On the problem of adoption of the Turkic ethnonym)
By Professor Firidun Agasyoglu Jalilov [an excerpt from ‘Doqquz Bitik’ book]
. . .
It was a serious mistake to use such names as Armenia/Arman and Hayastan as synonyms in historiography till 1920 because these are 2 different geographical areas and each received its name in different historical periods. Moreover, the two names did not belong to one and the same ethnos.Armenia and Arman are both ethnotoponyms, but the latter belonged to an ancient Turkic tribe of Central and Minor Asia whereas Hayastan is a name of a state (present Armenia) and belongs to an Indo-European ethnos hay (erroneously named Armenians). To understand which of originally Turkic ethnotoponyms with a component Armand/Erman were spread from Asia Minor to Altai it is necessary to look through some of them (19):
Ermen-daghi (Mountain Ermen) (Kazakhstan - Abdirahmanov, 1975, 90)
Ermentau (city) (Kazakhstan - HPS, 1987,126)
Eriman (Kazakhstan, Agadir area - OKJSA, 232)
Erman gishlaghi (Ermen kishlak) (=Hazarak, Uzbekistan, Saryosiye area - Nafasov 1988, 222)
Ermen-deli (steppe) (Turkmenistan, Yilanly area - Ataniyazov 1980, 327)
Ermenigum (toponym in Turkmenistan - Ataniyazov 1988, 138)
Arman-gala /=Armand fortress/ (a fortress near Ashgabad - Ataniyazov, 1980, 43)
Arman (toponym in the same place, mentioned in 1818; МIТТ, II, 413)
Arman (toponym in Bashkiria, Baymak area)
As you could see in the examples above, the name Ermen is used in Kazakh, Uzbek, Turkmen, Bashkir ethnotoponymy. The FACT that they are nothing but ethnotoponyms is proved by a circumstance: some of the Turkic tribal divisions were also called Arman/Erman/Ermen. It's evident that hays who adopted the self-name of a Turkic tribe Arman in Asia Minor never reached Central Asia in antiquity.
Kazakh ethnotoponimy experts connected the Arman/Erman oronym (name of a mountain) with Mongolian (G.Konkoshpaev), Mongolian-Turkic(A.Abdrahmanov) origin pleading "hybridization" (20). But this name could not be correctly etymologized as the fact of its relation to an ethnonym of tribe generated far away from Central Asia had not been considered. In fact, the occurrence of such toponyms as Erimen/Ermen/Arman in Central Asia is connected with apperance of Ermen tribe which part moved from Anatolia and Azerbaijan to the eastern lands (within mitan/muiten tribal union). We should note that tribal division of mitan/muiten is called "mitan-ermen" in antique sources.
It is necessary to consider the average form of the Ermen ethnonym which variations as Arman/Erman were spread on such a big territory. This average form is Ermi. One of the Greek sources calls the Turkic Bulgarian tribe Ermi who adopted christianity “Ermi-aris”. Further the part of the Bulgarian tribe which settled among Chuvash and Bashkir was called "ermi/iermi/urmi" (21). Later we will speak more about the Turkic ethnos Аrmеwhich lived in Arman area of Anatolia.
Speaking about toponym and ethnos Aran we noted that it consists of two components: АR/ER ("man//person//warrior") and a suffix "~АN". This suffix expressing plurality has a collective meaning. There was another component (suffix) in ancient Turkic languages which had similar meaning - “~pi / ~bi” [sometimes transited into "~mi"]. This component was also participant in formation of ethnonyms (tribal manes suv-bi, kam-bi, lulu-bi,azer-bi ["AZERBAIJAN"], kas-pi, uru-mi, eli-pi, etc.). As well as Aran, the name Arman/Erman also consists of the component "AR/ER" as structureаr+me+an (ARMAN), or эr+me+an (ERMAN). Alongside with form Аrme-Erme used by various Turkic peoples nowadays, the variation with a suffix "~an" -Erman/Arman was even more widely spread. The component "me-an" c transition in "man", further was used in formation of such ethnonyms as"kara-man", "Turk-men", "ku-man" and others (22). Pay attention: there are Bashkirian tribal divisions "dur-man", "bush-man", "torok-man"(="Turk-men"), "ite-men" (23). Stephanus of Byzantium who wrote about Turkic tribe tirmen specified they were of Saqian (Scythian) origin, and their name in Saqian language meant "the ones expelled". Really, both in all ancient Turkic languages and in modern Azerbaijani language the verb “itir~” (with "i" added) forms noun “(i)tirmen” (by adding component 'men/man') which is translated as "expelled", "driven out". In this connection the origin of Bashkirian tribal division "itemen" is very interesting.
So, there were several internal tribal divisions like Arman, Ermi, Ermen, Karaman, Tirmen and others among such Turkic tribes as Saqa/Saga, Bulgar, Azer/Azar/Hazar, Turkman which INITIALLY lived in lands around Caspian sea. As we have already shown, there is a Turkic basis which ethimologizes all these ethnonyms. It is possible to see following toponymy with a Turkic component Arman in the lands of ancient Azerbaijan:
ﾷ Arman (a mountain to south of Kirkuk on the bank of Tigris river; ХV-ХII centuries BC)
ﾷ Arman (a town of Kassi period near Diala river; pronounced as Alman also)
ﾷ Аrmuna (a village close to lake Urmia, VII century BC)
ﾷ Аrmangu (a toponym near Kyzyl-Uzen river, VIII century)
ﾷ Армаит (a fortress near Zivije district, VII century BC)
Leaving for a while the toponymy of Northern and Southern Azerbaijan, we will look through geographic names the lands located to the west of Azerbaijan. First of all we will consider the names connected with ethnotoponym Arman/Armi which originated from ethnonym Erman; the name of Semitic people - Aramaics will also be considered. This is necessary since many scientists speaking about the name of people Ermeni/Armenians(which today denotes hays) usually refer to abovementioned ethnotoponimy (25).
Geographic names Armi and Arman were first mentioned III thousand years BC and is used so far. This toponym can be met in the records concerning Acadian king Narram-Suen I (2236-2200) and to his grandfather Sargon:
1) SAG.GİSH.RA Ar-ma-nimki u Eb-laki
2) Ar-ma-namki u Eb-laki
Though the arrangement of one of these areas (Ebla) is known, but Arman area is not localised in the source. Therefore there are some researchers identify area Arman with Арме of the newfound sources. On our opinion, these are different toponyms though they are located in one region. So, Italian archeologists discovered ancient archives of Ebla in northwest Syria, to south of Haleb. Texts of unknown Semitic language (close to Sumer-Acadian) are imprinted on the clay tablets and as well as several toponyms of non-Semitic/Elamic/Hurri/Indo-European or any other dialect of that period. One of them is - repeatedly Аrme which one can repeatedly come across (26):
dra-sa-ap ar-mi ki “Rasap, the god of city of Arme”; 3 Ar-miki al-KU Gi-za-anki “three men from Аrmi, located in Gizan”; Eb-laki wa Ar-miki “Ebla andАrmi”; 4 GİŞşilig 1 ninda ku-li en-en Ar-miki “Meal for Armi governor's four friends”.
This toponym of Tigris and Euphrates interfluve cannot be connected with the Aramaic because, first, they appeared here 1000 later, and second, the name was applied in relation to Subars and Hurris (27). Considering the facr that the country named "Аrme" in Eblaic texts was in the center of Mitanni and Mitanian tribes were called Arman/Erman in those places where Subareans lived. Let's look through the sources concerning these tribes because as we said above, Arman toponym is mentioned in this territory. It is also well known that 1000 before name Аrmе emerged, Hirrian thibes lived close to Subars earlier than those of Urartu (28). This obviously promoted consolidation of different tribes at certain stage of historical development. Probably Hurrians flew together with some of mitanian tribes of Subar ethnos, because the state created by Hurrians was most often called Mitanni. In the letter sent by Mitanian king Turmatta to Egyptian pharaon III Amenhotep (1455-1424 BC) his country was called Hurrohe in the part written in language and Mitanni in the part written in Acadian (29).
After the downfall of Mitanni, all its tribes who lived in separate feudal substates were enthralled by invaders. Some part of them moved deep into Asia Minor, the other settled near lake Urmia and in Central Asia. That is why Mitan tribal divisions are mentioned in the specified geographic regions. Speaking about Uzbek tribal division of Moitan in Kumush, Chogan Valihanov mentions Ming, Karakalpak, Barkut, Katagan/Kutagan andMitan among them.(30). L.Tolstova who wrote about Mitan-Horezmian relations refered to a legend about arrival of the Karakalpak-Moiten people's forefather to Caucasus. She also specified many ethnotoponimy connected with Mitan tribe. In her work the problem such toponyms as Mada-Mitanmentioned in X-XII centuries is touched upon; the author opposes their Iranian origin (31).
Mitanian tribes are minutely described Herodotus's and Strabo's works, they give information covering at least 5 centuries at least (V century BC - I century BC). Herodotus writes that the Big and Small Zab revers flow from the country of Matiens, which he locates in the central part of Anatolia and close to Urmia. That is what “father of a history” writes:
“The Hellenes name Cappodocaeans 'Syrians'. These syrians were subject to lidians before Persian conquest ... . River Halis flowing from Armenian plateau was the border between Midian and Lidian empires; it flows from Cilicia then through Matiens' lands on the right and Phrygian on the left. Passing Phrygia, the river turns to the north and then forms border between Syrian Cappodocaeans the right bank and Pathlagonians on left bank” (I, 72). “Moving to Babylon, Kir reached river Ginda. It flows from Matien mountains, through the lands of Dardans, and flows into another river - Tigris”(I, 189). “They say Araks (in this case Kyzyl-Uzen, - the author) is deeper than Ister, the others, on the contrary, consider this river shallow …; it takes source in Matien mountains whence flows and Gind (Diala) river as well, which Kir divided into 360 channels” (I, 202). “Matiens, Sapyrs and Alarodaeans were laid under tribute of 200 talents. It was eighteenth district” (III, 94). “After Phrygians come Cappodocaeans which we call 'Syrians'. Their neighbours are Cilicians, …. whose lands border with those of Armenii's (they are rich for cattle as well), and latter border with -Matiens who live in this country. Then the lands of Cassis follow, and here on the bank of Hoaspe river the city of Sus is located; where great king stays with all his treasures” (V, 49).
Strabo who did not agree with Herodotus's identification of Araz/Araks (the river in Azerbaijan) with Kyzyl-Uzen (XI, 14, 13) writes about ethnotoponimy connected with names Mada, Matien, Arme/Arman:
“According to Ksanthus, in the times of Artaxersus there was such a strong drought that the rivers were dried up, sas well as lakes and wells …. and he had to to see stones in the form of a two-folding bowl in many places far from the sea - in Armenia, Matiena and Lower Phrygia …. Therefore he expressed his opinion, that these plains were the sea long time ago” (I, 3, 4). “Area of Media - Matien … ” (II, 1, 14). “On the other side of Girkania live Debriks, and Cadusians border with Midians and Matians at bottom Parahoathr mountain” (XI. 8.8). “This country (Atropatene - the author) is located to east from Armenia and Matiene, and west from Great Media […]; on the south - it borders the areas close to the basin of Girkan (Caspian) sea and to Mantiene” (XI, 13, 2). “They also say that Armenia which was a small country before, was expanded after Artaxsi and Zareader's wars”(XI, 14, 5). “There are big lakes in Armenia. One of them is called Маntiene which means "blue". As they say, this is the biggest salty lake after Meotid and reaches Atropatia” (XI, 14, 8).
From all said about the Mitan/Moitan/Matien tribal divisions it is possible to draw a conclusion that in the middle of II millenium they promoted caucasian-speaking Hurri tribes to create a state Mitanni in the south-west of the lands between Tigris and Euphrate. The ethnic majority of this state Subar(Mitan)-Hurri tribes were settled from northwest of Syria before various settlements along bank of Tigris river in the east. Mitan-Ermantribes as well as Saqa-Kimmerian (Saga-Gamer), were the internal divisions of one Turkic ethnos; they are marked in all primary sources BC in close neighbourhood with each other. After the downfall of Mitanni some of them moved to Anatolia, Azerbaijan and Central Asia. At Herodotus's time (V century BC) these tribes lived in central and eastern Anatolia, around lake Urmia. At Strabo's time Matien area located east from Armenia and west from Atropatene was within Median borders. In the next centuries matien ethnonym could be come across among Bashkir, Kazakh, Uzbek, Karakalpak etc.
Ermen/Erman ethnonym which belonged to one of Subar-Mitan tribal divisions was reverberate not only in Ancient Azerbaijan and Anatolia, but Central Asia as well. Representatives of Turkic tribes Ermen were moving both from Southern Azerbaijan to the east, and from Northern Azerbaijan to Northern Caucasus. Therefore, so far toponimy with 'Arman' component in Ossetia and Arman-Gala (“Fortress Arman”) in Samur river outfall are known. Also note that in trilingual king Darius's Bisutun inscription names Arminiyya and Urartu are used as synonyms. The name of an Arminian (notArmenian//Hay!) who rose mutiny in Babylon Uraka is mentioned in the inscription; the same name had a Turkic khan, the king of the Nogay people, who lived in Kumyk area (32). At last, the fact that Arman/Armen/Erman is a tribal division known among contemporary Turkic peoples perfectly shows what kind of people it was in antiquity and what ethnic group it belonged to. Some historians and philologists who consider the heroine of Nizami Ganjevi's “Hosrov ans Shirin” poem to be "Shirin of Armenian people" (just because she is from Erman area). We should recommend them to read the part of the poem where Shirin names herself 'a Turkic girl'. The reason of distortion of the name Arman (compare Alban [Aghvan] and Aran) is that some scientists who do not know the particulars of historical ethnology put an equal-sign between ethnonym Hay andаrman/ermen, and so such horonyms as Armenia and Hayastan synonyms which brings confusion into the history of Azerbaijanis. Thus, initial carriers of the name Arman/Erman were Turkis (that is why the ethnonym was ethimologised on a Turkic lingual basis). Such facts as prevalence of Armanethntoponym from Anatolia in the west to Baikal in the east; from lake Urmia in the south up to Azov sea in the north since centuries ago. In primary sources this ethnotoponym is met in Mitanni. A SINGLE EXCEPTION as horonym Armenia (a state created by Hays ['Armenians'] in annexed lands of Western Azerbaijan - Chuhur Sa'ad, Zangezur etc. in the beginning of XIX century with help of Russia) is a "merit" of historians, not History, because 3 thousand years long this ethnotoponym is common for Turkic peoples.
After downfall of Mitanni there was an area Arman beside several feudal formations in northern part of Entire Rios. In II - beginning I of one thousand BC an afflux of the Aramaic to Interfluve begins. Since this moment northern part of Syria was fixed in sources as KURAreme, matArame,KURAramu. The ethnonym Aramaia ahlamaia was met here as well (34). Semitic origin of these names is indisputed but though they were spread to Kashar mountains, not Diyarbakir. So, the ethnonym we are interested about was located northwards of Diyarbakir, or to the west from Subar state (35). And this was an area populated not by Aramaics (despite seeming similarity of words Arman/Arme-Aramu), but Turkis - Subar, Mitan-Arme and caucasian-speaking Hurris who were the former inhabitants of Mitanni state. And the area ARMAN, the place where they lived was called Arme in Urartu sources and Arime - in Assyrian (36). In the course of aggressive campaigns of Urartu and Assyria this area gradually was conquered by the latter. But the Subar state located eastwards of Assyria retained independence till 673 BC. This year Assyrians conquered this state and divided its territoty into 2 dependent areas, attaching Arman to the western part. Both areas consisted of territory on perimeter of Mush-Bitlis-Lake Hazar(Caspian Sea) with population consisting of Urmeans, Subar, Mitan Armi (also Turkic tribe), northwards, near lake Bingiol lived Kashkais. Among these Turkic tribes Caucasian-speaking Hurris lived as well.
Some parts of Subar, Armi-Mitanian, Urmean tribes who moved northwards had joined their ethnic relatives Saka-Kimmers (Saga-Gamer) in headwaters of Euphrates (VII century BC). That was historical Аrminiya (note thus far these were the grounds conquered by Urartu). Soldiers of this country joined army of Media against Assyrians in 615 BC. After the victory Median king Kiaksar had imparted historical Arminiya the special status of Median Empire's province. The governor of these lands was appointed Parur of Saks/Sags (37). So Ermenian/Armanian area which had no connection with Hays (Present 'Armenians') became a component of Media with the population consisting of Turkis: Subar, Mitan, Armi-Mitans, Urmu/Urmeans, Kashkais, Saka-Kimmers (Saga-Gamer); and caucasian-speaking Hurri and Urartus. But the penetration of Hay tribes from northwest Syria at the dawn of Christianity and their transformation into the major population of this area has occured later.
At diferent periods of history this area was conquered by Ahemenis, Selevkis, Parphyan Arshakis, Byzantium, Sasanis, Arabs, Seljuks as well. It was a part of the Ottoman Empire till second decade of XX century. At present time it belongs to Republic of Turkey. All emperors appointing satraps (governors, vassals) to this area, frequently charged to them to govern adjoining territories as well. This caused that concept Arman//Arminiyareceived administrative-political value besides ethnic. So, Iranian historian Said Nafisi wrote that “arabs have named all conquered territories of Caucasus Arminiya”. Thus, looking through the history of Erman/Arman area we have stopped at the dawn of our era. Let's return to the question "hayisation" / "armenisation" of this area to sum up:
а). The area Arman in the headwaters of Euphrates was populated by Subar-Mitan, Hurri-Mitan sinse III till I millennium BC; later belonged to Urartu (X-VIII centuries BC): in VII century up to BC Saka-Kimmerian (Saga-Gamer) tribes settled here. The Turkic population was dominant (Saka-Kimmerian [Saga-Gamer], Subar, Armi-Mitan), Hurris made a prepotent element as well. In the end of VII century the area was joined to Median Empire, and since middle of VI century conwuered by Ahemenis. Before the reign of Selevki Dynasty the satraps appointed to this area were from Urartu, Median, Sak/Sag and Persian by origin.
b). In the course of Alexander the Great Asia Minor campaigns Ahemenis dynasty was replaced by snother one, the Selevki dynasty. Only after defeat of Аntiochus III (223-187 BC) by Rome the area Arman/Erman was divided into 2 Roman provinces. Though during at Тigran II reign the area was subject to Tigranokert, the capital, further it was dependent first on Rome then Parthyans.
c). Before Seljuks, this country (Arman/Erman) was conquered by Arshakis, Sasanis, Byzantium, Arabian Caliphate at different periods of time. The administrative-political value of this country was not equal at each period, it increased or diminished depending on whether united with adjoining areas or not. At Herodotus's time so called "Great Armenia" was extent no more than 310 kms. Even neighbouring area Matien was twice as large (Herodotus, V, 52).
As we see the horonym Ermen (Arman[~iya]) was formed from Turkic ethnonym Arman/Erman. The borders of this area frequently varied. Probably,Ermen Turkis, as well as Alban Turkic tribes were the first to adopt christianity, as the word "arman/erman/ermen" carried the meaning of "Christian" as well. So, in Shak area of Northern Azerbaijan there is a village Kish with such toponymy as Ermen Yeri (land of Ermens), Ermen cemetery though these territories have never been populated by Hays. These names mean "Christian". Note that Ermi, the tribal division of western Bulgarian Turkis were also christians (39).
The self-name of present 'Armenians' is "hay", whereas Georgians call them "somekhi", Kurds - "file", Chechens and Ingushs - "ermalo", Azerbaijanians and other Turkis - "ermeni". However, as it was already said, the ethnonym "Erman/Arman" initially did not refer to them but the people of absolutely another culture and language. After Hays appeared in area Arman and adopted christianity they started settling in neighbouring territories, thus getting ecoethnonym "Armeni/Ermeni", which is natural, because their neighbours saying "Ermeni" meant "population of area Arman" (inhabitant ofArman). By the same Hays created their alphabet and have appropriated centuries-old history of Ermen Turkis writing it as "Armenians' gistory". Therefore, speaking about the origin of Erman/Armen/Armen ethnonym it is necessary to differentiate between Turkic tribe who carried this name andpseudo-Ermens (present Hays/Armenians). N.Emin, The commentator of Hay chronicler M.Horenatsi wrote that “...Armenians named themselves Hay(not "Armens" - the author), or descendants of Aram, and their country - hayots ashkhar, hayots yerkir, hayastan, hayastan ashkhar (but not"Armenia")” (40). Such people as Arim (Homer's Arimoi), Arme and Еrmens are mentioned on the territory of Anatolia. But they are Subar-Mitan tribal divisions of Turkic ethnos and their history does not belong to Hays (present Armenians).
Coming from the Balkans to Syria, and therefrom to Arman, naturally Hays strongly differed from local population (Ermens), both anthropologically and by language. Numerous figures are displayed on the pedestal of Darija the king's statue in Sousse; these figures depict this or that people, with name of each. One figure concerning people Armini is a display not of Armenoid (to which Hays belong), but Sag/Saq type (41). Let's see what Strabo writes on this occasion (I, 2, 34): “...Syrians, Arabs and Armenians live in the close neighbourhood, this is why they are similar both in appearance and way of life”, but not language. Therefore Armenoid Hays are not are not the autohtonic population of Arman area, or to be more exact - localErimen//Armen were not Hays. And according to glottogeny their language is more kindred to Indo-European languages; the degree of Hay/'Armenian'language similarity with these languages can be displayed in this scheme:
HAY (nowadays 'Armenian') <-> GREEK <-> BALTO-SLAVIC <-> INDO-IRANIAN
This scheme put forward by A.Manandian, gives an occasion to assume, that proto-Hays lived in some area between Illirians and Macedonians of the Balkan lands. This scientist had noted that due to the appearance of "Armenians" (Hays are meant) in Asia Minor in XIII-XII centuries BC and then their penetrations to area Arman in VI century BC, their name was written in Bisutun inscription. I.M.Djakonov carried this date since VI century BC to XII-X centuries BC as he considered Mushk tribes mentioned in Assyrian texts to be of Armenian origin (43). Certainly, this point would be acceptable if any source of that time had mentioned the ethnonym Hay. But non of the sourses of that period has such information. Obviously, being a colony in Phrygia Hays came to northwest Syria (VII century BC) after disintegration of Phrygian kingdom; and after the downfall of Assyria and Urartu could penetrate to Arme, the territory of ancient Turkic tribe Subar (between VI and III centuries BC) . The results of assimilation of Hays with Hurri-Urartians (who lived between lake Van and Аrmе area) strongly affected their language (44).
The picture of Hays' migration according to the Balkans - Phrygia - Northern Syria - Аrmе - Arminiya (historical 'Armenia') route can theoretically be traced from the data of ancient sources. However, it is a difficult thing “to collect pieces”. There is no "pretext", in Hay linguistics which could lead to common interpretation of events that took place in those times. Therefore it is impossible to assert that Hays together with Phrygeans appeared in Asia Minor in XII century BC. The appearance of Phrygeans from Europe to Asia according to Greek historians took place after the war in Turova (Troy). Greek tribes began to settle in the West Anatolia only after VIII century BC (45).
One more evidence to prove that the country Ermen/Arman was initially inhabited byTurkis is presence of many ancient Turkic elements in Hay ('Armenian') language. We will look through them later but note that these lingual elements were borrowed before the date of "intrusion" of the Seljuk Turkis to Asia Minor. This fact was specified by German scientist M.Mordman as well in his book “О взаимодействии языков в процессе глотогенеза” ["On interrelation of languages in the process of glottogeny"] (М., 1870). "Armenian language has in itself Turkic elements of such an archaic layer which could not be attributed to Seljuks, Ottomans etc.".
In those ancient times when Hays appeared in country Arman, their language was enriched with Turkic elements, though kept its Indo-Europeanfeatures. Later, during the Arabian conquests they settled closer to Turkic lands (Northern and Southern Azerbaijan) which promoted the infuence of Azeri-Turkic language on theirs. Thus Hay language had partially lost its former structure. Though grabar (old Armeian language) still remained the language of priests, the spoken language was ashcharabar (modern Armenian language), used in our days. While as grabar syntax and grammar corresponded to the structure of French or Slavic languages, ashcharabar has grammar, word order, grammatical agreement of Azerbaijani-Turkic language (many lexical elements as well). So, modern-used Hay language differs greatly from its initial form. Such competent scholars as Acharian, Abovian, Boduenne de Courtenee and others wrote on this subject.
But despite all these changes, Hay language is not considered to be alienated from Indo-European family. For degree of similarity it is closer to Greek,Slavic and Indoiranian languages. This linguistic criterion is another evidence to the fact that Hays ('Armenians') are allochthons (not local) in Armanand generally in Asia Minor. According to anthropological analysis it is schollars come to analogical conclusion.
Grante Kapantsian in this occasion wrote that the population of country Arman primarily consisted from Hurris and Subars. Hays have seized Urartu in culturally and politically in VI-III centuries up BC and were later assimilated by local tribes; this process came to end in III century. Continuing his idea, this author proves "Armanisation" of Hays:
“Despite the that fact that toponym Armina is originated from Iranian name "armen", due to the completion of "Hayisation" of Subar and Urartu tribes we should see a new ethnic quality with a dominant Hay language and with name formed according to the Greek Armen-oi, Armen-ia” (46).
We can agree with academician Kapantsian (the expert of Hay language and a history) on the stipulation that the date of Hays' "Armenisation" falls at the period not BC but III century AD, that is, Hays adopted new ethnonym (Armen) during cristianization. So, after cristianization Hays Hays were called by the neighbouring peoples "Armen/Ermen/Erman" due to the name of the country they lived in. Probably, as Saka-Kimmers (Saga-Gamer)gradually departed from area Arman towards Azerbaijan where other Turkic tribes lived, Hays started settling here more actively. And the tendency of identification of toponym Arman with names of Ararat/Urartu was caused by incorrect interpretation of Semitic R-R-T letters combination in the bible:
“And he was killed praying to his god Nisrok by two sons - Adramelek and Sharezar; and they ran to the Ararat country” (II Kings, 19, 37; Isaiah, 37, 38). By the moment of recording of these biblical chapters a century passed since downfall of Subar kingdom, and Urartu did not exist as well. This is why biblical form 'R-R-T' (Urartu/Ararat) is a literary denotation. So, Ararat (Urartu), Ashkenaz(Saga//Saka tribes) and Minniean (Mannah)empires are last mentioned in Bible referring to 593 year (Eremeah, 51, 27). That is why by the moment of description of King Sinaherribi murder by his sons the specified grounds were components of Media. A pair of centuries later (III-II centuries BC) while translating the bible into Greek (in connection with popular adoption of this language by the diaspora Jews) they substituted R-R-T form by Arminia. Further the "forefather" of Hay history, Moses Horenatsi (probably using 2 different variants - Semitic and Greek) called the two patricide sons "...who run toArmenia" Adramelek and Sannasar in the other place and Adramel and Argamozan in another. This chronicler writes that they became the progenitors of Hay kins:
“He was killed by his two sons Adramelek and Sannasar who frightened ran to Armenia. One of them, Sannasar was settled by our courageous ancestor Skayordi in the southeast of our land, close to Assyrian borders. Having multiplied, his descendants filled up the mountain, called Sym. [….] Argamozan... settled in the southeast. The historians say that he but nobody is the ancestor of Arzruni and Genuni kins. This is the reason why we had to mention Sinaherim (Sinaheribi). The same historian says, that Angegh's kin descends from Paskam, one of Hayk's grandsons” (I.XXIII).
As we could see, in this source the settlement of some of Hay kins around Van in connected with runaway Assyrian princes. Besides this, many dynasties such as Arshaks, Mamikoneans, Bagratuni and others who reigned in Armenia are Turkis, Turkmens (a part of Parthians), Aramaics, Jews etc. Search for Hays' "ancient and great" history chronologically begins from V century. Though V century Hay ('Armenian') historian Horenatsi wrote "We have never been a big ethnos..." under the government of another peoples (48). In XI century Hovanes Drashanakertsi wrote that before Parura Skayordi the country Hayk (Armenia) was governed by strangers. But neither Parur nor many of his followers were not Hay ('Armenian') by origin [see note 37].
Russian scolar V.Nikonov explains the reason why Hays ('Armenians') connect their origin with name Arman/Erman as follows: the name/toponym that lost its primary meaning wakens associations with mythical primogenitor. “And so appeared the myth about Hayk and his son Armenak, the two primogenitors of this people whose names lie in hay and armen/arman ethnonyms” (50).
There are many legends about Hays' origin, to one of them we will refer in Strabo's works:
"They say a resident of Armenia town in Thessaly (Greece) came with Jason to Armenia country and took part in Alexander's the Great campaign. Cyrcillus of Pharsally and Midius of Laris confirm the connection of the country name with this man” (51).
Even if Jason's colleague's name was Armen indeed, this concision cannot substantiate the toponym origin in any way. But nevertheless this story specifies indirect kinship between Hays and Greeks. Having described a pair of such legends Strabo points out:
“…This is the ancient legend. Another, more contemporary story since rule of Persians and all those following them should be expounded as follows. First Armenia was reigned by Persians and Macedonians, later by those who conquered Syria and Midia (Media); the latest governor was Orontus (Horand), descendant of Gidarn, one of the 7 Persians. Later Artaxus and Zariader, Antiochus’s the Great military leaders had divided Armenia into two parts. They governed the country on behalf of the king. After the king had been defeated the came over to the side of Romans and announced to be kings received independence. The Artaxus’s descendant Tigran was Armenia’s king in full sense of this word…” (XI, 14, 15).
Then Strabo writes that Tigran annexed neighboring people’s territories and thus expanded the geographic notion of ‘Armenia’. He was captured by the Parthians (Arsags’ country) who enthroned him in Armenia, assisted him in expanding Armenian territories, later drove him out of conquered eastern lands for perfidy. And a little bit later Lucullus, the Roman commander drove him out from Syria and Cilicia (Strabo, XI, 14, 15). His descendant, Artavazd was killed by Anthony for treachery in war with Parthia. “After that the country was governed by some kings subject to Caesar and Romans; the situation is the same in our days” (Strabo, XI, 14, 15).
How did Tigran become ‘Armenian king in full sense of this word’, as Strabo wrote? The Soviet scientists answered this question:
“These kings’ regency fully depended on political situation in Parthia. Prince Tigran hold captive in Parthians convinced Mitridat II he would yield 70 provinces of Atropatene in case of his enthronement in Armenia. Thus Tigran became Armenian king in 95 BC” (52).
Later Parthians drove him out of conquered territories and he went to Arme-Subar lands where he founded Tigranokert, Hays’ capital city. Great Armenia’s independence lasted 20 years whereupon Tigran was disreputably defeated by Romans in 66 BC (Note that “Great Armenia” which Armenians dream about today was mostly a geographic notion as well as “Small Armenia”. This may be compared to “Kurdistan” area in Turkey. As an administrative and political unit this country had existed 20 years and consisted of conquered territories). Artavazd II, Tigran’s son was a Roman vassal (55-34 BC). Strabo (see above) described the way he governed the country. Centuries later, Kornelius Tasit wrote:
“…Besides this, Armenians are inconstant and changeable,… invited other empires’ armies to their country. For domicile, near resemblance, at last for mixed marriages they are closer to Parthians, and having not perceived freedom Armenians try to submit them”(Analles, XIII, 34).
Ancient Hay historians mentioned the Arsag/Arshak kin very often. At the same time they tried to present their peoples’ history against the background of this dynasty. Surely, Parthians conwuered both Armenian and Azerbaijan (Albania and Atropatene), Saak (Anak-bey’s son) Parthian monk was even the first to profess christianity in these countries. But Arsags/Arshaks were the descendants of Saka/Saqa Turkic tribe and Hays were always Hays although Moses Horenatsi having read the Armenian translation of bible “amended” it into Armenian/Hay origin of the dynasty (53). Obviously, Procopus who knew about such tricks pointed out: “Let nobody think that Arsags/Arshaks dynasty are of Armenian origin” (“De Aedificiis”, III, 1, 4).
As we see, the toponymy Alban/Alvan (Aghvan), Aran, Ermen/Arman/Erman situated on the territory lying between Derbend in the north and Euphrates in south were formed on the basis of identical Turkic ethnonyms. The process of expanding of most disputable Ermen/Arman/Erman on great territory and the stages of its formation were considered as well. Now we can give the account of Hays’ “armenization” after their appearance in Asia Minor. As for the name “Hayastan” it was used in I-IV centuries in Anatolia and V-XIX in Caucasus as Hays’ inhabited localities; there were 1, 2, 3, … 100 ‘Hayastans’ till 1920 when Soviet Armenian Republic was created in Western Azerbaijani lands (54). Long before this, the lands of modern Armenia (‘Hayastan’) were basically inhabited by Turkic tribes Azer/Azar, Ermen (not Hays!), Saqa-Kimmers (Saga-Gamer), Bulgar, Subar-Sabir and others who initially were Tengrians (Tengrianity – Turkic monotheism) and turned into Christianity before adoption of Islam (55).
19. In “Altai-Buchi” epos the name of hero’s sister is Ermen-Chechen. The second component of the name means “smart”, “mellifluous” (Nikiforov, 1915, pp. 14). Usage of ethnonyms as personal names (e.g. Azer, Cherkez) is usual for Turkic peoples.
20. A.Abdirahmanov who objected Mongolian origin of the name Ermen advanced the version of Turkic-Mongolian hybridism of the name: ‘Erme-n’. He submitted popular etymology reflected in legend: “A Kalmag warrior climbed on Ermen mountain after he had defeated his Kazakh enemy” (“Birakkalmak atı tau işinde erimen kaşıp ketip, eşkit üstay almantı. Sodan Erimen atalıpdı-mıs” (A.Abdirahmanov, 1975, pp. 90)).
The name of Urartu king Rusa’s father was Erimen. “Rusa Ermenaki” in this language meant “Rusa, the son of Ermen” which is confirmed by I.Dyakonov and S.Arutounian; they disagreed with B.Meshaninov who interpreted this phrase as “Rusa the Armenian”. Note that the ethnotoponymArman/Ermen was spread from Asia Minor to Altai by Turkis which disproves its Urartian origin. Moreover, this element is met as a king’s name only once. As for Urartian language itself there is no such lexical element.
21. Initial form (Ermik) is met in a toponymy in Vedi (Western Azerbaijan, present Armenia) and exists in Bashkirs’ and western Bulgars’ tribal divisions names.
22. The morpheme “~man” is an auxiliary particle to form adjectives (such as ‘gojaman’, ‘azman’) and ethnonymy of Turkmen model. This suffix having received the ethno-formant status was further transformed into pronoun ‘I’. Kazakh form Turkpen does not differ from Turkmen form which it is derived from.
It’s known that Saqa-Kimmers (Saga-Gamer) tribal divisions reached south Russian steppes. Later Hazar, Bulgar, Suvar/Subar/Savir, Kuman tribal divisions came here and were creating their states during 2 thousand years as well. The Danube Bulgar tribe who moved to present Bulgaria from Azov Sea littoral created their kingdom. A town Ermenli was renamed into Dragash-Voivoda in 1934. Both Danube Bulgar and Saqa-Kimmer (Saga-Gamer) had tribal division Armini.
After Kimmerian king Skirul died the warriors of this division who lived near Olvia hastened to help the inhabitants of this town. Such phrase as “Armen archers” can be met in chronicles found here (Vinogradov, 1989, pp. 253).
At the dawn of our era Herusk, an Ost-Goth tribal division lived in the same area. Their king’s name was Armini. Erman-Arix killed by Huns in 357 AD was an Ost-Goth king as well. Both Turkic and German tribes lived in north littoral of Black Sea, and as we see, they both had identical names. In Ermen-S’ul chronicles found in Stadberg (Saxony) a ‘German’ tribe who came from Persia (Azerbaijan was a Persian province then) and they worshipped Ermen (Bogush, pp. 248). Generally, the contacts between Saqa-Kimmers and Germans occurred long before those of Germans and Hunns. These tribes lived in close neighborhood in Crimea which was the reason of their interaction. So it is not surprising that there are so many German-Turkic parallels (the morpheme “~man” is not an exception).
23. Kuzeev, 1974.
24. АНОСК, с. 174
25. Kapantsian (1947), Melikishvili (1954), Dyakonov (1985), Sarkisyan (1989) and others.
26. “Древняя Эбла”, с.223; 284-285; 336. Some ‘scientists’ (I mean Armenian scientists), who identify Akkadian form “Arman u Ebla” with phrase “Ebla and Arme”, so trying to equate the toponymy Arman (relatively new) to Arme which is much more ancient (around 5000 years). So they called the area “Armenians’ (Hays’) ancient native land”. I.Dyakinov correctly noted on this occasion:
“Armanum, the name of a town in neighborhood of Ebla and toponym or ethnonym ar-miki caused great interest in some pseudo scientific circles. They hoped to find Armenians’ ancestors. However, the hope to find Armenians in Eblaic texts had to wither as well as the myth of Biblical towns”(Dyakonov, 1985, pp. 336).
He also wrote that Hays never called themselves “Armenians” noting toponym Armanum is connected with ethnonym Armi which means “stranger”, “alien”. We agree with I.Dyakonov’s words about Armenians’ self-name but not with his concept of connection between the names of area Armanumand ethnonym Armi. Unlike Turkic languages rich for vowel sounds (with steady position only) Semitic languages are poor for vowels and their replacement causes changes of meaning. Moreover, the endings in the names mentioned are doubtable which is noted by Paul Garelli in his article “Some Notes on Eblaic Archives Toponimy” (“Древняя Эбла”, pp. 285).
27. In such phrases as “Dumur of Armi”, “Uttian king Tamur-Lim”, “Abarsila, the country of Armun’s residence” the words “Dumur/Tamur” (compare to Turkic “damir” – “steel”), toponym [A]barsil, (compare to “Barselia” – “Land of Lions”) can hardly be etymologized on Semitic basis.
28. If the toponym Armani in Bogazgoy region is connected with ethnonym Armi its history is even more ancient (Эртем, рр. 16).
29. Eastern Hurri kingdom capital founded in the headstream of Habur and Balich rivers (the latter hydronym is of Turkic origin) was called Vasshukanni (XVI-XIII BC). The Semitic name of the country was Hanigalbat, Egyptian – Naharain (“Land of two rivers”) [Меликишвили, 1956, pp. 93-95]. But some of the eastern Hurri tribes reached middle stream of Tigris (present area of Kirkuk on the left bank of the river). That is why whereas they can be traced from Palestine to south-west borders of South Azerbaijan.
Certainly, in order to stand against Assyria living so separately from each other they had to rely on Subars. It must have been the consequence of close contact that such Turkic names as Dashuk, Kaltuk, Siluk, Dada, İkita, Umbin-Api, Puta, Arijen etc. appeared in Hurri milieu.
30. Ch.Valihanov, 1986, pp. 256
31. “However, a number of the abovementioned facts, particularly the legends of Zarevshan Mitans showing their existence in Urmia region (South Azerbaijan) which was initially called Ma[n]tiane, let us assume another interpretation” (Тоlstova, 1971, pp. 246-253).
32. ИНСК, с. 278
33. Nizami Gandjevi, “Hosrov and Shirin” (Baku-1981, с.238, 245, 265):
“Män o qaragözlü türkäm ki, bu damda adım sänin ağ känizin olubdur” (s.238);
“Qämzä ilä könül ovlayan türk olsam da, öpüşlä könül oxlamağı da bacarıram” (s.245);
“Män o türk deyiläm ki, äräbcä bilmäyim, işvä-naz etmäyi dä bacarmayım” (s.265).
34. АВИИУ, №18, №28 (Assyro-Babylonian Sources on History of Urartu)
35. To get more information about Turkic Subar kingdom see “Azär Xalqı”, Baku, 2000, pp. 113-129.
36. If the country Arme of Eblaic archives is identical with this name (Armam/Armen), the history of this horonym is even more ancient.
An opinion was assumed that the horonym Armenia emerged in Urartian language in the same form as it is now. This is theoretically possible but in fact we met quite another form Arme. There is no “Armenia” form in Urartu texts.
37. Let’s see what the first Hay (Armenian) chronicler Moses Horenatsi wrote in this occasion. In the translation by N.Emin (an Armenian linguist) made in 1858 we read: “Our first king crowned by Varbak was Parur Skayordi” (I, XXII).
All researchers say that “Parur Skayordi” means “Parur, son of Saq”, as ‘ordi’ is Armenian equivalent of “son”. This means he was not Hay (Armenian) but Saq/Sag who ruled in Armenia as his ancestors did. Horenatsi called the Median king Varbak (Arbak) as he confused different sources’ information.
The point is that Erman (Subar-Mitan, Hurri-Mitan, Saqa-Kimmer and others) tribal divisions who joined Media in the war against Assyria were regarded by the Median king as allies and it must have been him who appointed a governor (vassal?) Arbak, the representative of 612 Saqan tribes.
38. al-Nafisi, 1990, pp. 26
By the way, “Armenia” was expanded in administrative and geographic sense in 1828. In march 1828 according to Nicholas I decree Yerevan and Nahichevan provinces were united and called “Armenian province”. True, this province existed only 12 years until Georgian-Imeret and Caspian provinces though the fact of its existence is still an “irrefutable proof” for Armenian territorial claims against Azerbaijan.
39. It’s interesting that Caucasian peoples call Hays (Armenians) as follows: the Chechen and Ingush – ermalo, the Dargins – ermalan[ti], the Abhaz – armeli, the Karachais and Balkars – ermenli/yermenli, Adygei, Nogai and Kumyks – ermeli/yermali.
40. Horenatsi, pp. 244, 248-249
41. DAFİ, №4, 1974, с. 124-125, pictures on pp. 249-250
42. Strabo, I, 2, 34
43. Dyakonov, 1983, с. 168-169;
Besides this, adding Mushks to Hay tribes some researches write about appearance of Armenians in Anatolia in XII BC! Still they should know that ethnonym Mushk in Assyrian, Urartu and Jewish texts (ИДМ, т-I, с. 46) is related to Phrygians. Of course, this does not exclude Hays’ contacts with these tribes which is proven by existence of such names among them as Phrig and Musheg.
Actually the period of XII-X BC is so complicated that it can hardly be described in details. The point is that there were Kassi state in the lower stream, Mitanni state in the upstream of the Tigris and Euphrates and Hittite kingdom in Anatolia. Besides these, a large number of small kingdoms were located in this region. Only in late X century BC Assyria strengthened and Urartu state came to existence. At the same time an afflux of Aramaic tribes to Syria began. If Hays (present ‘Armenians’) had actually appeared here during the period since X till VII BC they would have certainly been (considering their manners!) recorded by Assyrian, Acadian, Urartian and other kings and chroniclers. Moreover, we should not forget that Arman/Erman area was within the territories possessed by Turkis.
44. Kapantsian, 1974; Dyakonov, 1983; Melukushvili, 1954.
45. Without entering into controversy with the ‘scholars’ who relate Phrygians’ appearance to VIII BC we will note that they created a kingdom (VIII BC) in the upstream of Halis river (present Kyzyl-Irmaq). A century later they were included into state of Lydia. Obviously, in this period Hays moved to north-west Syria from Gordion (present Haymana), the Phrygian capital, as Herodotus described them as an alien ethos.
46. Kapantsian, 1947, pp. 209.
47. The same event is described in the “David of Sasun” as follows:
Sinekerim’s sons Sanosar and Bagdasar having secretly run away in the night come to Tevadoros, Armenian king. He gives each of them 300 families to live with in Sasun.
48. “Although we are not a great people and small in number, not mighty and often stay under others’ rule, still we have done a lot of feats mentionable…” (Horenatsi, pp.31).
49. Dyakonov, 1983, pp. 162.
50. Nikonov, 1970, pp. 19.
51. Strabo, pp. 449.
52. ИДМ, v-II, 1983, pp. 406-407.
53. Horenatsi, pp. 136-137.
54. According to Abul-Faraj, during Ibn Vatab’s rule in Syria and Arminiyya (1037 AD), ‘The Seljuks assaulted Arminiyya and killed its population consisting of Kurds and Arabs’ (Abul-Faraj, pp. 295). It would be interesting to know what kind of “Armenian country” can it be if its population consists of Kurds and Arabs? It is now obvious that before XI century AD Hays (Armenians) moved to Ani and Agri.
55. Today Hays (Armenians) claim these Christian architectural models (churches, chapels, monasteries etc) as theirs.