- ASALA: We All Believed In One Idea: Party
Interview with "The interlocutor of Armenia," Commander Group "Yeghia Keshishian" Vazgen Sislyan
- ASALA - Reckoning
- ASALA STORY
- Orly Group
- Operation VAN
- Chronology of ASALA
- Chronology of the "Group of 3 October"
- Chronology of the "Group June 9"
- Chronology of the "Group of 24 September"
- Chronology of the "Group of Orly"
- Armenian Revolutionary Army (ARA)
Manifesto I. 1983
- Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG)
- Monte "Avo" Melkonian (1957-1993)
- Strategic Implications Of The Armenian Genocide Of 1915
Related Post: ASALA's Day in the French National Assembly
"The fact that the French Senate recently passed a bill criminalizing denial of Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire, and I take as a result of the armed struggle of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) and the blood shed by our colleagues," - said in an interview with "The interlocutor of Armenia," the commander group "Yeghia Keshishian" Vazgen Sislyan.
- A little more than thirty years ago, your group has been carried out campaign "Van" to capture the Turkish consulate in Paris. In the last days of January 1984 the trial took place over you and the rest of this campaign, which, as noted when journalists from the "trial of the Armenians" became a "Court of the Armenians."
. . .
However, France has become one of the first countries to recognize the Armenian genocide, and now introduces criminal penalties for denying the genocide. How do you feel when comparing these dates and events?
- Empower. Pride, because I know that we at one time played an important role in what is now happening. We have made a contribution. But it's not in my personal assessment - more importantly, how to assess the Armenian people, our participation in all this. What matters is that each of the Armenians felt his involvement in the overall success and victory - someone a little more, some less.
Reference: September 24, 1981 four young Armenians 20-24 years, armed with pistols and machine guns, captured the Turkish Consulate in Paris, took 60 hostages at the same time. During the shooting, was killed by one of the Turkish guards, injuring two soldiers and the vice-consul. Directed action "Van" Vazgen Sislyan, and the group consisted of ASALA fighters Gevorg Gyuzelyan, Aram Basmadzhyan, Hagop Dzhulfayan. During the operation, "Van" ASALA filed Turkish state the specific policy requirements as a condition to complete the operation.
- The trial of the parties to the transaction "Van" is sometimes compared to a court of Soghomon Teyleryanom, which is March 15, 1921 in Berlin shot the shot at one of the main organizers of the Armenian Genocide, the former Interior Minister Talaat Pasha. As a result, the judicial inquiry of the jury trial in Berlin of the 2nd instance carried Teyleryanu acquittal. How would you feel about this analogy?
- Judging by the resonance in the society, it is possible that the comparison is appropriate. However, it should be noted that Soghomon Tehliryan acted as a witness to the barbaric killings and massacres. In other words, it was an action of the avenger. And the operation is "Van" was not an act of revenge. The motives of our actions were of a different nature - we put forward political demands, such as recognition of the Armenian Genocide, the return of occupied lands, the release of the Turkish prison Armenian priests Manvel Erkatyana Gyuzelyana and Grant together with a number of Kurdish leaders. We advocated the right of the Armenian people to live on their land - in the United Armenia.
- It is known that the chairman of the court forbade trial participants to call the accused terrorists by requiring use of the term combattan (fighters). How do you explain this?
- My friends in the fight for 15 hours held hostage and surrendered only after the police assured that we will be on the political process. I was injured and stayed at the consulate around 7:00, and then surrendered to authorities and was taken to hospital where he was 5-6 days in an unconscious state, I was hooked to a respirator. In the future, already in the course of preliminary investigation, we are in a maximum security prison, Fleury Merozhis resorted to a 15-day hunger strike, of which 8 - without water, to remind the authorities of this promise. We recognized the political prisoners. I think that our behavior with the hostages during the operation "Van", and then the presentation on the process still demonstrated that the defendants were not murderers or thugs, and the ideological warriors who defend the interests of its people.
- Your process made Manushian Meline, a widow of national hero in France Misak Manushyan, letters were read by Charles Aznavour and Henri Verneuil, revealing anti-Armenian policy of the Turkish authorities. The court heard the testimony of survivors of the genocide. In the words of the presiding officer "defendants, stand up!" All Armenians were in the room stood up. Diaspora in need of heroes - in your face?
- It seems to me that the operation of "Van" has led to a surge of patriotic feeling in the Armenian community, but most importantly - it has contributed to cohesion. Here is an example of hard-hitting and such. When it became known that we have captured the consulate, the Armenian parties were quick to respond to demonstrations and processions. However, if, for example, the party "Hnchak" and left-wing forces were moving along any one route, the ARF "ARF" have preferred to lead his party members on other streets, it does not interfere with other parties. Only a month after the events of all political forces held a joint meeting.
In general, I would like to note that the need for ASALA was dictated by the passivity of the traditional Armenian parties and political leaders, the main activities and efforts which at the time were aimed at solving the problems of its own self-preservation. In my opinion, diaspora, and especially our generation was on the verge of losing national identity. While I have the impression that the Armenians have any form of protest manifested only on April 24. However, this date - just a commemoration of the victims of genocide, whereas for all other 364 days is necessary to remind the world about our just demands. In the end, there was a genocide, and nothing good is to live by these tragic memories. But it happened, it has fallen on our head, so why can not we be the masters of our requirements?
- And even at the cost of the explosion at Orly airport July 15, 1983, in which eight people were killed and 55 people were injured? After all, there is absolutely innocent people suffered.
- Maybe, I agree with you. But these were the stages of the struggle. If all the action was limited to only the "Van", it is possible that many would never understand the meaning of our struggle. Note that the shares of ASALA had three goals. First, Turkey should realize that the Armenians will not be silent and accept what happened in 1915. Secondly, the world would know what a terrible tragedy happened to our people, and it was time to stop the policy of silence. Third, the Diaspora should wake up and intensify their efforts. With specific regard to the action at Orly airport, I often ask this question, and I can only say - it is possible that on-site Varoujan Karapetian would be me.
- When you were in prison, Fleury-Merozhis, one of the participants in the operation of "Van" Aram Basmadzhyan committed suicide. After so many years did you learn or understand, why did this happen - almost a year before the release?
- Sometimes I hear is that it is better to sit in a French prison than live in the wild in Armenia. Can talk only to those who have not experienced the psychological pressure of French intelligence. Yes, our solitary cells were located nearby, on the same floor. It is unlikely that anyone April 12, 1985, roughly speaking, stuck his head in a noose our friend - in the truest sense of the word. It was his second and final attempt. For the first time the guards noticed raised a fuss, let us out of the camera, so we convinced Aram not to make his plans. Then succeeded, and then - no. He is buried in Paris at Pere Lachaise cemetery.
Behind all this, in my opinion, there were attempts to debunk and discredit our way of ideological fighters. After all, if we all took the Diaspora, it was not such that anyone strongly objected to the protesters, "Wang." In the address of ASALA, however, some negative statements were heard, but not in connection with our operation. Wide publicity, rallying the Diaspora, the destruction of the evil terrorist usual stereotype - it was not on hand to the French authorities. That is why the security forces and sought methods of impact - psychological, medical, or any else to make us mentally unstable people. As they say, to break us, and then publicly declare: "This is your ideological fighters .." I make this conclusion based on everything that happened to me to see and experience over the years spent in prison.
- Something has changed in your views and principles for the past three decades? After all, life is different, someone finds a new field for their strength and knowledge that are youthful enthusiasm, and the metamorphosis taking place with ideas.
- January 20, we celebrated the 37th anniversary of the ASALA. Gathered without too much pomp, no ads, none of the officials did not attend. But the main goal was to understand how we are in demand in society - mostly from young people. Talked about ideological issues. It turned out that kind of message that we joined 30 years ago, continues to serve as the basis for the cementing of our meetings. It lies at the basis of social organization "UGT Ararat" ("Vow of Ararat"), which comprises the majority of former fighters ASALA.
By the way, three years ago, met with us Spanish journalist Jose Antonio Gurriaran, who became disabled after a bomb explosion in Madrid December 29, 1980. After this action ASALA he read about two hundred books about Armenia, its history, culture and art. As he told us, that led him to understand that in relation to the Armenian people was made far greater injustice than in relation to him. On his impressions, he wrote his first book "The Bomb", and last year published his new book, called "Armenians. The forgotten genocide. " The purpose of this book is consonant with our - blow up a wall of silence, to tell the truth about one of the most horrible crimes committed against humanity. It was not the first meeting of the writer and publicist with ASALA. At this time Gurriarana interest - was dictated by our return in the early 90s to Armenia from all over the world, or the decision of ASALA, each of us went back for their own reasons. When it became clear that each of us made the decision independently, but in the end it was almost a collective, very surprised.
For me personally, nothing surprising in this, as we all believe in one idea, and she once again brought us together. And in another soil, we could not settle down, I know for sure.
- Do you have some facilities in Armenia?
- No. However, we never wanted to do so. Personally, I feel fine - despite all the hardships of life in Armenia. It is a pity that sometimes me and my colleagues have to listen to criticisms that ASALA not want to put things in order and confirm the validity of Armenia. But we have other problems. That is to release Armenian lands - this is part of our program, even though our age.
- Does it follow from your words that ASALA is not disbanded, as previously stated, and continues to operate?
- I'm certainly not the press secretary of the secret army, but the question is always answered as follows. The policy positions, ASALA stated that the organization will be disbanded only when Armenia will be returned to the occupied territories, and the Armenian people will live in their historic land. And if the moment does not hold shares of ASALA, it does not mean that it is not.
Valery GASPARYAN "Neutral Armenia"
Source: http://www.hayasala.com /via GoogleTranslate From Russian
ASALA - Reckoning
We are tired of the fact that the Armenian people's interests are sacrificed to the geopolitical games of the United States.
The events at the end of last year, with pain in the hearts of Armenians around the world. Too obvious a process of ignoring our national interests by global powers. After the incident, I turned to the representatives of our diaspora residing in different countries, in order to find out how they are resolute in upholding the ideas in whose name lives every Armenian.
And today, I would like to give a generalized view of the Armenians living in different states, which in one voice say: the world seems begun to forget how dangerous it is to flirt with us, however fraught ignore our just demands, but we can quickly recall how wrong this policy.
We can already say that the Armenians all over the world held responsible for what might happen in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia, USA, France and other countries around the world - on the governments of these countries, forcing us to resort to the most extreme methods of waging war of liberation and restoration of historical justice.
They still have time to think again, to save their fellow citizens from the penalties that will fall on those whom the authorities of these countries sacrifice reluctance to understand how we are resolute in their desire to achieve their goals. Time has already begun its inexorable countdown.
Not to say that manual states against which will be sent to all the power of our revenge, do not understand that retaliation would take place. For example, the Turkish embassy around the world have already received from the ASALA, which diplomats suggested to be cautious. We have done their job - have warned.
I am sure that a simple analysis of what led ignoring our warnings, Turkey must bring the most serious thought. The same Prime Minister Erdogan is too went into the role of anti-Armenian, and it has long been crying a bullet true patriots of our nation.
According to the present Armenian patriots, the same fate is destined for the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev - it's time to stop at the root of the illusion of our opponents on the likelihood that the historically sacred Armenian lands of Artsakh (Nagorno Karabakh) can again be part of this state. We are already tired of the order of speech of the Azerbaijani side, threatening to launch a military operation against the Artsakh (Nagorno Karabakh). We are able to move the field of war to the streets of Baku and Kirovabad, sinking the population of these cities in the blood and fear.
This will be the signal for the American fosterling, Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili. If he had not voluntarily go to the restoration of historical justice in Dzhavhke, which is an ancient Armenian land, which is long overdue return to its true owners, then we will have to compel him to do so, shares of our patriots in Tbilisi and Batumi.
The representatives of our community in one voice declare that it is time to show the full force of our resentment and French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who likes to work too much language, fulfilling the whims of his wife, that as the wife of the President could accept only France with its tradition of courtesans in the construction of favorite kings. We are from France needs a clear and firm assurance that she would do everything to ensure that Turkey has paid compensation to the descendants of victims of genocide in cash and historic Armenian territories, now forming part of the Turkish state.
We need that France has provided formal financial assistance to the people of Artsakh (Nagorno Karabakh), proving that it is on our side, not on the side of merchants gas and oil from Azerbaijan.
If M. Sarkozy did not understand himself, we remember him. it is easy to fly into the air airports, how vulnerable diplomatic missions in Turkey, how are readily available heads of retaliation of the French state, representatives of embassies of France in the world.
To understand the seriousness of the consequences of ignoring the demands of our people and to President Barack Obama. We are tired of waiting for him recognition from the U.S. Genocide. We are tired of the fact that the Armenian people's interests are sacrificed to the geopolitical games of the United States. We are tired of sponsoring congressmen and senators, who promised us a peaceful way to achieve our goals.
We are tired of watching how the U.S. government ignores our interests by appointing an ambassador to Azerbaijan Matthew Bryza, in order to cajole Baku, which is very necessary in the light of the White House of his plans against Iran. They do not understand in the U.S. and the peacefulness of our patience?
They will understand when we show them all the power and strength of our retaliation, in comparison with which September 11, 2000 they will seem child's play of teenage hooligans.
God knows we have suffered too long and waited. Now it's time to remind myself. This must be done in order to pay tribute to victims of genocide in order to strengthen the position of the current generation of the Armenian diaspora around the world as well - for future generations of Armenians, who will build the great Armenia. Build, with the support of the leading countries of the world, which should be based on fear of retaliation from our side.
1 Sergo Kirovabadski (12.03.2011)
We must destroy these Mongol-Tatar geeks Turkov.Chtob Azeri and they did not exist voobsche.Konechno this may not be achievable tsel.No least we should do so that when the word ARMENIAN resurrected in their memory, terrible scenes of massacres of Turks by the Armenians. In order to except from the past bloody corpses, they and their descendants did not remember the word nichego.Chtob ARMENIAN they spoke with horror in their hearts. That they knew that our people felt then, unfortunate and bloody. These children are dirty Turk dogs who deserve only the dog lives and relationships, as the dogs. It is time to awaken our people!
Some of us have let myself eat in the restaurant azerskih, family holiday in Turkey. We forget that just 20 years ago, the same cut our Azeris and Armenians raped our women. Our young people must be actively engaged, IN PARTICULAR SPORTS: Martial Arts, Swimming, melee fighting, Running, sport shooting, climbing. TEACH AZERSKY and Turkish. All this will give us a huge advantage to the enemy.
All the world is changing, and soon all of the cards will be in our hands. And then we will have to act, to act tough!!!! BROTHERS victory will be ours I BELIEVE! ASALA
Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA)
"Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia" was formed in 1975 in Lebanon, in response to historical injustice and impunity of the organizers of the Armenian Genocide of 1915 - failure to recognize the Genocide by Turkey and the occupation of Western Armenia. Main purpose is to restore the historical territory of Armenia, which includes eastern Turkey, northern Iran, Javakhk, Artsakh, Soviet Armenia (now the sovereign). armed action motivated by the need to force Turkey to recognize the Armenian genocide during World War II. January 19, 1995 ASALA issued a statement in which, commenting on the conditions of its creation, said that after 60 years after the Armenian genocide, Armenian youth, losing hope, "the conquest of their national rights" peacefully "forced to chose the path of armed struggle" to liberate Western Armenia, and for nearly two decades, "has consistently fought against Turkish tyranny, reviving the question of the Armenian lands" .
Prior to the official formation of ASALA in 1975, there were individual acts of: in 1972 the mining of the mailbox at the Turkish Embassy, January 27, 1973 in Santa Barbara (USA) at the "Baltimore" 78-year-old Gurgen Yanikyan, miraculously escaped during the genocide, 13 shots kills Turkish consul and vice consul. He was arrested, but later, because of age, was released, in 1974 in Beirut explosion in the Turkish Embassy. backbone ASALA were young patriots, who, inspired act Yanikyana create an organization named in honor of the latter - "Yanikyana Order," which was renamed after a few months in the Armenian Secret Army Liberation of Armenia. One of the founders of ASALA was Hakob Hakobyan, "Mujahid" (Harutyun Tagushyan (1951-1988)), and later murdered in the doorway of his home in Athens on April 28, 1988.
The beginning of the ASALA attack is January 20, 1975 at the "World Church Congress." Initially, the organization undertook attacks against Turkish diplomats in order to achieve a solution to the "Armenian Question", ie Turkish recognition of the historical fact of Armenian genocide. In a subsequent series of operations launched against the representatives of Western countries supporting Turkey and ASALA militants holding in custody.
October 3, 1980, after a premature bomb explosion at the Geneva hotel, were first arrested by members of ASALA - Alec and Susie Enigomshyan Mahseredzhyan. A year later, he died of cancer Hagop Taragchyan in 1975-80 years. carried out the dozens of bombings in Turkey. Among the best known attacks ASALA - 15 chasavoy capture of the Turkish consulate in Paris (24.09.1981), the seizure of the airport "Esenboga" in Ankara (07/08/1982), the explosion in the covered market in Istanbul (06.16.1983), the explosion of the Turkish Branch of the airport "Charles de Gaulle "in Paris (1983), a series of four explosions in Tehran (March 1984) and others. The magazine "Times" in 1983, wrote: "In the last decade, 36 Turkish diplomats were killed in different countries, four of them - in the U.S.. Battle groups seem to be highly professional, starting with the creation in 1975, the most famous of them - Armenian ASALA, trained at the bases of the Palestine Liberation Organization in Beirut.
For all time of the killing of more than 30 members of ASALA, dozens were arrested. The first was released Enigomshyan Alec, the last - Varoujan Karapetian (2001).
From 1980 to 1997. published by the official organ of ASALA - Multilingual illustrated magazine "Hayastan" ("Armenia"). Various branches of the Armenian National Movement (IDA), which supports the activities of ASALA, produced periodicals "Kaydzer", "Hay Paykar", "Azat Eye," "Nor Serund", etc.
Coat ASALA - Armenian Card Treaty of Sevres with the hand holding a Kalashnikov rifle. Slogans organization - "Armed struggle and the correct political line - the way to Armenia" and "Long live the revolutionary solidarity of oppressed peoples."
With the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and subsequent expulsion from the country of the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) ASALA moved to Syria. Subsequently, Hakob Hakobyan and his supporters have been formed relationships with the radical and anti-"PLO" cement Abu Nidal, which led to the end of 1982 to a cooling in relations with the PLO. Radical control measures, leading to mass casualties, in particular the operation in 1983 at Paris airport "Orly", killing eight and wounding 55 people, led to internal disputes between Hakob Hakobyan and Monte Melkonian.
In April 1983 the Armenian National Movement (France), and Armenian organizations in the UK and U.S. have made a plan to form a counterweight to the Democratic Front ASALA. The newly formed organization ASALA-Mouvement Revolutionnaire (ASALA-RM) under the direction of Monte Melkonian considered "blind" terrorism as harmful to the cause of the Armenian liberation. ASALA-RM acknowledge the action only against Turkish diplomatic targets and the government, the principle of "just do not recognize, thus supporting . "striking evidence of this support may be a fact of reburial of the remains of Talaat in Istanbul, with all the honors. Even the death sentence of the tribunal of the Turkish Republic in the 20s, did not prevent the Turkish government to do so.
From 1975 to 1986, ASALA has made more than 200 actions against the Turkish state. The main result of the organization was to attract international attention to the problem of the status of national minorities in Turkey, the condemnation by France, Canada, Australia and the European Parliament. During the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict, most fighters ASALA, including the legendary leader Monte Melkonian, forwarded to the Artsakh, which enter the ranks of the volunteer forces and lead a war of liberation against the occupation of Azerbaijani forces.
Group or Organization Orly Orly was created in 1981 by the Armenian youth living in France for release of arrested members of the Armenian militant organization ASALA. From 1981 to 1982 conducted several bombings that resulted in the implementation of specific claims made. Until 1987 the group was carried out over 10 terrorist attacks at airports in different countries, which led to serious consequences. In the ranks of the ASALA to the activities of the organization was very opposite, and has led to a split in 1983.
VAN Operation (Operation VAN) - military-terrorist operation to seize the Turkish Consulate in Paris (September 24, 1981). It is considered a peak in activity of the Armenian underground militant organization ASALA.
Four Armenian gunmen Group name Egia Keshishian (commander - Vazgen Sislyan) for 15 hours, occupied the Turkish Consulate in Paris. Upon entering the consulate, they are seriously wounded Consul Kaya Inal, and the representative of the security Semalya Ozena. Two militants were wounded in this case. The militants seized 56 hostages, some of them (the Armenians sympathized with the French) helped militants. As a result, the militants were allowed to send the wounded Inal and Ozena to the hospital where he died from wounds Ozen. When the demand to free militant "Armenian and some Turkish and Kurdish political prisoners in Turkey," was rejected (the main Armenian political prisoner - Manvel Erkatyan priest, at the request of the European powers yet been released), they were asked to "the status of political prisoners" and surrendered to the French authorities (at this part of the French hostages have suggested waiting until after Turkey does not fulfill the requirements of the Armenians).
All four militants were young Armenians from Lebanon, members of ASALA. In Paris, a show trial was held, attended by the hero of the French Resistance Malin Manushian - Misak Manushyan widow, the famous singer Liz Sarian, a lawyer militants was the next minister of justice in France. After "the defendants stand" got the whole room. Three of the militants were released in 1986 and moved to Armenia.
One of the militants - Aram Basmadzhyan, died in prison, and was buried in Pere Lachaise cemetery.
Statement by the President of France on national television was interrupted by live coverage of the Turkish Consulate. The operation and subsequent trial rocked not only the Armenian diaspora, but also French society, drawing his attention to the Armenian question. On this occasion, the French came out of the monograph and the movie, Turkey has accused France, "in support of Armenian terrorism."
In 2001 it was noted the 20th anniversary of Operation VAN.
Source: http://www.hayasala.com /via GoogleTranslate From Russian
Chronology of ASALA
January 20, 1975.
Lebanon, Beirut: During a press conference in 1978 the speaker of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA), announced that his group's first operation took place this January 20, 1975, when Beirut was blown up by the institution.
February 7, 1975.
Lebanon, Beirut: In building the Turkish news agency and the Bureau of Tourism had planted the bomb. In an attempt to defuse the bomb Lebanese policeman was wounded.
February 20, 1975.
Lebanon, Beirut: In front of the Turkish air transport company in Beirut kilogram bomb exploded, causing extensive damage.
October 28, 1975.
Lebanon, Beirut: The missile bombardment of the Turkish Embassy in Beirut has caused considerable damage.
February 16, 1976.
Lebanon, Beirut, a freedom fighter was killed by the First Secretary of Turkish Embassy in Beirut Oktar Sirit at a time when he sat in the waiting room at the Hamra Street.
March 2, 1977.
Lebanon, Beirut: Due to a powerful explosion were put out of cars belonging to the military attaché of Turkey (Nahit Karakaj) and attaché of Turkey to the administrative and economic matters (Ilhan Ozbabakan).
May 29, 1977.
Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey: A powerful bomb exploded at the Istanbul airport Eshilkey, resulting in five people were killed and 42 wounded (among them a U.S. citizen). The same day, a similar bomb exploded in Istanbul Sirkeci railway station, with one person killed and 10 wounded. It was heavily damaged station building.
December 17, 1978.
Switzerland, Geneva: There has been an explosion in the building of the Turkish air transport company in Geneva, which resulted in considerable damage.
August 22, 1979.
Switzerland, Geneva: The bomb was planted in the car Turkish Consul in Geneva, Niazi Adali. And although he was not injured, damaged two other cars and easily wounded two passers-porter.
October 4, 1979.
Denmark, Copenhagen: The bomb (left in the basket of securities) not far from the Turkish air transport company suffered two Danes, the explosion also caused a considerable damage.
October 30, 1979.
Milan, Italy: In an explosion the building has undergone considerable destruction of Turkish air transport company.
November 8, 1979.
Italy, Rome: The explosion severely damaged the building was the Turkish Embassy, where there was a tourism attaché.
November 25, 1979.
Spain, the Madrid bombing took place in front of the Madrid branch of the U.S. air transportation company and the company "British Airways". The organization ASALA, who took responsibility for the bombings said that it was a warning to John Paul to Paul about that he was canceling the planned visit to Turkey.
December 22, 1979.
Netherlands, Amsterdam: Major destruction occurred due to the explosion in front of the Turkish air transport company.
December 23, 1979.
Italy, Rome: There has been an explosion in front of the Centre for Refugees at the World Council of Churches (boarding Dean) in Rome. This center is used as a "staging" point for Armenian refugees from Lebanon. Responsibility for the bombing claimed by ASALA, warned Italian authorities to discontinue the "Diaspora."
December 23, 1979.
Italy, Rome: There have been three explosions in front of the Roman branch of the French air transport company and the U.S. air transportation company Trans World Air Lines, resulting in a lot of people passing by were wounded. Taking responsibility for the bombings, ASALA claimed that the bombs were planted "as a response to repressive attacks by the French authorities against Armenians living in France."
January 10, 1980.
Iran, Tehran: There has been an explosion in front of the Turkish air transport company, which entailed considerable damage.
February 18, 1980.
Italy, Rome: As a result of two explosions had damaged the building of three air transport companies ("Suis Eyre," "El Al" and "Luftganza"). Responsibility for the bombings claimed by ASALA. An anonymous phone call to the Roman News Agency reported that three airlines have been targets of attack for the following reasons:
A) "Suis Air" - as a warning to the Swiss government not to imprison innocent Armenians.
B) "Luftganza" - to punish the German government, which contributes to the Turkish fascism.
B) "El Al" - in connection with Zionism ...
July 31, 1980.
Greece, Athens: Attache Management at the Turkish Embassy in Athens Ghalib Ozman and his family, while in the car were attacked by Armenian fighters. Ghalib and his 14-year-old daughter Neslihan were killed. His wife, Sevil, and 16-year-old son, Kaan injured.
August 5, 1980.
France, Lyon: Two men stormed the Turkish consulate in Lyon and asked the doorman to show them the location of the consul. Then they opened fire, killing two witnesses were killed and several wounded.
August 11, 1980.
The United States of America, New York: "Two fake bombs" had been planted in front of the Turkish institutions (where the Turkish delegation to the UN Rights of the Turkish Consulate in New York). In a letter attached to one of the "bombs", stated that the purpose of this campaign - to remind the imperialist Turkish government about the crimes committed by them against the Armenian people.
September 26, 1980.
Paris, France: Double shot at the Turkish Embassy counselor for the press in Paris Selzhuka Bakalbashi when he went to his home. Bakalbashi survived but was paralyzed due to injuries.
October 3, 1980.
Milan, Italy: Two Italians were injured in an explosion in front of the Turkish air transport company.
October 5, 1980.
Spain, Madrid: The explosion destroyed the building of Italian airline "Al Italia". 12 people were injured.
October 10, 1980.
Lebanon, Beirut: In West Beirut before the Swiss institutions have been made explosions.
October 12, 1980.
United Kingdom of Great Britain, London: The blast damaged the building were Turkish Bureau of Tourism and Information in London.
November 9, 1980.
France, Strasbourg: The explosion had severely damaged the building of the Turkish Consulate in Strasbourg.
November 19, 1980.
Italy, Rome: The explosion had damaged the building, which housed the representatives of the Tourism Bureau of the Turkish Embassy and Turkish air transport company.
March 4, 1981.
Paris, France: Two men opened fire on Roshatu Morals (Labour Attache at the Turkish Embassy in Paris), Teselli Ari (the person in charge of religious affairs at the embassy) and Ilkaev Karakoshu (representative of "Anadolu Bank" in Paris) at the time, When they came out of Morals and sat in their cars. The first bullet caught up with Ari Teselli. Morals and Karakosh tried to flee. Morales, who wanted to hide in a cafe, was pushed into the street and shot the owner, while Karakoshu managed to escape. Fighters, which saw many people passing by, fled. Teselli Ari, who was seriously wounded early in the attack, he died the next day in a Paris hospital.
March 12, 1981.
Iran, Tehran: A group of suicide bombers attacked the Turkish embassy in Tehran, killing two security guard. Two of the bombers were caught by local authorities and later executed.
June 3, 1981.
The United States of America, Los Angeles, CA: Blast bomb on the "Anaheim Convention Center," has suspended a view that gave Turkish folk dance. In the following days, the threat of similar explosions in the San Francisco also made it impossible to view a group of Northern California.
November 3, 1981.
Spain, Madrid: Three people were injured in an explosion in front of the company "Suis Air" in Madrid.
January 13, 1982.
Canada, Toronto: The blast damaged the building of the Turkish Consulate in Toronto.
March 26, 1982.
Lebanon, Beirut: The Armenian quarter as a result of a powerful explosion destroyed a movie theater (which is often demonstrated Turkish films), two people were killed and over 16 injured.
April 8, 1982.
Canada, Ottawa Kani Gyungor, commercial attache at the Turkish Embassy in Ottawa, was seriously injured people who attacked him in the garage of his apartment.
May 26, 1982.
The United States of America, Los Angeles, California: The blast damaged the building of the Swiss corporation banks.
August 7, 1982. Operation "Karin"
Turkey, Ankara: Ankara airport was attacked by "Esenbozha," in which two men armed with a pistol and grenades, opened fire in the passenger waiting room, where there was a lot of people. The restaurant is one of the airport they seized 20 hostages, and the other in the meantime been arrested by the police. During a shootout with one of them, seized hostages, were killed 9 people (among them an American and a citizen of Germany). 82 people were injured. Responsibility for the attack claimed by ASALA. The detainee Levon Ekmekdzhyan was subsequently prosecuted, convicted and executed for his part in the attack.
January 22, 1983.
Paris, France: French police discovered a kg of explosives at the box office of Turkish Airlines at Orly Airport in Paris.
January 22, 1983.
Paris, France: Two men threw hand grenades Department of Turkish Airlines in Paris. As a result of the explosions no one was injured, and one of the men was arrested.
February 28, 1983.
Paris, France: A bomb exploded in the department of Turkish firms "Marmora Travel Eydzhensi" in Paris killed Ron Morin - French Secretary, and nine others wounded by the French. The explosion severely damaged the building.
March 31, 1983.
The Federal Republic of Germany, Frankfurt in the German branch of the Turkish newspaper "Terdzhuman" in Frankfurt there was an anonymous call from ASALA. The caller threatened to arrange an explosion, unless terminated against the publication of the "Armenian cause."
May 24, 1983.
Belgium, Brussels: explosions were carried out before the cultural and information centers of the Turkish Embassy and Turkish travel agencies ("Marmara") in Brussels. Director of the travel agencies, an Italian by birth, was wounded in the explosion.
June 16, 1983.
Turkey, Istanbul: Armenian soldiers have taken action at the world famous "covered bazaar of Istanbul." They were armed with hand grenades and automatic weapons. As a result of this action were killed: two Turks and one Armenian, and twenty-one people were injured.
July 15, 1983.
Paris, France: The Turkish Airlines offices in Paris Orly Airport in an explosion killed eight people. Among them, four Frenchmen, two Turks, one American and one Swede. In addition, 60 people were injured. Dvadtsatidevyatiletny Syrian Armenian named Varuzhan Karaptyan, who is head of the French branch of ASALA, admitted his involvement in the bombing, and the fact that the bomb was to be detonated on board the aircraft.
July 15, 1983.
United Kingdom of Great Britain, London: The bomb is the same as the one that exploded at Orly, discovered and defused before it exploded.
July 20, 1983.
France, Lyon received a threat to blow up the station at Lyon Perash rail, causing a hasty evacuation.
July 28, 1983.
France, Lyon: Once again came the threat that the station Perrash Lyon railway laid an explosive device. This led to the evacuation of the population. The caller said that a share is responsible ASALA. After a long search failed to find any explosive devices.
July 31, 1983.
France Lyon and the Rhine, received threats of bomb blast, caused the authorities to urgently landed two aircraft flying on domestic routes with 424 passengers on board. Aircraft landed in Lyon and the Rhine. When a search aircraft explosive devices were found.
August 10, 1983.
Iran, Tehran: car bombs exploded at the French embassy in Tehran.
August 17, 1983.
Iran, the Tehran representative of the "Air France" in Tehran was attacked in his car with automatic weapons.
August 27, 1983.
The Federal Republic of Germany: Department of the French Consulate hard hit by a bomb. The blast killed two men and twenty-three were wounded.
September 9, 1983.
Iran, Tehran: The Tehran embassy was blown up two cars. As a result of this action suffered two employees of the embassy.
October 29, 1983.
Lebanon, Beirut to the French Embassy in Beirut, a car pulled out of a man came out and threw a hand grenade into the hallway near the entrance of the embassy. He was detained by security forces, but his accomplices managed to escape.
February 8, 1984.
France, Paris: Received a warning, which states that an explosive device laid in the plane "Air France", departing at 13 pm in New York. The flight had to hold one and a half hours. A thorough search revealed no explosive device.
March 28, 1984.
Iran, Tehran has been made a series of planned attacks on Turkish diplomats in the Iranian capital Tehran. There were the following incidents:
a) Two shot and seriously wounded Ismaili Pamukchu. Senior sergeant was taken to the Turkish military attache in Tehran.
b) Hasan Servet Oktem, first secretary of the Ambassador of Turkey, was slightly wounded in an attempted assassination when he was leaving his home;
c) Ibrahim Ozdemir - Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy said the Iranian police about two suspicious-looking people standing in front of his house. They were detained by Iranian authorities;
d) At two o'clock the Iranian police have arrested three people who were in front of Turkish Embassy representative;
March 29, 1984.
The United States of America, Los Angeles, California: The Turkish Consulate in Los Angeles was delivered a letter containing a threat to the Turkish massacre of the athletes when they participate in the Los Angeles-based Olympic Games. The threat signed by ASALA.
April 8, 1984.
Lebanon, Beirut: Beirut ASALA has released a communique that warned all international airlines, with flights to Turkey that they will be treated as military targets.
April 26, 1984.
Turkey, Ankara: It was announced that Turkish Prime Minister Turgut Ozal had received a letter with the threat. In a letter to warn him that if he did not abandon the planned visit to Teheran, ASALA will undertake a series of actions against his country.
April 28, 1984.
Iran, Tehran: Two men on a motorcycle opened fire on a car driven by a Ishik Yonder, who drove his wife to the embassy Sadiye Yonder, where she worked as a secretary. As a result of this attempt Ishik Yonder died.
June 25, 1984.
United States: News Agency in Paris, received a letter signed by ASALA, in which she threatened raids on all government organizations and companies that are in some way will contribute to Turkey's participation in the Olympic Games in Los Angeles.
August 13, 1984.
France, Lyon at Lyon railway station was an explosion, causing minor damage.
December 25, 1984.
Lebanon, Beirut Two French buildings in East Beirut had been undermined.
January 3, 1985.
Lebanon, Beirut: Department of Agence France-Presse in West Beirut were seriously damaged in the explosion.
January 3, 1985.
Lebanon, Beirut: The detachment of military engineers discovered and destroyed six pounds of explosives buried near the entrance in the "Franco-Lebanese bank" in the Ramlet al-Baida West Beirut.
March 26, 1985.
Canada, Toronto: A threat to blow up the transportation system in Toronto came from Armenian organizations. This led to a massive increase security measures in Toronto. Traffic at peak hours during the survey clog the police station in search of an explosive device. Responsibility for the threat lies with the organization calling itself "The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of the Motherland."
March 17, 1986.
France, Lyon in Lyon-Paris Express, a bomb exploded.
January 20, 1987.
Greece, Athens: On the occasion of its twelfth anniversary of the ASALA has addressed from its headquarters in Athens, an appeal to the Armenians. The message, coming apparently from the political leadership of ASALA, located in Athens' Modern Armenian movement "refers to the names of the enemies of the Armenian people in the face of" Turkish fascist state and its supporting forces of international imperialism and Zionism ... ". Message ASALA is widespread in the Greek press, including pro-government English-language daily newspaper "Athens News", which publishes the excerpts from the communiqué of the ASALA.
February 11, 1987.
Lebanon, Beirut: Communique issued in the capital of Lebanon, the ASALA reaffirms the responsibility for the bombings in Paris in 1986. In the printed statement, delivered by mail in the Western news agency, Armenian organization, said: "France must take the steps and procedures necessary for the liberation of the Armenian and Arab patriots. The cease-fire, as a period of calm between us and the French government must reassure public opinion in our respect for the security interests of France and its people. Renewal of a wave of explosions in the streets of France, the French factories, airlines, marine facility will be regarded as sabotage ... "Then take ASALA claimed responsibility for bombings in Paris in 1986, and reiterates its demand for the release of Varoujan Karapetian.
Source: http://www.hayasala.com /via GoogleTranslate From Russian
Chronology of the "Group of 3 October"
October 3, 1980.
Switzerland, Geneva: The explosion injured two Armenian bombers, who were preparing a bomb in his hotel room in Geneva. Swiss police have arrested two: Heather Mahseredzhyana of Canosa Park, California, and Alexander Enikomechiyana. Their arrest was the reason for the formation of a new "branch" of ASALA (the group to which they belonged), called 'October 3 Organization', which subsequently attacked the Swiss institutions around the world.
October 12, 1980.
United Kingdom of Great Britain, London: The explosion damaged the Swiss shopping complex in central London. From phone calls to news agencies revealed that the explosion - the work "The organization of the 3rd October."
October 13, 1980.
France, Paris: The blast damaged the building of the Swiss tourist office in Paris. Responsibility has a band called "The organization of the 3rd October."
October 21, 1980.
Switzerland, Interleykn: The Swiss train from Paris to Interleykn was found unexploded bomb. The law enforcement agencies believe that the bomb was planted "by the 3rd October."
November 4, 1980.
Switzerland, Geneva: Swiss court building in Geneva, was heavily damaged in the explosion. Took responsibility for themselves, "Organization of 3rd October."
November 10, 1980.
Italy, Rome: 5 people were injured in the bombings of buildings of Swiss Air Transport Company in Rome, and the Swiss Office of Tourism. Responsibility for the explosions immediately took the "Organization of 3rd October." Subsequently, the same did ASALA and "Turko-Kurdish Working Group."
November 25, 1980.
Switzerland, Geneva: The explosion caused the building had suffered damage to the Union of Swiss Banks in Geneva, while the injured one person. Responsibility for the blast claimed "Organization 3rd October."
December 5, 1980.
France, Marseille in Marseille, police expert disarmed a bomb planted in the Swiss Consulate. The law enforcement agencies believe that the bomb was planted "by the 3rd October."
December 25, 1980.
Switzerland, Zurich: The explosion was incapacitated control radar unit at the airport in Kloten (Zurich). The second bomb on the main runway of the airport, was defused by a special squad of experts. Responsibility claimed "Organization 3rd October."
December 29, 1980.
Spain, Madrid was seriously injured Spanish reporter who was present during the investigation of the causes of the explosion in the building of "Suis Air" in Madrid (where he passed the information over the phone in his newspaper, the second bomb exploded, just close to that phone booth, where he was) . The responsibility for two explosions took the "Organization of 3rd October."
December 30, 1980.
Lebanon, Beirut in Beirut were blown up a building company, "Credit Suis". Responsibility for the blast claimed "Organization 3rd October."
January 2, 1981.
Lebanon, Beirut: The official statement in the press ASALA made a threat of "attacks on Swiss diplomats throughout the world." This statement was made in response to the alleged mistreatment of "Suzy End Alex," two of ASALA fighters imprisoned in Switzerland. January 4, ASALA published a statement that they are going to put all of their planned actions that do not meet the interests of the Swiss, to January 15, 1981
January 14, 1981.
France, Paris: There was an explosion in a car on finance adviser of the Turkish Embassy in Paris, Ahmed Erbeyli. Erbeyli himself was not injured, but the explosion is completely knocked out of his car and sustained serious damage to neighboring buildings. The group, calling itself the "Alex Enikomechiyana Squad" took responsibility for the blast.
January 27, 1981.
Milan, Italy: The explosions damaged buildings were of "Suis Air" and the Bureau of Tourism in Milan. Two passers-by were wounded Italians. Calling the local representatives of the media, "Organization 3rd October" has claimed responsibility for the blast.
February 3, 1981.
The United States of America, Los Angeles, CA: Special squad of experts from the Los Angeles area was defused by a bomb planted under a staircase at the entrance to the Swiss Consulate. An anonymous phone call to let them know that this work is "The organization of the 3rd October," and promised that such actions will continue until they have until they released "our friend" (Suzy Mahseredzhyana).
February 5, 1981.
France, Paris by a bomb, planted in the buildings of the U.S. air transportation company in Paris ("Granduorld Air Lines") and French airlines, one person was injured and had suffered considerable damage. The group, calling itself the "Armenian National Movement 3rd October," has claimed responsibility for the bombings.
August 20, 1981.
France, Paris: Early in the morning, an explosion occurred, which resulted in damage to the building of the Paris branch of "Al Italia", "Air Lines". An anonymous phone call informed that the responsibility for the blast takes on "The Organization of the Armenian movement of 3rd October."
August 22, 1981.
France, Paris: Early in the morning, an explosion occurred in front of the Paris branch of the company "Olympic Air Lines." An anonymous phone call informed that the responsibility of taking "the Armenian Organization 3rd October."
Source: http://www.hayasala.com /via GoogleTranslate From Russian
Chronology of the "Group June 9"
June 9, 1981.
Switzerland, Geneva: The Secretary of the Turkish Consulate in Geneva Mehmet Savas Ergyuz, leaving the consulate, was killed by an armed man. The murderer, named Dzhamgochyan Martyr, was arrested by the authorities. Responsibility for the attack claimed by ASALA. Arrest Dzhamgochyana inspired the formation of a new group of ASALA, called the "Organization of June 9," in an asset which subsequently were several explosions of Swiss institutions in Switzerland and other European countries.
June 19, 1981.
Iran, Tehran: small bomb explosion in the building of the Tehran branch of the company "Suis Air" has led to a lung injury. Responsibility for the explosion claimed a group of ASALA "The organization of the 9th of June."
June 26, 1981.
The United States of America, Los Angeles, CA: In front of the Swiss banking corporation in Los Angeles, exploded a small bomb. Responsibility for this has taken the "Organization of the 9th of June."
July 19, 1981.
Switzerland, Bern: There was a bomb, laid in a trash can in the building of the Swiss parliament in Bern. Later, an anonymous caller reported that a work "of the 9th of June."
July 20, 1981.
Switzerland, Zurich: There has been an explosion in fotoavtomate International Airport in Zurich. Responsibility claimed "The organization of the 9th of June."
July 21, 1981.
Switzerland, Lausanne: The explosion in the department of women's clothing store in Lausanne 20 shoppers were injured. Responsibility for the explosion claimed the group ASALA "The organization of the 9th of June."
July 22, 1981.
Switzerland, Geneva: 4 people were injured when a bomb planted in unattended luggage at the train station in Geneva. The law enforcement agencies place the responsibility for the attack on the "Organization of the 9th of June."
August 11, 1981.
Denmark, Copenhagen: The explosion of two bombs were destroyed by the building company "Suis Air" in Copenhagen. One American tourist was wounded. Responsibility for the explosion took on themselves the "Organization of the 9th of June."
August 20, 1981.
The United States of America, Los Angeles, California: There has been an explosion of a small explosive device in front of the Swiss Precision Instruments corporations in Los Angeles. Responsibility for the explosion claimed a group of ASALA "The organization of the 9th of June."
September 17, 1981.
Iran, Tehran: The blast damaged the building of the Swiss Embassy in Tehran. Responsibility has taken a group of ASALA "The organization of the 9th of June."
October 3, 1981.
Switzerland, Geneva: The explosion destroyed the building and the Municipal Court Glavpochty Geneva. It turned out that this court had held the trial for the murder committed by a member of ASALA. Responsibility for the bombing, in which one person was slightly injured, took the group of ASALA "The organization of the 9th of June."
Source: http://www.hayasala.com /via GoogleTranslate From Russian
Chronology of the "Group of 24 September"
September 24, 1981. Operation "Van"
Paris, France: Four suicide bombers have taken the Armenian Turkish consulate in Paris. Upon entering the consulate, they are seriously wounded Consul Kaya Inal, and the representative of the security Semalya Ozena. Soldiers seized 56 hostages. Two of them with minor injuries. As a result, they are allowed to send the wounded Inal and Ozena to the hospital where he died from wounds Ozen. When the demand death to release the "Armenian political prisoners in Turkey," was rejected, they asked for "the status of political prisoners," and surrendered to French authorities. All four of them were Armenians from Lebanon, members of ASALA.
October 25, 1981.
Italy, Rome was attacked by the Second Secretary of Turkish Embassy in Rome Gekberka Erdzhenekona. Wounded in the arm Erdzhenekon out of the car and returned fire on the gunman. As the wounded man managed to escape from the scene. ASALA claimed responsibility for the attack committed in honor of the "suicide squad on September 24th," that is in honor of the ASALA fighters who had occupied the Turkish Consulate in Paris.
October 25, 1981.
Paris, France: As a result of explosions in the upscale French restaurant, "Fuchs" on Shamz Eliza (Champs Elysees), injured three workers. Responsibility for the explosion claimed the group "September France."
October 26, 1981.
France, Paris: There was a bomb in the car, especially planted in the fashionable drugstore Shamz Eliza (Champs Elysees). Responsibility for the explosion claimed the group "September France."
October 27, 1981.
France, Paris: The explosion in the parking lot at the Paris airport "Roissy" was put out of action standing beside a car. Responsibility for the explosion claimed the group "September France."
October 27, 1981.
Paris, France: The second bomb exploded in a trash can near a crowded escalator at the airport "Roissy". Victims of the explosion was not. Responsibility has taken a group of "September France."
October 28, 1981.
Paris, France: Three people were injured in an explosion in a crowded Parisian theater. Responsibility has taken a group of "September France."
Source: http://www.hayasala.com /via GoogleTranslate From Russian
Chronology of the "Group of Orly"
November 5, 1981.
France, Paris: The Paris train station "Gare de Lyon", an explosion occurred in which one person was injured, were significantly damaged luggage storage. Subsequently, responsibility for the blast took Armenian organization calling itself the "Organization of Orly."
November 12, 1981.
Lebanon, Beirut bomb exploded at the same time in front of three French institutions in Beirut:
A) French Cultural Center;
B) The building of "Air France";
B) House of the French consul.
At the same time no one was hurt, there was only caused considerable material damage. Took responsibility for themselves, "Orly Organization."
November 14, 1981.
France, Paris: The explosion damaged the machine was standing near the Eiffel Tower in Paris. On the phone, it was reported that the responsibility lies with the explosion of "Orly Organization", and that it was a "first warning".
November 14, 1981.
Paris, France: A group of tourists disembark after a trip on the river Seine, was greeted with a flurry of grenades. No one was injured. Responsibility for the attack has taken the "Orly Organization."
November 15, 1981.
France, Paris 'Orly Organization', speaking in the press, threatened to blow up in the air plane belonging to the company "Air France".
November 16, 1981.
Paris, France: Two people injured in a bomb planted in the luggage room in the building of the railway station in Paris' Gare de Leste, "which also brought damage to property. Responsibility for the blast claimed "Orly Organization."
November 18, 1981.
France, Paris' Orly Organization 'announced that the building of the railway station in Paris' Gare du Nord "planted the bomb. However, there are no explosive devices were found.
January 17, 1982.
France, Paris: The Paris branch of the Association of Banks, an explosion occurred: the second bomb was defused in the department of "Credit Lyon." The responsibility assumed 'Orly Organization. "
January 19, 1982.
Paris, France: In Paris, the building company "Air France" at the Palace of Congress, an explosion occurred, which is responsible for the claimed "Orly Organization."
July 21, 1982.
Paris, France: 16 people were injured in an explosion near a crowded Parisian cafe nation on the area of St. Sevrin. Responsibility for the blast claimed "Orly Organization", which stated that it was retribution for the fact that the French authorities did not keep his "promise to grant political asylum to four soldiers, seized September 24, 1981 the Turkish Consulate."
July 26, 1982.
Paris, France: Two women were injured in an explosion in Paris' "Pub Saint-Germain." The responsibility assumed 'Orly Organization. "
July 22, 1983.
Iran, Tehran: two explosions were carried out at the French Embassy and Mission, "Air France" in Tehran. ASALA claimed that the responsible action 'Orly Organization. "
July 29, 1983.
Iran, Tehran: Received a threat to blow up the French Embassy in Tehran missile attack. Tehran authorities had to increase security. The threat came from "Orly Organization", which requires the release of 21 Armenian prisoners in France.
October 1, 1983.
France, Marseille in a bomb blast were damaged pavilions of the USSR, the United States and Algeria at the International Trade Fair. As a result, killed one person and wounding twenty-six. "Orly Organization 'claimed responsibility.
October 6, 1983.
Iran, Tehran: A car was blown up by the French embassy in Tehran. Two passengers were injured in the explosion. "Orly Organization 'claimed responsibility for the attack.
March 3, 1985.
Paris, France: An anonymous phone call that belongs to the representative of ASALA threatens prosecution French interests around the world. Call in the Agency France-Presse, is addressed to the French authorities in connection with the sentencing of three soldiers who participated in actions at Orly.
March 20, 1986.
France, Paris: Explode an explosive device planted in the building of the Paris shopping mall. Two were killed and 30 wounded. For this action is responsible KSAMEPP, reiterated the demand to release Varoujan Karapetian, who was convicted in the case of an explosion at the offices of Turkish Airlines at Orly airport.
September 4, 1986.
France, Paris: The detonator of an explosive device planted in the Paris train, did not work, and very explosive device was defused after all passengers were evacuated. KSAMEPP claimed responsibility for the attack, reiterating the requirement to release three members of ASALA, including Varoujan Karapetian.
September 9, 1986.
France, Paris: building "Paris City Hall," shook from the explosion. Postal Service employee was killed and 18 other people wounded. Responsibility for the bombing claimed KSAMEPP, reiterated its demand for release from detention Varoujan Karapetian and two other members KSAMEPP.
10-15 September 1986.
Paris, France: A series of bombings in Paris led to the death and injury to two hundred people. KSAMEPP claimed responsibility for the bombings themselves.
September 16, 1986.
France, Paris: Five people were killed and 52 injured in a bomb planted in the quarter KSAMEPP fighters of Paris Montparnasse. They repeated their demand for release from jail Varoujan Karapetian, and two others from the organization KSAMEPP.
October 9, 1986.
Lebanon, Beirut ASALA delivered to Western news agency in Beirut, the handwritten statement, warning of tougher measures against France, if Varoujan Karapetian and two other fighters will not be released. The document states that the ASALA focus its attacks on the French aircraft, airports, ships, trains and diplomats in retaliation for police raids on apartments of Armenians in France. Then they portend France, shaking her "additional explosions that cause more extensive damage and horrific consequences" if Karapetyan will not be released to the St.
Source: http://www.hayasala.com /via GoogleTranslate From Russian
Armenian Revolutionary Army (ARA)
The Armenian Revolutionary Army
Manifesto I. 1983
ALL THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD public and the press. WE - SONS OF ARMENIAN NATION
Our decision to resort to violence is the result of the refusal of Turkish government and the sponsors of his forces to consider just and peaceful demands of the Armenian people.
The neglect and cynicism of Turkey and the international community with respect to the principles of justice and international law are increasingly lead us to believe that the only remaining way to achieve our fair trial is an armed struggle.
For decades, the Armenian people with the hope of expecting justice from the international community in addressing the Armenian Question. The Armenians have taken all peaceful means, organizing marches, demonstrations, rallies, repeatedly referring to memoranda to the United Nations and powerful countries. However, all ended in vain. Failed to achieve any tangible results in the recognition of political and territorial rights of the Armenian people, wall of silence erected around our Court, was tightly closed.
And now, due to the neglect of the Armenian issue and the failure to resolve it peacefully, we have decided to force Turkey to begin negotiations with the Armenian people of the decision of the Armenian Question.
Let the Turkish state and its allies refuse to acknowledge the genocide and the rights of Armenians.
Let the international public opinion call us adventurers, criminals or terrorists.
All of this for us is irrelevant.
We know our business. We also know how to act in the future.
Freedom-loving and revolutionary Armenian youth is determined to not let the enemy rest.
The only means of ensuring self-determination of our people - the armed struggle.
Having lost everything, even the identity, we have, fortunately, to keep the revolutionary tradition.
And now we have decided to blow up the building of silence around the Armenian Question - let us remain under its ruins.
No, this is not a suicide and madness, and our sacrifice to the altar of Freedom.
Long live the freedom-loving people of Armenia!
Long live the Armenian Revolution!
Long live the Armenian Revolutionary Army!
ALL THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD public and the press
In the last decade, military action military forces of the Armenian diaspora were made to revive constantly ignored by the international community of the Armenian Question, break the silence, built around it, and restore the homeland of the Armenian people, providing opportunities scattered all over the world the exiled Armenians to return to their country.
This overall objective guides all parts of the organization of porridge. We decided to all possible means to fight against the oppressive Turkish government.
The Armenian issue is left as a legacy immoral chauvinistic governments and the Ottoman Empire, including the current government, headed by a military tyrant Kenenom Evren.
Today, there are obvious historical and other facts proving the planned and organized the genocide carried out against Armenians by the Turkish government in 1915 and in subsequent years, more than 1.5 million Armenians were slaughtered and destroyed, "to resolve the Armenian question", as cynically declared himself Talat Pasha. Armenian provinces were completely emptied and cleaned by the indigenous Armenian population was plundered all the property of the people.
After World War I, despite the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, under the leadership of Kemal Ataturk and the Turkish Republic continued massacres, looting and forced relocation of the Armenians. The new national government has continued the extermination of the Armenians, with a goal to complete the implementation of the plans of his predecessors - to destroy the Armenians and to form a homogeneous, Turkic, population.
After the genocide committed with the connivance of the German government's inability to intervene in and indifference allies after enormous sacrifices in World War I, Armenians were born - as a result of Allied assurances about the decision of the Armenian Question - hope for the restoration of justice through the implementation of the Treaty of Sevres. Participating in the Sevres negotiations the parties came to conclusions that meet the aspirations of the Armenian people. They envisaged the return of confiscated property and the Armenians to establish penalties responsible for the genocide. However, political infighting and competition among the allies of the Treaty of Sevres was sentenced to death, and was then signed the shameful Treaty of Lausanne, which had betrayed the Armenian issue to oblivion.
The heir to the Ottoman Empire, today's Turkey, denies any responsibility for the atrocities committed by refusing to take responsibility for pecuniary damage and restore the human rights of the Armenian people.
This situation has caused deep resentment among the Armenians. Crimes of this magnitude should be subject to unconditional condemnation and punishment, as the League of Nations, and in the future - the United Nations took the decision of the Armenian-Turkish conflict. However, the right of innocent and peaceful people are ignored and sacrificed to political pragmatism.
However, security and peace in the world would be unthinkable, yet found a fair solution to restore the rights of oppressed peoples, which include the freedom-and the revolutionary people of Armenia.
Turkey carried out the genocide still remains unpunished and unconvicted, should be condemned. Moreover, the Armenian people must be brought to compensation for the damage it moral and material damage. "The Armenian Question" is based on the law of the Armenian people for independence and freedom to live and develop on their lands, the lands where their ancestors lived, possessing all the national and social rights.
The world community should be interested in ensuring the rights of the Armenian people rights.
The Armenians are waiting for justice.
The Armenians are fighting for Justice!
Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG)
Fighters for Justice for the Armenian Genocide
In December 1972 in Vienna was convened by the 20 Congress of the Party "Dashnaktsutiun." Already in the form of organization of the Congress felt that it had to be special, life-changing. The delegates did not know where to go. Arriving in one of the cities where they were sent, they got a ticket to Vienna. In other words, this secrecy was talking about the fact that the issues discussed at the congress, will not be for the general public. Indeed, Congress was historic. It was decided to return to the revolutionary traditions of the party, which in turn led to the need for full renovation of party cadres. The party came out of the clubs and churches to the political arena, where she needed a new type of shots. It was decided to revise the party program, and in relation to the political line was an important decision that the Armenian people in solving their political problems should be based only on their own and do not become an appendage of either the western or eastern policy. But what you can do on its own among the experienced politicians of the world for a country that was a member of NATO and, to a fawning Soviet regime, hoping thereby to weaken its ties with the U.S.? First, it was necessary to find out: why did the Armenian question, or its content in a more specific sense - the Armenian genocide is completely excluded from the moral and the political sphere. In this part of the debate within the party were, but they all boiled down to two main lines:
A. The world does not know about the heinous crime that was committed against the Armenians in 1915. Enough to talk about it, to find and publish documents on the genocide, and the conscience of the world tremble with fear. Then the world's intellectuals, human rights groups, who consider themselves the moral arbiters, the governments and parliaments will defend the rights of disadvantaged Armenians.
Two. The world knows about what happened in the fateful year 1915, but he is silent on the basis of political considerations.
So, should clarify which version is correct, to develop a control strategy. To answer this question Dashnak Party has created a research group, which later evolved into the so-called "agencies on the Armenian issue."
These groups soon found out the following picture. Documents on the genocide of the archives are full of different countries. The world's press in 1915, wrote a lot about the Armenian genocide. This article does not cost anything to collect and publish again in the form of the collections (which was done later). But now the press is not involved in the Armenian issue, since this question does not interest anyone. The most heartbreaking documents can not be interested in the modern reader, because the Armenians and the Armenian issue has long been found in archives and museums, and no role in modern life can not play. As politicians, they are really for political reasons do not want to hurt your partner for NATO - Turkey and, more importantly, can not imagine what kind of role for the Armenians in their political calculations, if this nation for 50 years does not exist as a nation politically .
Control strategy suggests itself: it is necessary to interest the media, becoming the "interesting" people, and show the international diplomacy that the Armenians are a nation politically, and if desired it can be taken into account in some political calculation. If we could achieve such a situation, it would be great moral pressure on Turkey. pressure was necessary, not because it was the beginning of the national liberation struggle, not because it was any hope for recognition of Armenian Genocide by Turkey (as many naively believed), but in order only to the Armenian issue became a subject of discussion in international bodies.
October 22, 1975 in Vienna, was killed by the Turkish Ambassador to Austria, Danis Tunalygil. After two days in Paris, was killed by the Turkish Ambassador in France, Ismail Erez. Together with the ambassador was killed and his driver. Representatives of the Turkish Embassy in Austria said that the terrorist attack in Paris confirms their assumption that the murder of Turkish Ambassador to Austria, has a purely politically motivated. The Turkish government has taken drastic measures to ensure the safety of its diplomats abroad. As reported by the newspaper "Hurriyet", the Turkish government sent abroad for special state security forces. Government of Turkey at a special meeting discussed the terrorist attacks, after which the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey Chaglyyangil said that the killing of two Turkish envoys in the past two days is an organized action against Turkey .
Who organized this stock? Soon the political arena, there was an organization that has been the author of this and the ensuing attacks on Turkish diplomats. That organization had a very difficult translated title: "Champions of Justice in respect of the Armenian genocide."
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Some Shares "JCAG"
June 7, 1977. Italy. Killed by the Turkish Ambassador to the Vatican.
June 2, 1978. Spain. Secretary killed by the Turkish ambassador and the ambassador's wife.
October 12, 1979. Netherlands. Killed by the Turkish ambassador's son.
February 6, 1980. Switzerland. Killed by the Turkish Ambassador.
April 17, 1980. Italy. Seriously wounded a Turkish ambassador.
October 12, 1980. New York City. Blown up by a Turkish cultural center.
December 17, 1980. Australia. Killed by the Turkish consul-general and his bodyguard.
April 3, 1981. Copenhagen. The Turkish officer seriously wounded, died in hospital.
January 28, 1982. Los Angeles. Killed by the Consul General of Turkey.
May 4, 1982. Boston, MA. Killed by a Turkish consul.
June 7, 1982. Portugal. Killed by Turkish military attache.
September 9, 1982. Bulgaria. Killed by a Turkish officer.
March 9, 1983. Belgrade. Killed by the Turkish Ambassador to Yugoslavia.
July 14, 1983. Brussels. Killed by a Turkish officer.
July 27, 1983. Lisbon. Five Armenian Turkish Embassy took the feed and when they were attacked by the police, they blew themselves up. Along with them are killed in the embassy.
June 20, 1984. Vienna. Killed a Turkish diplomat.
September 3, 1984. At the heart of Istanbul, a bomb exploded prematurely. Killed two Armenian feed.
November 19, 1984. Vienna. Killed by the Turkish representative at the UN.
March 12, 1985. Canada. Armenians attacked the Turkish embassy feed. The attack was repelled protection. The ambassador jumped from the second floor, breaking his leg.
The victims were, of course, from the Armenian side. Turkish intelligence managed to steal one of the leaders of the Armenian feed - Aschyana Abo, who died under torture. Several feed was in prison, some were killed in bomb tests. In short, "the war - as war na ': were killed, wounded, captured, which blew up themselves.
Of course, these events rocked the world community. But in many ways to respond to them, Armenians, Turks and Europeans. For Europeans, surprisingly it was not. They are used to the fact that the range of fire and that all the shooting in general, indeed, lead the political fight for something or against something. Fires Basque ETA, "the Irish Republican Army", was shot, "Liberation Army of Palestine", a group Baader-Maynkopfa, the Italian "Red Brigades", the French organization "Direct Action", the Kurds, the Shiites of Lebanon, Afghans, Sikhs, Tamils, and many others. And there was nothing surprising in the fact that their number has now joined the and the Armenians. But Europeans were interested to know why this is suddenly peaceful Armenians rebelled. And the press has responded to this question of. It is here, and confirmed that all preserved in the archives that the documents on the Armenian genocide is no shortage, but Armenians were not politically significant nation, so these archives press is not addressed. Now, after the first shots were fired and the first Turkish blood puddles on the streets of big cities, the press was surprisingly talkative: newspapers wrote about the Armenian genocide, Armenian history, the Soviet Armenia. For several years, the Western press wrote about the Armenians as much as not writing for 50 years.
Writing, not realizing that this is what the Armenian revolutionaries sought.
It should be noted that, beginning in August 1983 changed the name of the Armenian feed their organization. She became known as the "Armenian Revolutionary Army", for short - APA
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Monte "Avo" Melkonian (1957-1993)
Monte Melkonian was born November 25, 1957 in Varseliya, near the city of Fresno (California, USA). In 1969 the family moved to Spain to Monte. After school, Monte traveled to Turkey to see the land of his ancestors, and then to Lebanon. Returning to the United States, he enrolled at the University of Berkeley in the specialty "archeology" and "the history of Asia." An internship in Japan. In 1975 he was assigned to teach in Armenian schools in Iran and Lebanon. He owned seven languages, and the degree of Candidate of Historical Sciences.
With his wife Gray, a native of Lebanon, met in early 1979. Marriage entered August 3, 1991
Monte participated in the civil war in Lebanon on the side of the right-Christian groups (late 70s - early 80-ies), in fighting against Israeli troops (1982). In the spring of 1980 has joined the group of Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA). Monte planned and organized the operation of Van (the capture of the Turkish Embassy in France, September 24, 1981), a number of other operations against Turkish facilities in European countries. Because of the controversy associated with the methods of struggle ASALA, in particular after the explosion at the airport "Charles de Gaulle" in 1983, killing eight civilians, Monte separated from the supporters of Mr. Hakobyan and formed a new faction ASALA-RM ("The revolutionary movement ASALA") .
On his arrest in 1981 for the murder of the Turkish Ambassador in Rome, ASALA said fifteen explosions, and a month later Melkonian released.
In November 1985 Monte arrested in Paris for the second time on charges of illegally crossing the border, the possession of firearms, and forgery, was sentenced to six years in prison (actually served 3.5 years).
In 1989. freed from prison Monte aspire to Armenia, which can only in 1990. First arriving in Artsakh in September 1991, the very next day Monte Melkonian included in the battle for the village Buzlukh, Manashid, Erkedzh Shahumyan region. He became chief of staff Kornidzorskogo squad. After a brief absence, he returned to Karabakh in the Martuni region.
Summer 1992. was the most difficult time for Artsakh. The enemy, who has multiple advantages in manpower and materiel in the huge, with the help of mercenaries advancing on all fronts. Azerbaijani army tried to take the village at any cost Machkalashen deemed Artsakh's southern gateway, and then advance to Shusha. However, near the village Machkalashen Azerbaijani army was faced with a detachment of the Monte. The enemy was stopped, suffered heavy losses in manpower and technology. The threat of Artsakh from the South had been eliminated. Soon Avo headed Martuni defensive area. Another year, he fought valiantly to defend Martuni region of Nagorno Karabakh. During this time, the Armenian units in the Martuni region, as he liked to say Monte, "did not give a single inch of our land." Monte participated in the defense and liberation battles in almost all parts of NKR, winning national love and respect.
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Armed Forces of NKR Monte Melkonian one of the most brilliant, talented and experienced commanders, was killed June 12 in the 1993 s. Marzilu under strange circumstances.
Buried in the cemetery of heroes "Yerablur" in Yerevan.
For outstanding achievements in organizing the protection of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, bravery and personal courage was posthumously awarded the highest title of the NKR "Hero of Artsakh", becoming a Knight of the "Golden Eagle". The name assigned to Monte Melkonian Armenian armed forces of a military unit, university and school in Yerevan, the bridge, a charitable trust.
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STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE OF 1915:
Almost a century after the Armenian genocide has expired. But today the consequences of this terrible attack feel of Armenia, the Armenian people, and every Armenian. Rehabilitation and improvement of Armenia and the Armenian people will require a lot of time. What was the genocide of the Armenians for the future, what are our losses, as reflected in the genocide of our current reality? These questions, surprisingly, in a dignified manner is not known. More precisely, we gave them, mainly emotional responses and assessed the Armenian genocide and its aftermath in the aspect of political and strategic criteria.
Draw a picture of losses, casualties and the consequences of genocide, whose impact is felt to this day.
A. The loss of living space
Prior to 1915 the living space of the Armenian ethnic group over five thousand years, encompassing the entire territory of the Armenian Plateau, ie throughout historic Armenia. In geo-strategic aspect of this vast territory of more than 350,000 square kilometers like a huge fortress, which has a number of "fortified areas," each of which alone can ensure its protection. Capture of foreign invaders of one or more of these defensive areas is not meant capturing the whole of Armenia, as concentrated in other areas of the Armenian forces were able to regroup, and then, in good time, went over to the offensive, and again became masters of the occupied territory.
Later, in the most difficult times in the XV-XIX centuries, when the Armenian statehood was abolished, and the Armenian armed forces have been largely destroyed and removed from the arena (small military units were able to survive only in isolated mountain areas), the main guarantee of the existence of the country of Armenia was demographic factor - maintaining the majority ethnic Armenians in the territory. As a result of the Tatar-Mongol and Turkmen hiking or Turkish-Persian wars ruined any part of Armenia, sometimes becoming deserted, after a short time, the Armenians from other regions of Armenia once again inhabited and mastered their native land, piously believing that sooner or later the country will gain freedom , independence, economic and military power.
Regions and districts of Armenia were not just a territory, and five thousand years of living space and the homeland. The worst consequence of the genocide is that the Armenians severed and deleted from their living space. In strategic terms, habitat loss has deprived the Armenians of their former ability to have multiple defensive lines. Armenia has remained small - only a lonely castle. It is no longer possible to retreat and regroup. Armenia is no longer entitled to any one loss. Otherwise, it will be the end of Armenia, and, perhaps, of the Armenian nation.
Two. Cultural losses
Incalculable loss of our culture. It's not just individual churches, and various unique architectural monuments and buildings, but also created on this earth for millennia fortresses, towns, villages, tens of thousands of manuscripts, which are summarized in the genius and knowledge of the Armenian people. Here is the mere fact that today all over the world kept many of the Armenian manuscripts, many were destroyed during the genocide, were destroyed and sunk into oblivion, and invaluable information secret, depriving us of the spiritual heritage of ancestors, severing us from their minds and spirit.
Three. Material losses
The confiscation and looting of property and property of the Western Armenians subjected to genocide, put them in a position where they are, rather than creative work in favor of strengthening and enriching the collective national life, had, individually, through hard work to provide basic physical existence svoihsemey.
4. Psychological Trauma
In psychological terms the loss of living space deprived the Armenians of daily contact with natural and man-made national symbols, thereby eliminating the possibility of a natural spiritual development of the Armenian nation. At the same time, the genocide of Armenians spawned many inferiority complexes - lack of confidence in the future of the nation, in some cases even samofobiyu, ie denial of national interests and values, reverence for all foreign.
Five. The destruction of the people - leadership of organized communities and structures
During the genocide of Armenians were killed not only the huge crowds, but people who were united and organized around their centuries-old structures. Were subjected to destruction of the community, churches, schools, numerous and varied structure and organization of the Armenian, finally - a guide of the Armenian nation, including political, intellectual and cultural elite. Human mass without linking their structures are no longer people, and individuals. After the genocide, scattering all over the world, only a small part of the Armenian diaspora was able to once again rally around the newly established national structures. The rest of the Armenians who had taken refuge in a foreign country was involved in alien structure and gradually assimilated. In Soviet Armenia and the Armenians were organized around the Anational structures and ideologies, and to a large extent been subjected to cultural denationalization (in particular the political and intellectual elite).
Destruction of Armenian national structures was one of the important objective factors which are not allowed to find themselves in a strange land fragments of the Armenians to organize themselves into a single, unifying all Diaspora.
6. Casualties (the human toll of the Armenians in the 20th century)
To understand the problems facing today's Armenians must clearly understand not only the horrific results of the genocide, but also the tragedies plaguing our nation throughout the last century. Loss of life during these disasters have affected not only by the number of our nation, but also on its total quality (in particular, introducing a so-called Armenian mass psychology of the "survival", the preference in all personal and family interests).
Conducted in four stages Armenian genocide, from 1894 to 1922., Destroying the Armenian civilization in most of its autochthonous area, took the lives of over 2,000,000 people (about 300,000 Armenians were killed in the 1894-96 years., 1.5 million in 1915-16 years., about 300,000 in 1918-1922.).
Proclaimed in 1920-1921. in the central part of Eastern Armenia, a small Soviet Armenia, a seventy-year period of relative peace and sustainable development, was able to provide significant advances in the field of economy and culture. But during the same time the Armenians suffered enormous loss of life. For example, in 1920 1921gg. was arrested almost the entire Armenian officer corps, tempered in the period of independence in the national spirit. In the 1930's. bolshevistkih victim of repression was the color of Armenian intellectuals, along with thousands of ordinary citizens.
In 1941-1945. in World War II was attended by about 600,000 Armenians, of whom about 300,000 were killed. To imagine how this figure is terrible for the Armenian people's scanty, is sufficient to note that during the Second World War, the United States and Great Britain lost nearly as much, respectively - 291,557 and 357,116 dead.
Organized by the Stalinist regime in the 1949 deportation of Armenians from Armenia in the Altai region has led to thousands of new losses. Favorable period of unprecedented stability and economic growth was the time from 1954 to 1988. However, since 1988, the existence of the Armenian nation in this last fragment u1086 Armenia was again called into question, Spitak earthquake claimed the lives of 25-30 thousand people and completely destroyed nearly a third of the country, including large Armenian town of Gyumri and Vanadzor. In the follow-Karabakh war killed about 10,000 Armenians. Accompanied by all of this emigration, has not ceased to this day. From Armenia have already had left over a million people.
Unfortunately, the genocide was followed by a long-term period, during which the Armenian just banned openly talk about their sacrifices and losses, think of ways to recover. It should be noted that Soviet Armenia became a form of statehood (no matter how hard to ascribe to it such functions), and was ideologically colonized and alien to the national values of the quasi-gosudarstsvennoy unit particle of a powerful empire, with its Anational party-state elite. Soviet Armenia could not (and could not imagine) to overcome the consequences of genocide, including the most important thing - the restitution of Armenian native territories, or at least parts of them (whether in Eastern or Western Armenia), which only could ensure the safe development of the Armenian nation in the event of a possible collapse the Soviet empire. Was not, and could not be resolved the question of another exhausting effects of the genocide - are constantly taking place in the Diaspora, the process of assimilation - the "white genocide."
Recourse to organized struggle for the restoration of national rights of the Armenians came rather late, only since the 1960s. Such a waste of time cost is expensive - during which time tens of thousands of Armenians were victims of "white genocide", and the enemy is even more appreciated by the conquered positions.
It is natural and understandable that such territorial, religious, cultural, material and human losses were to have an impact on the general intellectual and moral potential of the nation. However, these unfortunate facts should inspire us, for it is hardly found other people who managed to survive it all and does not disappear from the face of the earth. So, our nation has unparalleled potential and will to live, which is an urgent need to engage and oppose the forces and attitudes, propagators of defeatism, and even the voluntary renunciation of independence.
The Byzantine heritage
No. 3, 2002, p. 15-17
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