Yapılan Katliam Belgeleri - Cilt: 1 (1914- 1919) [Evidence of Armenian Atrocities - Volume 1 (1914- 1919)]”, (Ankara, 2001), p. 24.
50 Mehmet Hocaoğlu, ibid, p. 623-624.
51 Mehmet Hocaoğlu, ibid, p. 722-723.
52 This document which was signed by Kaymakam Kemal and dated March 4 1915 is located in the ATASE archive No: 1 /2, Cupboard No: 113, Drawer No: 3, Bin No: 520, File No: 2024, Index No: 11 - 11/1, 11/2, 11/3.
53 ATASE Archive No: 1/2, Cupboard No: 113, Drawer No: 3, 3, Bin No: 520, File No: 2024, Index No: 11 - 11/1, 11/2, 11/3.
54 ATBD, Issue 81, (Ankara, 1982), pp. 93-94.
55 Talat Pasha’s Memoirs, p. 67.

© Holdwater
The source site of this article gets revised often, as better information comes along. For the most up-to-date version, links and the related photos, the reader may consider reviewing the direct link as follows:


Post a Comment

Would You Please Update/Correct Any Of The
3500+ Posts by Leaving Your Comments Here
- - - Your Opinion Matters To Us - - -

We Promise To Publish Them Even If We May Not Share The Same View

Mind You,
You Wouldn't Be Allowed Such Freedom In Most Of The Other Sites At All.

You understand that the site content express the author's views, not necessarily those of the site. You also agree that you will not post any material which is false, hateful, threatening, invasive of a person’s privacy, or in violation of any law.

Please read the post then write a comment in English by referring to the specific points in the post and do preview your comment for proper grammar /spelling.

Note To Spammers
If you believe Your Comments will ever appear here, You are DREAMING

You need a Google Account (such as Gmail) to publish your comments

Publishing Your Comments Here:
Please type your comment in plain text only (NO Formatting) in an editor like notepad first,
Then copy and paste the final/corrected version into the comment box here as Google/Blogger may not allow re-editing/correcting once entered in some cases.
And click publish.
-If you need to correct the one you have already sent, please enter "New Comment" as we keep the latest version and delete the older version as default

Alternative way to send your formatted comments/articles:

All the best