16 October 2007

2070) Armenians In The “Congregation” System

Nurdan İPEK
Ph.D Candidate

I. THE “MILLET” OR CONGREGATION SYSTEM

The Ottoman State defended the fundamental principle of Islamic law which stresses that there is no compulsion in religion. Defending this principle, the Ottoman State governed non-Muslims living in the region ruled by the Ottomans “in the auspices of Allah and Prophet” by signing a covenant with them.1 With this covenant, the lives and possessions of non-Muslims were guaranteed as long as they acknowledged the sovereignty of Ottoman State and obeyed its rules. This covenant also meant that non-Muslims had to pay the taxes (cizye and haraç) and in return the Islamic State had to provide them peace and security. The Ottoman State demonstrated this duty within a millet system that they had structured. . .

Non-Muslims, who were under the sovereignty of the Ottoman State, constituted their status by being separated into congregations (millets) according to their religions and sects. The word “millet” here

1 Cevdet Küçük, “Osmanlı Devleti’nde Millet Sistemi”, Ermeni Sorunu Özel Sayısı, Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, Sayı:38, Mart-Nisan 2001, s. 692

has a meaning different from its sense today. Here it came to mean a community formed by people who had the same religious belief within the society. That is to say, the criterion was not nationality or ethnicity but religion or sect which comprised a community because the word “congregation” meant “religion or sect” in Arabic.

This system naturally occurred in the Ottoman State since Islamic law was practiced in social life. Along with this system, every congregation that had an approved holy book was given autonomy in their own religious and civil laws. This situation resulted partly from Islamic law and partly from economic reasons.2 Thus, on the one hand, the principle that Islamic law could be applied only to the Muslims, and, on the other hand, the taxes taken from non-Muslims, which formed one of the most important incomes of the Ottoman treasury, was collected in return for the assurance of peace and security. Congregations’ carrying out their own laws under the approved authority of the leaders who were responsible to the State had been a tradition in all of the Near East empires, such as the Romans, and the medieval European empires and those of caliphs. Without a doubt Ottomans had succeeded in making it more organized and coordinated.3

Under these circumstances, despite being disputed, the Armenians’ entry into congregational status happened in 1461 in the reign of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror when Ovakim, the bishop of Bursa, was assigned as the Armenian patriarchate in Istanbul. With the appointment of religious and sect affairs of Syrian Orthodox, Jacobites and Nasturies to the Armenian patriarchate, all kinds of social and religious affairs of other congregations, which had been considered inadequate to be regarded as a separate congregations, were entrusted to the Armenian Patriarch.4

2 Gülnihal Bozkurt, Gayrımüslim Osmanlı Vatandaşlarının Hukuki Durumu, TTK Yayınları, 1996, s.1
3 Stanford Shaw, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Modern Türkiye, e-Yayınları, 1994,s.215
4 Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi,YEE, 38/69


II. THE GENERAL CONDITION OF THE ARMENIAN NATION IN THE LIGHT OF THE CIRCULAR LETTER OF PATRIARCH NERSES AND THE OTTOMAN ARCHIVES

A. The Circular Letter that Patriarch Nerses Presented to the Armenian Congregation

Nerses Varjabedyan, who was the Armenian Patriarch in Istanbul between 1874 and 1884, presented a circular letter to the Armenian community during his patriarchy. This circular is an essential document in terms of showing the structure and organization of the Armenian congregation. Here is the summary of the circular which was originally written in Armenian:

In the introductory part of this circular, dated December 29, 1882, Patriarch Nerses firstly greets Istanbul and all religious leaders, then social institutions, schools, and all humanity. He expresses that he has been appointed as patriarch by God and Sultan Hamid Khan, adding that the duty he has been charged with is quite difficult but he says that the Armenians will support him as much as God does. Nerses emphasizes the fact that the Armenians have always been dependent upon the great Ottoman State. For this reason, he says the Armenians should keep on praying for the Ottoman Sultan and it has always been necessary for the Armenians to be supported by the great Ottoman State so as to cope with the difficulties they have faced. Moreover, he remarks that the Ottoman State will certainly carry on their support for the Armenians. He believes that the Armenians and Ottoman State will show great responsibility in their duties towards each other. He wants the Armenian society to show consideration especially for this mutual sense of responsibility. After the introduction, in which the fidelity and devotion to Ottoman State are frequently stressed, comes the subject about the duties of all lofty religious departments in the State and social institutions. Also, in this section, it is emphasized that these duties are going to be carried out in accordance with the Holy Bible, church laws and the Armenian internal regulations. The following are a list of these duties.

1. Church leaders are to benefit from the Bible and the articles of spiritual leaders when they take all religious actions on behalf of the community. The truths taught to the community are to be seen on religious functionaries who are to be ideal models to the community.

2. Preachers are to avoid all kinds of unnecessary, inattentive and disputatious utterances because these kinds of utterances may not only leave a bad influence on the community but also cause religious leaders to fall from esteem.

3. The needs of the devotees are to be satisfied in the best way, doctrines of the Church are to be obeyed, and all worship and rites are to be done without any defect and in accordance with traditional rules in order to cope with deviation from traditional beliefs. All kinds of traditional beliefs and values are to be shown respect, traditional religious rules are to be taught in the Church and schools in the best way, and the children and the youth are to be made to desire to participate in the church rites on Sundays.

4. In the private schools or congregational schools, which are on the borders of Istanbul and the Ottoman State, the Holy Bible, Christianity, history of the Church and moral lessons are to be compulsorily taught. Course books about these subjects are to be carefully chosen and the education is to be provided by certified teachers. The people having undertaken religious duty are to construct schools in Anatolia in the frame of their duties. However, as for this, there comes a need for private buildings and salary and if this need cannot be met, the church leaders are to separate rooms from the Church and then elementary education is to be done in these rooms. Also, all religious functionaries are to visit the schools in their own religious areas frequently.

5. The main objective of this is to provide completeness of the Church and the community and to form a necessary bond. The Armenians should love and be respectful to each other and be sensitive to the matter of protection of the poor. Old Armenian classic language, history of the Church, the language and laws of the Government that administers the Armenians and also other foreign languages that are necessary to be known are to be given attention.

6. Religious functionaries are to act in the way the Patriarchate wants by getting along with neighboring institutions and administrators. By getting along with local administrations, religious functionaries are to do legal business and they are supposed to use soft words in all kinds of their relationships so as not to besmirch the community’s name.

7. Church administrators are to show loyalty to the Government of the Sultan by being conscious of its protection towards the Armenians. When the Armenians want to do something, they are to first apply to the local administrations and then finish their business in accordance with the laws. If they are unable to get a satisfactory outcome, they can submit an official application to higher authorities by means of the Patriarchate.

8. Religious leaders in all positions are to treat the employees in their own areas kindly and effectively. They are to give religious support to the employees’ daily works. When needed, they are to set up funds in order to give the employees loans. Thus, they will protect the employees from the pressure of usurers. Once again the religious leader must guide the members of the community so that they desire to set up commercial companies and to be busy with agriculture and crafts.

9. All of the monastery leaders are to behave in accordance with the community laws and decisions of the Patriarchate. Every monastery leader is to carry out his job properly and to invigorate the monastery he administers. To achieve this, he is to set up museums as well as a printing house and school in the monastery complex. After coming up with a list of all manuscripts kept in these places, the leader is to send this list to the Patriarchate.

10. All the members of the monastery are to be in association with their leaders and to behave in conformity with the monastery regulations. In this direction, they will keep an account of the yearly budget of the institutions with which they have been entrusted and send it to the Patriarchate as required. They are to avoid unnecessary expenses.

11. The most significant duty of all the leaders and members of the monastery is supervising the moral, educational, and material goings-on of the monastery.

12. Among religious functionaries, married priests5 are to carry out their duties properly. They are supposed to behave in accordance with the regulations dated December 12, 1879, March 26 and November 12, 1881. Thus, by leading a highly esteemed model life they are going to be respected in the community.

13. Married priests, by visiting the members of their community, are to identify the poor and then to help them. As they are the holy fathers of the community, they are going to be the hope for the poor and the hopeless.

14. By giving circular letters directed to the youth, they are to give advice to the community that the money paid to a bride’s father by the bridegroom has to be abandoned, because this habit ruins the sacredness of marriage. Married priests are supposed to inform the community that marriage is a natural phenomenon and in this way some social disorders can be overcome.

15. They are also to warn the families to avoid all kinds of harmful social attitudes.Since, due to these bad habits and transgressions, many well-known families have been destroyed and owing to quarrels, many families have broken up. Therefore, religious functionaries are going to inform the youth about these matters in a fatherly manner.

16. Female members of the community are to show moral behaviors by leading a modest life.

17. Since the emigrant members of the community are likely to face more difficult conditions, the best way of life for them would be in the place they were born. It would be better for them to return to their place of birth.
18. Religious functionaries should carry out their duties in a pleasing and devoted manner. The rich are likely to make generous donations to churches, schools and to charities.

5 The bachelor priests were able to reach the highest positions and titles whereas the married priests could only reach certain low rank positions. In this sense the bachelors were considered superordinates compared to married priests.

19. A person who has built a church is going to reach the highest rank for God.

20. The one that helps the poor or makes such donations are going to feel at peace. If a firm or a technical school is founded, a lot of people can earn their living and this situation results in a decrease in the number of poor people. Also, by means of solidarity and mutual aid the amount of donations are likely to increase.

21. Students are supposed to be extremely respectful towards their teachers. Only with their labors, can good Armenians be brought up as benevolent Christians. Thanks to them, ideal families and healthy future generations can be possible.

22. For married couples, the most important and sacred thing is love, respect, and loyalty. These are necessary for marriages to continue for a long time. Before resulting in divorce, minor conflicts between couples should be permitted to be resolved by the religious leaders.

23. Boys, girls and children are to be extremely respectful towards adults. With their modest, educated, calm and church-loving acquired personalities, young people are going to increase the esteem of the Armenian community.

24. The people who form bad models for the community by not carrying out their responsibilities towards the Church, and the ones who wish to destroy the community are to be sentenced in a most severe way.

Those that show the opposite behaviour are going to be rewarded. As understood from the circular, great importance was given to have a powerful organization, especially around the churches and the Patriarchate, in order to maintain the unity of the Armenians. The major task was given to religious functionaries. This proves that Armenian congregations, just like other congregations, were formed by a bond of religious organization aside from the congregation principle. The importance of the community union in terms of affection, respect, and loyalty was frequently stressed. In this circular, another interesting thing is that the problem of “bride-price”, which has been traditionalized among Muslims in certain regions, was also seen among the Armenians. This fact is quite important for showing us the cultural interaction between the two communities.

B- The Armenian Community as Described in the Ottoman Archives

1. Condition of the Congregation Leaders

Every congregation had a religious leader. This religious leader also received the title of “head of community” as a representative of the congregation. He was not only a religious leader but also a legal representative of his congregation. All the congregational matters about justice, education, population, foundation, marriage, divorce, and inheritance were in his control, whereas the authority of its general administration, finance and military was in the hands of the Ottoman State. Although the heads of the congregations were liberal in most of the related subjects, Engelhard’s statement that “they were acting like a government inside a government” 6 is likely to be exaggerated for this situation because despite all these given authorities, the Ottoman administration hadn’t given up complete control. When the members of congregations who were not pleased with the applications concerning their own rights asked the Ottoman State for help, the State would undertake the case as the supreme authority. Election of the heads of congregation was left to the chief of the congregations; however, after being selected, it was approved with an edict by the Sultan.7

Although the patriarchate was a lifelong occupation, it was possible for the Patriarch to be sentenced to death when he was seen having done deeds that were harmful for the security and public order of the State. In short, patriarchs were actually salaried civil servants of the State.8 Patriarchs had the same status as the rank of viziership. From time to time, devoted Patriarchs, good at their jobs, were given first rank medals in order to be encouraged.9

6 Engelhard, Türkiye ve Tanzimat, Çev. Ali Reşat, 1328, s.119
7 BOA, İ.DH, 987/77929
8 BOA, İ.HR, 236/13975
9 BOA, YPRK.AZJ, 49/116


2. Privileges of the Sects and Protection of these Privileges

Since the establishment of the Ottoman State, the Armenians, rescued from torture of the Tatars, had gained many privileges in the Ottoman administration with the pronouncements of Sultan Abdülhamit II. Moreover, while the Muslims were constantly occupied with fighting in battles and getting little chance for time to deal with agriculture, the Armenians had the opportunity to develop themselves in the fields of industry and trading.10 Therefore, the Armenians succeeded in filling the gaps that Muslims had left open not only in the society and culture but also in the economy. For instance, it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that Muslim dentists began to be educated in Istanbul.

Until then, this job had been done entirely by the Armenians.11 The Ottoman administration not only granted privileges to the congregations under its control but also took necessary measures to ensure the continuation of these privileges. From time to time, it emphasized this with firmans and edicts. Additionally, it didn’t avoid penalizing its servants who didn’t show consideration for these privileges. For example, Mehmed Aga, who had been the mayor of Gümüşhacıkköy in Amasya, was dismissed from his job owing to his inappropriate and cruel behaviors. However, he somehow was appointed again as a principal mayor to the same town and carried out his cruel behaviors, towards the Armenian congregation. Upon complaints of the Armenians, the Government immediately investigated the event and then punished the ones responsible.12

Other complaints came from the regions of Muş, Diyarbakır, Hakkari, Van, Adana and Harput, which were in the Kurdish province. A committee in these regions forced monastery delegates and religious functionaries to sign a blank paper that was later filled with statements in favor of committee members which put the Armenian community

10 BOA, YEE, 3/73
11 BOA, Hat,315/18545-A
12 BOA, HR.MKT.,32/64


in a position. Then, upon information from the Patriarchate about this event, the State took necessary measures.13

These measures were also binding for Ottoman civil servants. Iranian Sahak, who bought a female slave from Iranian Armenians, although it was prohibited, was fined 6500 kuruş and his attempt to collect this money from the Armenian people as an annual tribute resulted in punishment just like others.14

There were also good examples of harmony between the Turks and the Armenians. For instance, the military commander of Sivas province, Feyzullah Pasha, was thanked by the community for the care and protection that he had shown over the community by protecting the poor and behaving accordingly to the edicts of the Tanzimat Reforms.15

One of the rights that were given to the Armenians was the freedom of trade. Although it would be expanded by the Tanzimat Reforms and Islahat Decrees, before this date,for example in the year of 1797, it was possible to observe the practice of this right. The permission given to the two Armenian dyers to open shops in the city of Izmit on the condition that they should paint for two paras (the lowest currency in the Ottoman State) cheaper than the other dye shops sets an example of this situation.16

The State intervened when the freedom of trade was hindered in various ways. In Merzifon province the textile shop of an Armenian that was located in a narrow alley because he did not have enough capital was closed down by the local administration as it was doing trade with women. As a result of the petition that the mistreated man gave, remembering that there is no law that says it is illegal to trade with both men and women and that there is freedom of trade, permission was granted for re-opening the shop, and it was stated that the Armenian had the right to make trade freely.17

13 BOA, HR.MKT, 41/57
14 BOA, CDH.,1713/1
15 BOA, HR.MKT, 94/17
16 BOA, C.İKT, No:966
17 BOA, YEE,134/6



The State that took the security of the honor, morality, life, and property of the non-Moslems under protection had to prevent the non-Moslems from entering into bad conditions. One of the examples of this was that the health of Armenians and Protestants in Maraş were examined and the sick and the poor were given various assistances.18

The community demonstrated their gratification for the gifts that the Ottoman Ruler gave by the prayers they said in church. The thanksgiving church prayer that was done on the rites as a result of the public security and protection experienced in Erzurum is just one of the examples.19 Furthermore, it was reminded by the Sultan that these privileges would be continued in exchange for the faithfulness of the community.

For example, this situation was expressed in a letter that was sent to the Istanbul Armenian Patriarch, Agop Bogos, the privileges that were given by the Sultan to the religious functionaries, churches and monasteries and the areas and estates that belonged to them were emphasized. In case of repetition of the abuses that happened as a result of some negligence, it was emphasized insistently that “the banishment and the destruction of a church” were under the control of the Sultan, and it was demanded that they behaved appropriately to this condition.20

3. Freedom of Religious Worship

The dhimni system was based on the principle that there is no compulsion in the Islam religion, and as a result of this basis, people were given religious freedom and like their other rights, this was also protected by the State. When some Muslims living together with the Armenians tried to abuse this right, the State authority over the Armenians intervened. In Şumnu town, in exchange for offending the behaviour of the Muslims by burning grass and wood and saying “we are burning the infidels” at the time when the Armenian people went to church at Easter, it was reminded by the Sultan that all people were given freedom of worship and that no one could intervene with the rites that people were doing as

18 BOA, YPRK.AZN, 11/58
19 BOA, İ.M.Vala, 1109
20 BOA, YEE, 33/1


required by their sects. It is important to state that Muslims celebrated the Easter with the Armenians in many places.

Armaş, an Armenian village in Izmit located in the Marmara region, was an outstanding example where religious worship was done together and where the Turks and the Armenians exhibited “the art of living together”. Because the monastery there was a religious center for the Armenians, the village Armaş was a much-frequented place for both Armenian pilgrims and the Muslims who respected the Virgin Mary.

Fairs that were organized during the pilgrimage created a vision of the Muslim-Armenian togetherness. Close relationships occurred among the pilgrims from Istanbul, who were waiting for the Armenians who sold turkeys as a result of their belief that their prayers wouldn’t be accepted if they didn’t eat turkey, and also between the Armenians and the Muslims who were there to meet the needs of the pilgrims. The State took all the necessary precautions against any possible problems for pilgrim candidates to return to their homes having done their religious duty and even provided a doctor in case someone had a sunstroke. “My Sultan Live Long” prayer of the people was done together as a celebration of the peaceful environment.21

Non-Muslims were free in their religious beliefs; at the same time, they could convert to Islam but only if they give their consent. However, they weren’t able to convert back to their former religion after they became Muslim. Although it was allowed to change the religion to be Muslim, it was not considered acceptable for non-Muslims to change their sects.

This situation, in fact, was demanded more often by non-Muslims and not the Ottoman government. On the one hand, the State took precautions to prevent missionary actions. On the other hand, congregations supported the State’s policy in order not to lose their privileges. Tough punishments were given to those who changed their sects and punitive sanctions were imposed by the patriarchates of the Armenian and of the Greeks. As an example, some Armenians from Kayseri who left the Armenian sect and chose Protestantism were given the punishment of being excommunicated by the patriarch.22

21 Nurdan İpek, Armaş ve Ermeniler, IQ Yayınları, 2006, s.35-40
22 BOA, HR.MKT., 33/6



Changing one’s religion to Islam did not readily give the person all rights in the law. This happened when the wife and the daughter of Kıdaroğlu, whom he forced to go with him when he changed his religion, were left in their town against Kıdaroğlu’s will because of the Muslim judges’ decision.23 People who changed their religions were mostly sent to other regions as it was risky to continue living where they used to live. Of course, there were some conflicts as a result of these situations as it was a sensitive subject to change religion. For example, a woman, who came to Yozgat to see her child whom she had left behind after she married a Muslim man and accepted Islam, had to go to the house of the priest and was detained there by force. After the Muslim community reported this, security forces had to come to the house of the priest. As it was found unsuitable to enter the house, the woman was taken out with the help of the headman and taken to the house of the mufti, and then she was handed over to her husband. Although some Armenians in Yozgat protested this incident with a telegram stating that the woman was not handed over to them; a woman who chose Islam and married a Muslim wouldn’t be handed over to the Armenians.24

4. Ottoman Protection

The Ottoman State showed its protection for the community in various ways. Armenians were one the communities who had the privilage of this protection. When the yield of crop was low25, at times the property tax of the monastery was long overdue26a reprieve was declared for the payment of taxes.At times of natural disasters or fires and when the houses and churches were in need of repair, financial support was given. The best kinds of assistance for Armenians were customs exemptions of European goods that the students in the monastery schools needed,27 and financial aid that was given to the patriarchate for the necessary

23 BOA, HR.MKT., 46/80
24 BOA, Y.MTV, 50/57
25 BOA, YPRK.AZN, 19/35
26 BOA, MV,163/87
27 BOA, MF.MGM, 3/28


costs that increased at Easter and for closing the expense deficits of the schools and the monasteries28.

At times of cülus (gratuities given by the Sultan at the time of accession to the throne) and the Sultan’s birthdays were also an opportunity for these reprieves. Of course, in those days, the reprieves that were demanded by the monastery were very large. For example, on the Sultan Abdülhamit II’s birthday, which is on March 27 (16 Thursday of the month Şaban), the Istanbul Armenian Patriarch, “sheltered under the mercy of the Sultan”, demanded that the 6 imprisoned Armenians be set free for the sake of “these poor Armenians that were crying for their children and relatives”.29 Again another reason for the demand for a reprieve was the accession gratuities of the Sultan. An investigation was started upon the demand for the forgiveness of those who were banished to Trablusgarp, Kudüs and Konya, and who confessed their crimes and were regretful. At the end of the investigation, it was reported that those in Trablusgarp were first level criminals and couldn’t be forgiven. The ones in Konya and Kudüs were second level criminals, but because they might say that “the State should realize that it was wrong”, the State hesitated to forgive them. Meanwhile, petitions for the release of the guilty ones were demanded by the Patriarch, and although there was no answer, a commission was organized and the petitions for their release were examined one-by-one. They were finally forgiven on condition that those in Konya promised not to commit the same crimes and to be faithful.30 The Armenians’ reply to this gift of the Sultan was they would pray for the Sultan.31 Upon this, the Sultan expressed his pleasure of the situation to the Patriarch.32

Of course, not only the Ottoman State helped the Armenians, but also the Armenians helped the State. In order for the priests not to be mistreated, those whose jobs and wages were taken away because they had been found guilty by the Patriarch for being faithful to the government.

28 BOA, RES., 51/5
29 BOA, YMTV, 49/40
30 BOA, YEE, 81/28
31 BOA, YEE, 47/169
32 BOA, İ.DH, 1213/95018


Since they had served the government but couldn’t return to their jobs, it was decided that they would be given 150 kuruş each and then later 300 kuruş each as it was seen insufficient to earn a living.33 Furthermore, when Serkis, (the kocabashi) of Kayseri and a member of the Assembly, wished to pin a privileged symbol on his fez as a sign of service and loyalty that he had shown, the symbol was prepared by the State and he was given permission to put it on his fez. He was also given protection against possible problems that he could encounter as not everyone could be aware of the privilege that he was given.34

Consequently, the Armenians who lived in the Ottoman State were free in their legal, religious, and social lives owing to their being outside Islamic law as a result of the principle that stated that “there is no compulsion in religion”. Thus, the Armenians were able to form their own legal and social order. They managed to remain as members both of their communities and of Ottoman society. In the days when the concept of “nation” didn’t mean ethnicity, the Armenians upheld their identities as a “congregation” and obtained a distinct status within the Ottoman State. However, the Ottoman State didn’t allow them to form a structure completely separate from the congregation system, and for this reason, the Ottoman State didn’t give up their authority completely.

The patriarch having the position of salaried civil servant and the opportunity for Armenians to benefit from Islamic law are examples of the State exhibiting its authority. The congregation system functioned orderly till the political and economic conditions of the Ottoman State began to deteriorate. With the change in the meaning of the concept of “nation”, the “congregation” system disintegrated.

33 BOA, YEE, 81/28
34 BOA, HR.MKT., 7/34


REFERENCES

A- Books

AKTAŞ, Necati, Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi Rehberi, Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü Osmanlı Arşivi Daire Başkanlığı Yay., 2000
BOZKURT, Gülnihal, Gayrımüslim Osmanlı Vatandaşlarının Hukuki Durumu, TTK Yayınları, 1996
ENGELHARD, Türkiye ve Tanzimat, çev. Ali Reşat, 1328
İPEK, Nurdan, Armaş ve Ermeniler, IQ Yayınları, 2006
KÜçÜK, Cevdet, “Osmanlı Devleti’nde Millet Sistemi”, Ermeni Sorunu Özel Sayısı, Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, Sayı:38, Mart-Nisan 2001
SHAW, Stanford, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Modern Türkiye, e-Yayınları, 1994

B- Archive Documents

BAŞBAKANLIK OSMANLI ARŞIVI (Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives) (BOA), Cevdet Tasnifi Belgeleri Dahiliye (Cevdet Classified Documents Internal),1713/1 (CDH)
BOA, Cevdet Tasnifi Belgeleri İktisat (C.İKT), No:966
BOA, Hariciye Mektubi Kalemi (HR.MKT).,32/64, 33/6, 46/80, 32/64, 32/64, 94/17, 7/34
BOA, Hattı Hümayun (Hat),315/18545-A
BOA, İrade Meclis-i Vala (İ.M.Vala), 1109
BOA, İrade Dahiliye (İ.DH), 987/77929, 1213/95018
BOA, İrade Hariciye (İ.HR), 236/13975
BOA, Maarif Nezareti Mekâtib-i Gayrımüslime ve Ecnebiye Müfettişliği (MF. MGM), 3/28
BOA, Meclis-i Vükela Mazbataları (MV),163/87
BOA, Yıldız Resmi Maruzat (RES), 51/5
BOA, Yıldız Esas Evrakı(YEE), 38/69, 134/6, 33/1, 81/28, 81/28, 47/169, 3/73
BOA, Yıldız Mütenevvi Maruzat, (Y.MTV), 50/57, 49/40
BOA, Yıldız Perakende Evrakı Adliye ve Mezahib Nezareti Maruzatı (YPRK.AZN), 1/64, 11/58, 19/35
BOA, Yıldız Perakende Evrakı Arzuhal ve Jurnaller (YPRK.AZJ), 49/116
.

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