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23 April 2009

2811) Turkey And The Armenian Atrocities - Edwin Munsell Bliss

© This content Mirrored From  http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com CONTENTS
The cover, frontispiece, title page, copyright notice, etc.)
Introduction.
Preface.
Turkey in Asia (map)
Table of contents (as in the book)
List of illustrations

CHAPTER I. THE TURKISH EMPIRE. . .

Geographical Extent — Topography — Physical Characteristics — Products — Traveling and Transportation — Building

CHAPTER II. POPULATION AND LANGUAGES.
Accurate Statements as to Population Impossible — No Census — Best Available Estimates — Distribution — Most of the Races Described in Other Chapters — Jews and Foreigners — General Characteristics — The Languages — How Distributed — Peculiarities of the Turkish — Number Spoken in the Seaboard Cities

CHAPTER III. RELIGIONS.
Islam and Christianity — A Few Pagan Communities — Origin of Mohammedanism — The Koran — The Traditions — Extent of Islam — Present Condition — Effect upon the Turks — Contact with Civilization — Sects — Oriental Christianity — Characteristics

CHAPTER IV. THE TURKS.
Their Origin — Early History — General Characteristics — Good Qualities — Kindness — Hospitality — Temperance — Honesty — Intellectual Ability — Obedience to Rulers — Bravery — Bad Characteristics — Indifference to Suffering — Brutality — Degradation of Women — Sensuality — Official Unreliability — Fatalism — Insolence — Indolence — General Summary

CHAPTER V. THE KURDS.
Legend of the Serpents — Connected with the Medes — Tribal Organization — Nomad Life — Saladin and the Crusaders — After the Russo-Turkish War — The Hamidieh Cavalry — Brutal Treatment of Christians — Arabs — Circassians and Other Moslem Subjects — The Nusairiyeh — Yezidis and Druzes

CHAPTER VI. THE ARMENIANS.
Their Origin — Early History — First Nation to Accept Christianity — Dispersion Under Oppression— Change from Agricultural to Commercial People — General Characteristics;' Loyalty to Nation and Religion— Industry — Morality —Intellectual Ability —Shrewdness — Jealousy of One Another—Influence of Missions and European Ideas —Growth of National Ambition— Armenians in Russia —Autonomy— Armenians in Other Countries —Patriarch Mattheos — Outlook for the Future

CHAPTER VII. THE GREEKS.
Fidelity of the Oriental Churches—The Apostle Andrew— Concessions by Mohammed II —Gennadios II— Suffering and Misery— Greek Revolution— Growth of National Spirit —Hellenes or Romaioi— Bulgarians in their Relation to the Greek Church.

CHAPTER VIII. OTHER ORIENTAL CHURCHES.
The Syrian Church Divided into Syrians, Chaldeans, Nestorians, Jacobites, and some Roman Catholic Bodies — The Jacobites — Patriarch of Antioch —Condition of Villagers — Jebel Tur Region— Nestorians—Patriarch of Babylon —Badir Khan Bey —Chaldeans — The Copts of Egypt — Maronites and Druzes

CHAPTER IX. RISE AND DECLINE OF OTTOMAN POWER.
Capture of Constantinople —Victories of Mohammed II— The Sultans Assume the Caliphate — Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent —Attack upon Venice —Constant Strife over the Danubian Principalities — Internal Disorganization— Weak Sultans and Powerful Viziers—Alliances with Foreign Powers — Repeated Disasters —Weak Rule in Asia — Revolt in Egypt and Syria — Condition at Commencement of Present Century

CHAPTER X. TURKEY AND EUROPE.
First Intercourse —Alliance between Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent — Intrigues between France and Austria — The First Treaty —Nature of Capitulations —Peculian Favors Granted to the French— Their Recognition as the Protectors of Christians — Entrance of Other Powers — Louis XIV and His Ambassador—Influence of De Breves — Peace of Carlowitz—Turkey No Longer Dreaded in Europe

CHAPTER XI. RUSSIA AND TURKEY.
Aggression of Peter the Great — Diminution and Renewal of French Influence — The Contest over the Holy Places—Victory of Russian Influence in Favor of the Greek Church —Russia's Religious Propaganda Among the Greeks —Rise of Phil-Hellenism — Dismemberment Talked of—Effect of the French Revolution— The Russian Fleet in the Dardanelles— The English Fleet at Constantinople —Peace of Tilsit — Plan for Partition — Accession of Mahmud II

CHAPTER XII. MAHMUD II.
A Disintegrating Empire —An Energetic Sultan —Napoleon and Alexander—Lord Stratford de Redcliffe —Greek War for Independence — Russia's Perfidy— Destruction of the Janissaries—Reforms Attempted — Mehemet Ali of Egypt —Accession of Abd-ul-Medjid

CHAPTER XIII. REFORM AND PROGRESS.
Reign of Abd-ul-Medjid —Influence of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe —English Policy in Turkey— Hatti Sherif of Gulhane —A Remarkable Document — Equal Rights for All Subjects of the Sultan —Land Tax and Judicial Reform— General Situation of the Country —Application of the Reforms

CHAPTER XIV. TREATIES OF PARIS AND BERLIN.
Influence of Lord Stratford— The Holy Places — Crimean War— Treaty of Paris — Abd-ul-Aziz— Extravagance — Influx of Europeans — Provincial Government — Accession of Abd-ul-Hamid II—Russo-Turkish War— Treaty of San Stephano— Treaty of Berlin— Cyprus Convention

CHAPTER XV. CONDITION OF THE CHRISTIANS.
The Christians under Early Moslem Rule — Mohammed II —General Oppression — Protection by French Government —Russian Intrigue —Power of the Greek Church — Reforms under Mahmud II and Abd-ul-Medjid —The Hatti Humayoun —General Improvement Throughout the Empire

CHAPTER XVI. THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT.
True Moslem State Theocratic —Dual Form of the Present Government — The Sublime Porte —Army and Navy —Internal Administration— Financial Management —General Corruption— Administration of Justice — Treatment of Christians — The Ulema — The Palace Party —The Sultan

CHAPTER XVII. PROTESTANT MISSIONS IN TURKEY.
Early History— Opposition of Ecclesiastics in the Oriental Churches—Attitude of the Turkish Government — Work AmongMoslems —Development of Education— Societies at Work— The American Board —Presbyterian Boards — American and British Bible Societies —English Societies — General Statistics—Relations to the Turkish Government —Character of the Missionaries

CHAPTER XVIII. THE ARMENIAN QUESTION.
A Progressive Grand Vizier— Victory of the Reactionary Party —Egypt and the Mahdi — Rise of the Armenian Question— Russian Intrigue — Articles of the Berlin Treaty — Autonomy Desired —The Huntchagist Committee — Placards in Asia Minor Burning of American Building at Marsovan— Numerous Arrests —Armenians Exiled —Coercive Measures of the Government —American Citizens Threats — Huntchagists Disowned by the Nation —Young Turkey Party— Absolute Failure of the Huntchagist Movement

CHAPTER XIX. GENERAL SITUATION IN 1894.
Terrible Oppression— Exaggerated Reports — Truth Stranger Than Fiction— Religious Liberty Infringed Upon— Oppressive School Laws —Rigorous Censorship— General Effort of the Government to Suppress Christian Development

CHAPTER XX. THE SASSUN MASSACRE.
A Deliberate Plan of The Turkish Government —Kurdish Raids—Armenians Defend Themselves—Kurds Reinforced by Regular Troops — Terrible Scenes of Slaughter — Stories of Survivors

CHAPTER XXI. POLITICS AND MASSACRE AT CONSTANTINOPLE.
Investigation at Sassun — Mr. Gladstone on the Situation— Disturbances in Constantinople — Joint Notes by the Embassies — Plan of Reforms — New English Government — Massacre in Constantinople —Decisive Action of the Embassies — Signing of the Reforms —Subsequent Acts of Defiance — Breach Between England and Russia —Collapse of English Influence

CHAPTER XXII. MASSACRES AT TREBIZOND AND ERZRUM.
Importance and General Prosperity of Both Cities — Threats by the Turks— Terror Among the Armenians — Suddenness of the Attacks — Murder and Pillage by Regular Soldiers, Under the Eye of Foreign Consuls —Ferocity of the Turks —Testimony of Eye-Witnesses — Terrible Scenes at the Burial of the Victims

CHAPTER XXIII. MASSACRES IN HARPUT DISTRICT.
American Residences—First Indications —Specious Promises —Riot, Murder and Pillage —A Dangerous Journey— Attempts at Defense —List of Villages and Details of Massacres —Statement of a Turkish Official—Armenians not Responsible —Turkish Dread of Reform—Tabular Statement

CHAPTER XXIV. AINTAB, MARASH AND URFA.
The Situation in Northern Syria — No Revolutionary Movement — Massacre at Aintab — Kurdish Women —A Turkish Captain Helps the Pillage — A Colonel Checks it —Caring for the Wounded— Two Attacks at Marash —Destruction of American Houses — Brave Men in Zeitun —Story of Massacres at Urfa

CHAPTER XXV. CHARACTER OF THE MASSACRES.
Massacres at Sivas, Cesarea, Birejik, Bitlis, and the Region of Mardin— Protection by the Turkish Government for the Jacobites —General Survey— Place and Time of the Massacres—Victims Exclusively Armenians—Effort to Destroy the Strength of the Nation — Motive —Responsibility of the Turkish Government and of the Sultan

CHAPTER XXVI. RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION.
Motive of the Massacres — Primarily Political, then Religious — The Religious Element Overpowering the Political—Dread of Christian Domination —False Statements by the Turkish Government — Instances of Persecution and Enforced Conversion to Islam— A Tremendous Moral Disaster—Efforts of the Government to Suppress Reports

CHAPTER XXVII. RELIEFWORK.
The General Situation —Absolute Destitution— Appeals to America and England —Work in the Sassun Region— Van and Dr. Kimball—Appeals Following the Greater Massacres — Clara Barton and the Red Cross—Opposition of the Turks—Letter from Van —After the Massacre in Harput — Suffering in the Villages — Appeal for Help

CHAPTER XXVIII. PARTITION OF TURKEY.
Factors in the Problem—Turkey and Europe — Topography of the Country— Distribution of Population— Countries Interested —Russia, England, France, Austria, Italy Germany, Greece, Bulgaria —Desire for Territorial Aggrandizement — Mutual Jealousies — Possible Solution— Turkish Factor Often Overlooked —Great Difficulties to be Met

CHAPTER XXIX. AMERICA AND TURKEY.
Early Treaties —Some Prominent Ambassadors — American Missionaries — Obedience to the Laws—Treaty Rights —Questions of Importance — Indemnity at Harput and Marash — More Consuls Needed —Naturalized Americans — Right of Domicile Threatened — Positive Action Needed— Duty of America

CHAPTER XXX. GENERAL SURVEY.
Statistics of Massacre and Pillage — Where Does the Responsibility Rest?— The Turks; Fear, Ferocity, Outrage — The Armenians; Ambition, Lack of Preparation, Unwisdom of Huntchagists—The European Powers; Jealousy, Ambition, Cowardice —The Sultan; Alliance with Reactionary Party, Difficult Position, Individual Care of Minutiae — Latest Development of Most Terrible Persecution.

Alphabetical Index







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