10 November 2007
"Armenianness", "Armenian Cause", What Is It?
Gaïdz Minassian, Armenian terrorism and War, 1972-1998, Paris, PUF, 2002, p. 29-32:
"Marian has three elements that explain the recurrent nature of the Armenian terrorist phenomenon. Terrorism embodies the concept of policy-based dualism friend or foe. Enemy concept is an integral part, albeit extreme, the construction of national feeling Armenian . keeping with the essentialist theory of politics, has been designed Armenianness in history from the designation of the enemy as a condition of his true political existence. But all adverse elements demonized in the collective unconscious Armenian , the Turkish enemy, since the genocide, has no equivalent in the chain of misfortunes. Crimes of the modern era, tragedy committed by Armenian Turks awaken sensations nightmare among the Armenians, especially violent they all remained in impunity, so that catastrophism, which is the frame Armenian identity is inextricably linked to the Turkish element. still can be seen today with the war in Nagorno-Karabakh, where Armenian Azeri assimilated to fight the Turk. thinking Armenian terrorist there is the moral legitimacy that is lacking from other causes using terror. . . .
Reducing the political battleground of violence explains the longevity of Armenian terrorism. Pages of Armenian history of the twentieth century are those of chaos and death itself stronger than before. So that only the overthrow of the report strength is likely to bring the Armenian victory and give them the feeling of greatness created by the conquest and crush the enemy. Extrapolation of the concept of progress or judgment drawn macabre experiences, Armenians believe that c is only by the use of force and the right rose the civilized world. however, adds Y. Ternon, "a practice that happens as a last resort, the only alternative to despair and dereliction" and which is the basis, albeit controversial, the political legitimacy of Armenian terrorism.
Finally, Mr. Marian suggests, the third element of the crucible of terrorism is the dramatization of the time, the only bulwark against the impending disaster. Inseparable from the first two elements, the dramatization does not reflect an awareness of the danger of extinction that threatens Armenians, but a spiral irrationalities that transforms unreal life possible and anguish absolute force to survive in obsession with accumulating losses by war and genocide by assimilation and westernization of manners. Remain there tomorrow Armenians on earth? A future in which terrorist thinking takes the form of an emergency. Such is the fear of small Armenian people doomed to extinction, if it does not lead. Terrorism itself aims to alleviate his impatience, "to dramatize his senses to know, cause an emotion."
This is the pattern that reason-unreason moved mechanically in the mind of the terrorist. He thinks out of this "inversion", as Mr. Wieviorka, the source of its legitimacy psychological real world can not grant him . the Armenian Dashnak moreover, fits easily into terrorism. Probably there in every part of Dashnak terrorist dormant. Victimization of legitimacy rooted Armenianness Armenian singles Armenian terrorism from other types of political violence. And, in this sense, the FRA and, more broadly, the Armenians prefer the more noble concept of resistance and armed struggle than terrorism. But can we seriously talk without being accused of legitimacy if not apology for terror at least out of a reserve force? There just of terrorism?
"There may be, says Wieviorka originally terrorist movements [...] understanding among the public that recognizes a certain legitimacy, a sense of the use of violence. Then, sooner or later, these feelings more or less benevolent turn away at the same time as the violence settles, becoming more deadly and indiscriminate. "The gap becomes impossible and the communication between those who use and those who are affected. For the climate of sympathy is maintained, should know that terrorism will stop when it is necessary to provide for the threshold of tolerance, he'll have to reach climax, but go beyond, afraid to pay on the other side, that of killing and the rejection of violence in society. Overall, if the terrorist knows when to hit his target, he must also know when to stop and keep this capital of sympathy he laboriously collected, otherwise it becomes "a priest" according to André Malraux or "butcher" according Roupen Ter Minassian, Dashnak leader and former Minister of Defense of Armenia in 1919.
Although there are still a few diehards who refuse to associate CJGA the FRA, there is now no doubt about the identity of members and membership CJGA Dashnak network. "There has perhaps never been a revolutionary party, wrote Mr. Varandian in the late 1920s, which has had a rich experience of terrorist methods that Fra [...]. The Dashnak has produced the most violent character of terrorism and trained hundreds of teachers of the gun, the bomb and the dagger. "The Dashnak terrorist is a professional whom the Bolsheviks gave the name mauseriste, referring to the German Mauser revolver. According to the former Minister of Defence R. Ter Minassian, the Dashnak terrorist is "the archangel Gabriel that we can not oppose. It is invisible and invulnerable. " "He hates murder, says Yves Ternon, but sacrificed his life. His act is seen as a vital necessity", say the moral Dashnaks as the terrorist "clean hands." His gesture is a vigilante irreversible fate. "The decision, the victim is already killed, as if the incarnated the Dashnak terrorist bullets are hitting." So Evan Maxwell concludes that "when They went to job, somebody Usually died." "
A striking illustration is certainly particularly aggressive in this speech (apology more or less assumed that the Armenian terrorism could say traditional) and paranoid (Mr. Minassian obviously correct that the Turk is a central focus in hate Armenian community activism but not unique: the Georgian, Arabic, Russian, European, etc.., are not far behind, if you listen carefully) Toranian Ara, former spokesman the bloody terrorist organization ASALA:
To learn more about the Armenian activism frantic geopolitically very fluctuating and rhetorically (being primarily motivated by an obsessive and systematic turcophobie):
Gross duplicity of the Armenian activism
Gaïdz Minassian, Armenian terrorism and War, 1972-1998, Paris, PUF, 2002:
- Third Reich:
"" The FRA [Dashnak] says Hrayr Maroukhian (1928-1998), General Secretary of the Party from 1972 to 1994, gives you the freedom to have relationships with those who can play a role in the evolution of haïtadisme [ the "Armenian cause"], "most virtuous to the most vicious, to deal with the devil to achieve his ideal, as was the case during the Second World War when some of its ranks collaborated with Nazi Germany for the revision of the treaties of peace and the fight against Stalin's USSR. " (P. 10)
- Right Maronite:
"In Lebanon, the FRA maintains its alliance with the Phalangists and participates in the election of S. Frangieh head of state in 1970." (P. 23)
"(...) The FRA behind the shield of positive neutrality: do not participate in the conflict [Lebanese] and ensure self Armenian neighborhoods, while promoting the dialogue between the warring parties to reach an agreement lasting peace. On the ground, however, this policy difficult to apply. A part of the Dashnak militia joined forces C. Chamoun in the fighting in July 1976 Naba'a progressive forces against Muslims. " (P. 42)
"While Sunni MPs boycotted the election in September 1982 members Dashnaks principle provide a presence in the presidential election won by B. Gemayel, the anti-Armenian man operation in 1979. However opposed to the election ex-President C. Chamoun, profane monument to the Armenian genocide Bikfayah, FRA believes there is still a Lebanese state, even in these darkest hours of the civil war. Having at its eyes, no choice, the FRA provides its voice to the victory of B. Gemayel. constitution has its positive neutrality constraints is not able to resolve. Following the assassination of a new president in September 1982 and the massacres Palestinians in the camps of Sabra and Shatila, the election of A. Gemayel to the presidency of the Republic accelerates the creation of a small Maronite east of Beirut. " (P. 79)
- Nationalism Arab
"Sensible ideas pan-national and surprised by the success of anticolonial Arab socialism, FRA, on behalf of the Cultural Revolution haïtadiste, slips into the clothes of positive neutrality and gives it a range of both international strategic political, national and Third World. " (P. 39)
"Outraged by the Palestinian Black September massacres, youth Dashnak combines the fate of the Armenians to the Palestinians, two peoples without a state, even if the massive settlement of Palestinians in Lebanon is shaking the foundations of the National Pact dear to the FRA." (P. 23)
"Hostile to Israel, a friend of Turkey, the FRA condemns the invasion of Lebanon by the IDF. She sees the result of an Israeli-Phalange alliance to liquidate the Palestinian issue and remove the Lebanese state in favor of a mini-state Christian ally of Israel and a bulwark against the Muslim world. " (P. 79)
"In Syria, after more than ten years to ban anti-espionage service in the United States, the FRA formal owes its existence to the goodwill of the new leader, Hafez al-Assad, seeking to maintain an ethnic balance in the country, promoting minorities most docile towards him. " (P. 23)
"In terms of Syria, Damascus recognized after themselves be distrusted, that the autonomist strategy and neutralist Armenians of Lebanon is one of the main links in the chain of minorities favor that Syria seeks to make. On the chessboard Armenian, Syria occupies a central place to orchestrate negotiations on political and military. Supported by the Syrian Dashnaks, which reinforce the authority of the Alawite regime in Aleppo, Syrian city with a strong Armenian protest against Sunni Assad knows he can now also rely on the Armenians from Beirut to guide his way policy in Lebanon. On the military, General Kanaan, commander of Syrian forces in Lebanon and settled in Anjar, monitors action Dashnak in the region, but the alliance between Syria and PSP W. Jumblat, himself close to ASALA, deters FRA too exposed. activities second office in Beirut and Syrian Bekaa invite FRA great caution; conversely, knowing that the FRA has connections with the Red Army, the Syrian officers in Lebanon stick with the FRA to exchange good practices. " (P. 63-64)
"The FRA is close to Syria and Hezbollah, hostile to Israel and Turkey, calling it" pan-Turkism and the racist ideology of Zionism are two sides of the same coin, that of imperialism. "Never since the creation of Israel, the FRA has been so hard to position towards Israel. In August 1997, Syria called to give security guarantees to the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh, while the FRA calls for the withdrawal of U.S. forces in the Middle East, after General Cohen, Minister of Defense, said that Syria, Libya, Iran and Iraq store large quantities of chemical and bacteriological weapons . (...) The main lesson learned from this FRA strategic issues complication is that the post-haïtadisme is inseparable from the Arab-Israeli conflict and paradoxically found its stride in its response to the consolidation of axis Israeli-Turkish. Convinced that Armenia will eventually sign military agreements with Syria and Iran, on the basis of those signed with Greece and Russia in 1997, the FRA openly supports the Arab states and Iran.
To thrive in Lebanon, post-haïtadisme had to emancipate itself from the tutelage of the Prime Minister R. Hariri, whose relations with Damascus fester as Beirut seeking a separate peace agreement with Israel while Damascus wants a comprehensive peace in the region. "(P. 251-252)
"In Iran, an ally of the Shah, the FRA is based on five deputy ministers and two Armenian MPs in the Iranian parliament to control the business community." (P. 23)
"(...) Iranian Islamism does not fail to seduce the Lebanese Shiite community divided between the Amal militia, pro-Syrian Hezbollah militia and pro-Iranian. Which does not simplify the business of the FRA, which now has to factor in Iranian policy towards Hezbollah militia.
However, in 1983, Tehran organized a raid to arrest Dashnaks, after the Revolutionary Guards have found stockpiles of weapons in their apartments. At the same time, faithful to the educational precepts made by the leader of the revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, the government imposes the rules of Islam in Armenian community schools, farm schools and sports center Armenians. The attack against the FRA participates in the entry of the Iranian revolution in its phase thermidorisation. It also demonstrates a change in tactics by the regime of the mullahs. It is no longer, as in 1979-1981, to suppress the FRA as a former support the Shah's regime, but the bend and then exploit it for the benefit of its policy of community supervision. Presumably, the discovery of a military arsenal is a pretext for the takeover of the FRA and the beginning of a dialogue between the secret Dashnak and Islamic government. In this perspective, the FRA on account Karekin II, Catholicos of the House of Cilicia and former Armenian archbishop in Tehran for a relaxation of the Iranian regime to respect and develop a policy of mutual respect with Hezbollah. "(p. 80)
"In solidarity with the Greek nation, the FRA is not expressed on the responsibility of the Greek colonels in the overthrow of Makarios and sticks to a line anti-Turkish." (P. 36)
"A horse on the West and East, Greece, Member of the EC, is the traditional enemy of Turkey and the Arab world support in its fight against Israel. Near PASOK, the Greek Socialist Party in power H. Maroukhian good relationship with Prime Minister A. Papandreou. " (P. 105)
- International Socialist
"(...) A motivation to give them every opportunity to join the IS [Socialist International] Congress held in Geneva in 1976, during which the FRA is applying once again officially rejected for reasons statutory. But relations with the Western socialist parties or independent from Moscow illustrate the roots of the FRA left, even if its collaboration with the regime of the colonels in Greece and the Phalangists in Lebanon remains in the craw of socialist ". (P. 41)
"The night of the victory of 10 May 1981, the Dashnak participate, in France or abroad, drunkenness People who wins the people left and also chant the slogan:" We won. "After reading Mitterrand's speech in Mexico, some are even in socialist France Dashnak land favorable to the people in struggle. Mauroy The government has several ministers Armenophiles. Lionel Jospin PS lend an attentive ear to the FRA whose efforts to pass through a Socialist heavyweight government, C. Hernu. Changes are immediate justice.'s National Assembly vote on August 4, 1981, an amnesty law intended to "allow those political passion had lost back into the national community. "" (P. 70)
- USA and USSR:
"The detonator of 1965 passed by and nothing can stop the strategic reorientation of the FRA an anti-Soviet neutrality to a third-world inspiration." (P. 19)
"Supported by H. Maroukhian which gives it more interest as negotiations with the Soviet advance, E. Hovannesian critical dissent in the Armenian SSR. But then why has he himself as a dissident stripped of his Soviet citizenship to its interlocutors Why avail himself of the ideas of dissident Solzhenitsyn while his family remained in the USSR, was never threatened by the KGB How can you be the director of the department of Armenian Radio Free Europe while his son, Vahan was able to continue his studies in archeology in Moscow without knowing any trouble with the KGB? Finally, how can it be credible when, in Munich, he criticized the Communist regime but never the first secretary PCA, while his wife is a close friend of the couple Demirdjian Yerevan? " (P. 98)
"Whereas the United States have much to lose in this conflict [Cyprus] between two member states of NATO, Washington maintains pressure on Ankara since 1973 is in the hands of the Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit, a left-wing nationalist. Ankara permits the cultivation of poppy despite U.S. objections and sees the war poppy way for Turks to say no to the United States. In response, the State Department receives all Dashnaks U.S. Federal Congress met in . In 1975, the U.S. Congress declared April 24, 1915 "Day of the inhumanity of man to man," but without using the term genocide. Finally, to disapprove the invasion of Cyprus, Washington imposed an embargo on arms supplies to Turkey in 1975. " (P. 36)
"(...) Americans and Soviets did they turn a responsibility in this terrorist? Cold in Turkey, they have two large, without concert, agreed that the FRA delves into terrorism? Who in Washington Moscow has more interest in grabbing Armenians and Turks? For Americans, the updating of the cause of Turkish Armenia and Armenian terrorism are two ways to pressure on Ankara, provided that it is limited to Genocide recognition and waives hit Turkey on American soil. For the Soviets, weaken Turkey bastion of NATO in the Eastern Mediterranean, is to weaken the U.S. strategy in Europe and the Middle East, let alone when this powerful Turkey overshadows Arab states fought Israel. Pushing the Armenian terrorism, Moscow would force Turkey to handle only domestic threats Kurdish and Armenian and reduce the influence of Turkey, so the NATO in the region. It is still too early to attribute any responsibility or American Soviet Armenian terrorism, although not to unleash the military arm of their respective states interested in the problem of terrorism Dashnak the CIA has followed with interest the development of ASALA and the KGB worked with the PFLP-COSE, regulator of ASALA in Lebanon. amazing detail though: Soviets and Americans have not responded to the first Armenian attacks. ' (P. 37-38)
Google Translated Content from the original in French : Arménologie
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Labels: Armenian TERROR