26 April 2006

602) Turkish Armenian Relations Symposium Summary Papers - Erciyes University

Art of Living Together in Ottoman Society
Erciyes University Kayseri TURKEY.

* Between Ottomanism And Nationalism: Armenian Officials In The Hamidian Era
* The Historical Principles Of The Art Of Living Together In The Ottoman Society
* Last Armenian In Memories
* Turkish-Armenian Relations In Tarsus At The End Of The 19th Century
* Relations Between Armenians And The Religious Community In Trabzon In The First Half Of The 19th Century
* A Report Prepared In 1778 On The Catholisation Works Of Armenians And Its Results
* Turkish-Armenian Relations In Maraş
* A View Of Neighborhood Relations Between The Turkish And Armenian Societies In The Armenian Literature
* The Policy Of The Committee Of Union And Progress (Cup) About Ittihad-I Anasir And Armenians At The Beginning Of The Second Constitutional Period
* First Enterprise Of Democracy And The Armenian Parliamentary Members In The Ottoman Empire
* An Example Of The Art Of Living Together In The Ottoman Society: Ereğlİ Coal Mine Region
* A Few Memories Related To Those Beautiful Days
* Turkish-Armenian Relations In The Ottoman Legal System In Tokat (1780-1810)
* Contributions Of The Armenians Over The Constitution Of A New Social Life And Literature In The 19th Century
* Armenians' Socio-Economical Conditions In Cyprus In The 18th Century
* Armenians In Socio-Economic Life Of Bursa Until The Tanzimat According To The Sharia Court Records
* Influence Of The Turkish Minstrelsy Tradition On Armenian Culture And Yusuf Ohannes, A Living Amenian Minstrel
* Turkish - Armenian Relations At Art And Music
* Diaspora Armenians Who Are Friends Of Turks
* Tradition Of The Folk Music Within The Folk Literature In Kayserİ Scops (Aşuğ)
* Harmonious Life In The 17th Century Of Erzurum: Turkish-Armenian Interaction
* Public Perceptions Of The Armenian Question In Turkey And Armenia
* Armenian Photographers In The Era Of The Ottomans
* Socio-Cultural Interactions Of Turks And Armenians In The Ottoman Empire
* The Conversion Movements And The Concept Of Tolerance In The Bilateral Relations Of The Turks And The Armenians
* Turco-Armenian Relationship In Cyprus Throughout And After The Ottoman State
* Religious Relations Of The Ottoman-Istanbul Armenian Patriarch
* Turks And Armenians From Symbiosis To Confliction: The Example Of Van Orphanage (1896-1897)


Dr. Abdulhamit KIRMIZI
SETA (Politics, Economy and Social Researches Society)
Political Researches Coordinator

It was during the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II (1876-1909), the "Hamidian" era that the general rules of official service that had been promised in 1856 began to become law in the Ottoman state.

One of the promises of the 1856 Decree was the recruitment of non-muslims into the bureaucracy. Although one of the distinctive features of the Tanzimat was the participation of non-Muslims in the official councils of government, and non-Muslims were urged to assume administrative responsibility in these local organs, it was only during the Hamidian times when non-Muslim recruition reached its peak. Armenians served as ministers, undersecretaries, advisers, directors, and scribes and as lower post-holders in the Ottoman central bureaucracy. Although non-Muslims were not appointed as valis, they could serve as deputy governors in provinces where they were already assistant governors. Many Armenians were engaged in other provincial offices, as well.

Armenian officials, who were loyal to the Ottoman Sultan, had to deal with their fears of being attacked by Armenian separatists committees. Many Armenian officials were killed or injured by their extremist nationals because of their loyalties to the Ottoman regime. My paper will deal with the Armenian presence in the Hamidian bureaucracy and the attacks to them charged by armed Armenian terrorists during a time of separist insurgences.


Prof. Dr. Abdulkadir YUVALI
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The governmental policy of the Ottoman Empire has been developed by the principle of the Turk-Islam governmental thought. For this reason this policy, wherever and whenever has been established, has been in the status of the mutual interaction almost among all the other Turkish governments.

According to the historical sources, The Great Hun emperor, Mete Khan's policy in the fields of administration, the other Turkish governments depending upon the time and place have applied finance, economy, and culture. These principles are entitled as the Turkic Governmental Tradition.

With the phrase "Our pavilion is the sky, our flag is the sun" extracted from the Epic of Oghuz Khan, the universal governmental principle has proceeded as the philosophy of the Turkish Nations in the intelligent and administrative policies.

We are on the idea that these positive governmental policies, observed almost among all the Ottoman governmental units, are appropriate to deal with the Turkish governmental tradition and the vast tolerance in the religion of Islam.

Hence, throughout the riots of the Armenians, the Ottoman Empire has privileged the Armenians with the remarkable concessions among the other Muslim and non-Muslim societies. The details related to this concern will be asserted one by one in this article.


Abdullah AYATA

The novel "Son Ermeni" involves a different approach to the recent history of Turkey; the novel belonging to Ayata not only assembles the two nations with different languages and religions together in a loveful and respectful manner, but also has the property of being a witness of The Turkish War of Independence by the help of "memory" fiction.

"Son Ermeni" includes the dramatic story going on among Gazer Efendi, İbiş Hoca and the village people. The time period of the story is the last years of the Ottoman Empire. The novel begins with the love story of two people with different religions. Veli, who lives in the same village with İbiş Hoca, and the beautiful girl Horimsi, who is a christian, do not care about the discrimination of religions. Even the love affair of the two young people brings up the two nations Turkish and Armenians against each other, which were excellent friends once, the indulgent attitude of İbiş Hoca will help both sides to calm down, and the affair will end with the marriage of the two young lovers.

In fact, the novel is mainly built up on the story of Gazer Efendi, and the Ottoman Empire that , begins to send the minority groups with different nationalities far away for the aim of security, while coming up to its end. Gazer efendi and his fellows are forced to abondon their villages. They come up together, and hit the road to catch the train to Beirut. The way of the convoy also passes through İbiş Hoca's village. The people of two nations embrace together which was the case in the old days. Turkish people try to accommodate the last Armenians in the best way, as good as they can do, and they try to behave what a good friendship requires to do. Meanwhile, Gazer Efendi becomes ill. The convoy waits for him to get better, but Gazer Efendi is not strong and healthy enough to take this long journey. The Armenian convoy, which has to catch the Beirut train, leaves Gazer Efendi into the safe hands of İbiş Hoca in tears. The novel is constructed on the friendship of these two people with different religions, languages and worldviews.

Gazer Efendi is "The Last Armenian" of the period of the Turkish War of Independence. He lives with İbiş Hoca and villagers for a whole winter, whom he loves as much as his own people. Abdullah Ayata tells about the values of our nation from past to present time while giving the clues of solving some kind of problems by being tolerant towards each other.


Abdullah POŞ
Uludağ University
Institute of Social Sciences PhD Student

There are so many studies in Turkish-Armenian relations but these researches especially emphasize on the political and military aspec and the daily life of these communities hasn't been studied yet. Hence this study deals with cultural, social, economical and judical relations between Turks and Armenias.
Tarsus sharia records abound with the accounts regarding daily life of these two nations. This study deals with the accounts in the last guarter of the nineteenth century.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdullah SAYDAM
Erciyes University, Faculty of Education

In the beginning of 19th Century Armenian population living in Trabzon were fairly high. When the ideas that spread after French Revolution started to affect citizens of the Ottoman Empire gradually, Armenian population living in Trabzon were cautious about the idea of nationalism at first. Howewer, it was evident that new concepts and understandings came out when the policy of the Ottoman Empire on the non-muslim citizens started to change in the last years of the rule of II Mahmut and in the first years of Tanzimat. In our essay we have focused on daily activities especially domestic life of Armenians and the degree of their relations with other religious communities in the period of the Ottoman social life considering the change of understanding from the old to the new. The main sources of this study are the judicial registers of Trabzon, documents of Ottoman archieves belonging to this period and the words of travellers visiting Trabzon at that time.


Dr. Abdurrahman SAĞIRLI
Gaziosmanpaşa University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The Roman Church made secret activities to disseminate the Catholic sect among the Armenians for a long time. In the result of this, the problems between those who accepted the Catholic sect and members of the Armenian Orthodox Church began to appear. Due to the problems seen in the burying practises of the deceased Catholic Armenians and other matters in 1778, they applied a petition to the Sultan to be appointed a separate Catholic Armenian patriarch. The applied petition was sent to the Sublime Porte so that it was evaluated there. Therefore, foreign minister, Âtıf-zâde Ömer Vahîd Efendi prepared a report so that the decision to be given was based on, and submitted it to Prime Minister.

In short, in the report, it was dealt with the places where the Armenians lived in, how they entered under the Seljuks and the Ottomans, their populations, the first activities to disseminate the Catholic sect among the Armenians, and in which way the activities of dissemination were directed. In this study, the situations that the Catholization Works of Armenians and the approach of the Ottoman Empire will be pointed out.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet EYİCİL
Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

When Süleyman Şah of the Turkish Seljuks conquered Maraş in 1084, Fileretos, The Armenain Prince of Kilikya, ran away Urfa. Fileretos converted to Islam and became one of the important fellows of Melik Şah in the Great Seljuk Empire in order to gain power against the Turkish Seljuks. The relations between the Turks and the Armenians lasted in the period of Kılıç Arslan I(1092-1107). Thanks to the tolerance of the Turks, Armenians got well on with the Turks, but at the same time they came into agreement with the crusaders secretly. The Armenians waged wars against the Turks and participated in the crusades. For this reason, Baybars conquered Maraş again and Memluks destroyed the Kilikya Armenian Kingship in Maraş in 1374. The Ottoman Armenians lived in ease and peace till 1915. In the years of 1862-1915, Armenians, who lived in Maraş, waged riots, but those who did not take part in the riots, continued living in peace.The economic and the social conditions of the Armenians were in good matters, and they were sharing the same lands with the Turks. Those living in the city centres had their own churches, mosques, and schools. In the courts, the Turks and the Armenians were together, and in some cases the Armenians were witnessing the Turks or vice versa. The Armenians owned the most beautiful buildings, they were good at commerce, art, jewellery, and farming, and these issues did not disturb the Turks. Throughout the World War I, Ottoman Emperor proclaimed all the major and minor communities to attend the army, but the Armenians living in Maraş rioted against the Empire in Zeytun (Süleymanlı). The riots of the Armenians lasted till 1915. While the World War I was lasting, the Armenians took part in France army, and they participated in the American missions after 11th of February in 1920. After war, the government did not disturb the Armenians and they continued living in peace in Maraş. Although the Turkish government policy was always in such a good manner, the Armenians always had interests in the Ottoman lands. After the foundation of the Turkish Republic, the Armenians disappointed to found Armenia and left Maraş.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet KANKAL
Dicle University
Faculty of Education of Ziya Gökalp, Department of History

Neighbourhood relations between the Turkish and Armenian societies, lived together for hundred years in Anatolia, the mutual relations between these communities had not been understood by the experts on this field. The same mentality and style of life of these two societies who have at first sight different race, different beliefs and different cultures turn the rigid thoughts upside down. This is to let someone say, "How does it happen?" or "Did it happen too?" In this respect a person hesitates that belief/behavior performed by these two societies belong to Turkish or Armenian. It is generally impossible to distinguish the dominant sight

There are a lot of good examples about neighbourhood relations between Turkish and Armanian societies. Among these examples, which belong to women, are more attractive than men's. In recent years the books on Armenians' memories and novels have come out, and Turkish comunity have learnt further information about the Armenian community and their culture, which used to be known little.

In this study neighbourly relation of the Armenians and the Turks will be pointed out by the expressions of an author, lived in Anatolia. We think that this study will bring up important conclusions, and it is crucial to explore the examples of social and religious life. It is obvious that this paper is related to more than 30 memories and novels about Armenian literature, which will fill up an important gab in this field.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Mehmet EFENDIOĞLU
Dokuz Eylül University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

With the declaration of Constitution in1908, the new period began in the Turkish political life. The acceptance of Constitution and opening of the Assembly changed the whole life of the Ottoman Empire, but some questions come with these developments. The Ottoman population has not understood the significance of the Constitution II; the serious external and internal conditions and the independence movement of minorities have become the major facts and have shaped the political life of the Ottoman Empire.

According to the CUP, Constitution II was not enough to prevent the fall of the Empire. For this reason CUP made efforts to find new inclines to put together all minorities, lived in the Ottoman Empire. The idea of "İttihad-ı Anasır" which was the popular idea of the Constitution I was used to begin as connective element in the Ottoman Empire. The most important fact of "İttihad- Anasır" was the Armenian policy, which was called "Millet-i Sadıka".

In this article, the perspectives of the CUP and Ottoman government towards to Armenians will be asserted within the frame of "Ittihad-ı Anasır" policy throughout the second Constitutional period.

Documents of archives, newspapers, and magazines published in that period, and basic publications have been used in this article.


Lect. Dr. Ahmet OĞUZ
Gazi University, Kırşehir Faculty of Education

The Ottoman Empire followed various ways to overcome regression and to live as a great power as it had lived in the 19th century. The reforms, started at Mahmut II period (1808-1839), were completed in the beginning of Tanzimat period (1839-1876). Thanks to the modernization movements, the Ottoman Empire has become closer to Europen countries as a society, but these movements were not resulted in as they had been expected.

For this reason one part of the Ottoman entellectuel groups, entitled as Genç Osmanlılar, (Young Ottomans) wanted to change the present administration and to apply the new regime that they had seen from the European countries. This new regime is called Constitution, and by this way the Ottoman Empire would be expected to recover. The regime taken from the Western democracy aimed at taking under control of the rebellions of the non-muslims and satisfying the western countries that supported the minorities. Genç Osmanlılar (Young Ottomans) dethroned Sultan Abdülaziz (1861-1876) immediately and throned Abdülhamit II to proclaim the Kanun-i Esasi.

Meclis-i Mebusan was covened as it was asserted in Kanun-ı Esasi. The Ottoman people and the Armenian deputies were elected in Meclis-i Mebusan. This article will focus on the Armenian deputies and their addresses to the societies during the Constitution.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Ahmet ÖĞRETEN
Zonguldak Karaelmas University

The company has been producing coal regularly in Ereğli Coal Mine Region since 1841 and has been founded by six-partnered native capital, which has been directly given to the subcontractors in order not to be dealt with the production and the employment. Hence coal has been produced by the subcontractors and sold to the same company on price predetermined by the company. In this case the ones who have agreed with the conditions of the coal mining company, have had the chance to produce and buy their own coal depending upon the pricez of the company. It has been observed that women-men, local-foreign firms, and muslim- non-muslim societies among the others have operated the coalmines and it may be easily asserted that most of the coalmines out of 390 have been processed by these co-operations belonging to different regions and religions. In this article co-operations, production activities and partnership lasted in a long period with harmony among the societies especially the Armenians will be depicted.


Prof. Dr. Ahmet UĞUR
Erciyes University, Faculty of Theology

Turkish nation showed tolerance- connivance - and respect to the beliefs in every era. There are more frequent proofs about these concerns where our nation has lived. Indian historian İşvarı Prasad says "After the fanatical Muslims, sultans who have free thought and tolerance, ascend the throne. Under the Turkish influence religious fanaticism of the Hindu will be softened."

Philosopher Dokumacı Kebir says: "If Turkish conquerors' tolerance towards the caste system and unrealistic strictness about religion in India won a victory at Ekber's era, fate of this country would be more different."

In 1982 in Galatasaray High School Prof. Dr. Mrs. Adile who came from Yugoslavia told me: "My master, you governed us for five hundred and thirty years and didn't interfere anybody's religion, language and custom. It is 50 - 60 years you left here and we didn't leave anything from you. A government like you neither came nor will come."

My dear master Şükrü Elçin narrated that The Syrian Ambassador called a diplomat,who my master knew at the banquet, and added: "Come here excellence, I am an ambassador. Once upon a time we were a government. We used to live with people from every religion and every race. Oh! I wish we returned to those beautiful days and I was not an ambassador but a administrative head of a region."

In the year 1977-78, at the namaz of the Feast of Sacrifice in Tunisia, Ali Bil Hodja, who was at the age of 110, read khutbah to the three Ottoman Empires, called out to the congregation when we said that we had come from Turkey and made thousands of people kiss our hands by saying "Turks, our gentlemen come."

The example here may be seemed as unilateral Muslims. There are various memories and well behaviors like these among the non-Muslim citizens.

When I went to London for education in 1968, I ran into some shops where Turkish music was being played and Turkish language was being spoken. Their attitudes and behaviors towards us were very close. I later learned that they were Armenians, our Loyal Nation citizens who emigrated from Turkey. They wanted to rent their house to us. There was a community center under the London Embassy. The Armenians coming from Turkey were working there and they came to the community center to have fun.
Today besides our bad past relations which were utilized, there are good memories to cause us to forget them.

I want to give them in the order:

1. Josef (Yusuf) working in Akkışla- Kayseri and Master Mahmut's memories "Between our nation."
2. The deceased Prof. Dr. Tarık Somer's memories.
3. Past years of our aunt who is still living.
4. Memories of a driver who is from Maraş.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ali AÇIKEL
Gaziosmanpaşa University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

During the Ottoman period, Turkish, Armenian, Greek and Jewish societies in the city of Tokat lived together in their quarters for centuries. In terms of religion, these societies were split into two groups as Muslims and non-Muslims. Three quarters of city population was composed of Muslim Turks, one quarter of non-Muslims. In addition, the city was divided into nearly 70 quarters.

Although the societies in different religion lived in separate quarters in Tokat, they developed common relations in many fields. Especially in the Ottoman legal system, Muslims and non-Muslims were subjet to the Sharia law. They carried their legal matters to the Sharia court with one judge, and obtained a result. All the cases carried to the court were made a decision about and recorded into the court registers, that's, sharia sicils.

In this paper, we will deal with the legal aspect of Turkish-Armenian Relations in Tokat. The main source of our study is the court registers of Tokat from the above-mentioned period. We looked at total 11 court registers searchingly and found nearly 200 records related to Armenians. In our study, these records would be evaluated analithically. In addition, in our paper, we will apply to the cizye (head-tax) registers for the district of Tokat, and to the present-day studies regarding to the subjet-matter.

The aim of our study is to reveal in which level both societies (Turkish and Armenian) established close legal relations in the past with the help of primary sources. The situation in the city of Tokat is certainly to contribute to understanding the Turkish-Armenian Relations in Ottoman legal system throughout the Ottoman Empire.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali BUDAK
Yeditepe University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences

XIXth century is a prominent and sharp turning point in the modernization adventure of the Ottoman Empire. This process can be called as the submission for the West. Not only the technical tolls but also institutions, laws, even traditions have been adopted. The state has been rebuilt while she is Europeanize. In enlarging this road, one of the most important factors was the theatre. The pioneers of Western-type Turkish theatre were the Armenians.

The first civil society organization, which has been established by the Ottoman elites, is the Cemiyyet-i İlmiyye-i Osmâniyye (Ottoman Science Society). The Organization (Cemiyyet) established in 1861 and whose aim has been expressed as the "to provide the expansion of the natural sciences and technics in Athority of State Elites (Memâlik-i Mahrûsa-i ŞÃ¢hâne) and its founder members have been composed of the 33 permanent members those of 9 was established by Armenians and 2 of them were elected to the executive board. Mecmua-i Fünun (Science of Nature) as our first scientific magazine was the official publication of the Organization, and two articles of Ohannes and Vahan Aphendies (Armenians) with the subject of modern economics have been written in this magazine. After the introduction of the theories of modern economics, the book entitled Catechisme d'Economie Politique was translated into the language 10 years ago by Sahak Abro, who was one of the Ottoman Armenian. Vartan Pasha supported the rising of the Turkish journalism by means of the Mecmua-i Havadis, which was a newspaper had been issued as Turkish-Armenian and Panasyan Efendi with the continous publications as manzume-i Efkar and Tercüman-ı Efkar.

In the presentation, the leadership and pioneership of the Armenians for the theatre, civil society, science and journalism as well as the emergence process of a new social life and literature will be summarized.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali Efdal ÖZKUL
Yakındoğu University
Atatürk Research Center

It is known that Armenians dealt with commerce intensively in Ottoman society. Their inexistence in Cyprus, which had an important role in mediterranean and especially east mediterranean trade, would have been irrational.

According to the sources, Armenians in Cyprus dealt with silk trade and production and as translators for consuls (French consuls). As in other non-Moslem societies, Cypriote Armenians' both political and clerical leaders were Cyprus Armenian envoys. In spite of the fact that the clerical leader in question had extremely wide authorithy as Cyprus Orthodox Archbishop, they were dependent on the Armenian Partriarch in İstanbul. Moreover, it is known from the sources that Armenian clerical leaders weren't as problematic as Orthodox archbishops for the government.

It has been dwelled on the relationship and conflict between the Armenians in Cyprus and others (Moslem-Orthodox) and a comparison has been made with the other parts of the Ottoman Empire.

This study has been supported by the data obtained from şeri registers in Nicosia, Cyprus.
After this study, the contributions to socio-economic life and society made by the Armenians in Cyprus and the cosequences of these contributions to the island's culture have been observed.


Dr. Ali İhsan KARATAŞ
Uludağ University, Faculty of Theology

Bursa was one of the most important cities of the Ottoman Empire; it was the first capital of the state, and it was the centre of culture and commerce, which hosted people belonging to different religions and ethnic identities. The majority of people were consisted of Muslims but Greeks, Armenians and Jews were living in the city as well. As they shared the same city, followers of the main three religions weren't supposed to live separately. Therefore non-Muslims, whom Armenians were among them, had active roles in socio-economic life of Bursa. They shared the same neighborhoods with Muslims and had social relations like visits, testimony, proxy and surety, and had commercial and economical relations as buying-selling houses and borrowing-lending money, so that they gave the best examples of living together.

Relations of non-Muslims in Bursa with the government and its associations are worth studying as well. As it is known, non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire had the right of solving the problems related to the religious affairs and family laws under the supervision of their religious leaders. Besides this, there was no obstacle for applying to Ottoman courts for any problem. As we searched the sharia court records, we found out that Greeks, Armenians and Jews had applied to Ottoman courts without any force and chosen to be treated according to Islamic law for many problems concerning family law as marriage, divorce, alimony and partition of inheritance. Moreover, they also applied to the Ottoman courts for problems in connection with commerce and religion such as the restoration of churches, appointments of religious people and establishment of foundations.

There are thousands of records that demonstrate relations of Armenians of Bursa to Ottoman courts as well as to Muslims or Jews. Therefore Bursa Sharia Court Records will be the main source of this study.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali KAFKASYALI
Atatürk University
Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education

Armenians, who have lived together with Turks for centuries have been influenced deeply by Turkish minstrelsy tradition. Especially the beginning from 14th century, Armenian minstrels have taken their places in many major Turkish minstrel locations, like Van, Diyarbakır, İstanbul, Erzurum, Ardahan, Kars, Tbilisi, Gence and Urmiye. The number of Armenians minstrels increased a great deal the 18th century.

Some master Armenian minstrels are those: Göyçek of Van, Civan of Diyarbakır, İstanbulian Artin and Rumanî, Mecnunî, Nidaî and Vartan from Erzurum, Merchant Minstrel of Kars, Ardahanian İzanî, Minstrel Şirin from Yerevan, Sayad Nova from Tbilisi, Miskin Burcu from Gence, Minstrel Zerger from Şamahı, Kul Artun of Salmas and Kul Sergiz from Urmiye.

Towards the 20th century there has appeared some decrease in the number of Armenian minstrels. Today, very few Armenian minstrels are maintaining this tradition. One of them is Minstrel Yusuf Ohanes.

In this presentation, contributions of Yusuf Ohanes to Turkish Minstrelsy tradition, Turkish language and also Turkish-Armenian relations will be held. All information about Minstrel Ohanes's lyrics, instrument, place in minstrelsy tradition and family will be presented through audio and visual documents.


Teacher of History

Art can get nations closer and make them friends, and at the same time it may make them enemies. The main question must be why and how art is done. Because in every age of the history - there may be a few exceptions - art and policy were hand in hand and even some people have used art as an instrument for their political activities.
In the age of Ottoman Empire and now, it cannot be said that just Turks have formed Anatolian Culture. Although some people resist or some people dispute, Turkish Republic rised on and formed on the remains of Ottoman Empire. The most important part of this residue is "living together as members of different languages, different religions, different races and different life styles". And one of the main factors attached those different nations on the same land was their art. It is thought that mosaic identifies Turkey but it is the art of ebru that identifies Turkey. Mosaic does not flow as ebru does. Hence it cannot describe the unity of cultures of one another. It is not enough to identify the cultural structure of Turkey. Cultures, which establish Turkey, are flowing as in "ebru art". Because of this we do not mention the ethnic origins of songs we love to sing. We just sing and enjoy.

Ottoman Armenians used to be called "millet-i sadıka" (loyal nation) by the government and they used to be favoured. Ottoman Armenians and other ethnical races had managed to live together for many centuries by the help of art. You can see and feel it from architecture to music in every part of Turkey. Art can get nations closer but at the same time - with the influence of political political interventions - it may get nations face to face and may cause cultural erosion.
In the Ottoman Empire, Turks and Armenians worked at miniature painting, architecture, literature and music together in peace. As the seventh art, cinema, played a great role to destroy the art of living together. Misfortune of cinema started immediately after the "Armenian Problem" had begun (December 28, 1895).
For the first years, audio-visual and fictitional characteristic of cinema has directed people and it has been an instrument for spreading and imposing ideas, doctrines, and ideologies and believes. Because of that, government valued cinema and it was institutional in the beginning of twentieth century.
In the history of cinema there were a lot of political propagandist films which were made aganist other nations by a nation or aganist the nation by its own government. Lenin said: "According to us, cinema is the most important of all arts". In the period of Lenin, Soviet Cinema produced films about "October Revolution" and tried to keep the "revolutionary spirit" forever.

Companionship of two societies in other fine arts could not be seen in cinema. Armenian Diaspora used cinema for propaganda aganist Turkish people. Those propagandist films were about Deportation Act passed by government of İttihat ve Terakki (Union and Progress) under pressure. Their aim was to attract attention of the European countries and to persuade Turkish people to admit that they committed a genocide.

The first film about Deportation Act was made in 1919. The film which was produced by American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was based on an Armenian girl, Aurora Mardiganian's diary "Ravished Armenia: The Story of Aurora Mardiganian, The Christian Girl Who Lived Through The Great Massacre" written by M.I. Gates. The film known as "Crucified Armenia" and "Auctions of Souls" were seen on screen in the USA and Europe in the same year, and it made great profit.
Armenian Diaspora took courage from the influence of the first film in the world and they went on doing their activities about Deportation Act. After "Crucified Armenia" and "Auctions of Souls" they made following movies.

1. The Forty Days of Musa Dagh. (The film which had been planned to made on 1935 was hindered by diplomatic endeavour of Turkish Government untill 1982)
2. The Last Outpost (1935)
3. Mayrig (1991)
4. Ararat (2001)


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ayten SEZER
Hacettepe University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

Nowadays it is observed that some Armenians want to make international society about the events occured in 1915 as a genocide . For this purpose, some Armenian groups of terror that are Diaspora Armenians act against Turkey. The events occured between Turks and Armenians, tried to be solved by using the terror. However, it is known that all Armanians do not think like that. There are some Armenians who do not agree with the activities, which are carried on, against Turkey. They wanted to set up good relations with Turkey and Turks. These Armenians represent Turkish language and culture abroad.

In this research the positive opinions of Armenians who are living out of Turkey in the light of the documents of the Directorate General of Security's Archive will be held.


Lect. Dr. Bayram DURBİLMEZ
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Turkish Language and Literature

It is of significance that the Turks and the Armenians have shared the same surroundings and interacted one another. The first and the most significant concern in bilateral relations are of course the socio-cultural relations. The well-known period for the socio- cultural relations is the Folk Literature Era. The literary folk materials such as the stories, legends, songs, and elegies influenced all the societies including the Armenians. Because of this interaction, some of the Armenians tried to own these Turkish folk literary materials. It is also known that the name aşık (the scop) was altered and used as aşuğ by the Armenians. It has been recorded that there were 23 aşuğs in Kayseri who were considered to live between the 18th -19th centuries.

Some of these aşuğs used pseudonyms such as Cedidî, Cemâlî, Fakirî, Gani / Ganioğlu, İlmî, İzanî, Kul Elfazî, Lûtfî, Mahcubî, Maklûbî, Mevzunî, Meydanî, Mihnetî, Nadirî, Nasibî, Talibî, Türabî and Ziynetî. It is observed Kalust Dedeyan ve Peprone Çamurcıyan did not use pseudonyms in their poems. The pseudonyms of Lûtfî, Mahcubî and Ziynetî were appreciated by the two scops. The essence of the folk literature is constructed by playing an instrument, reciting stories and legends, deserving the pseudonym. This presentation aims at depicting the interactions of the Turks and the Armenians within the perspective of the folk literature, and the tradition of being a scop (aşuğ).


Assist. Prof. Dr. Bilgehan PAMUK
Atatürk University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The city of Erzurum came under the ottoman administration at the beginnings of the sixteenth century and, with investments in the construction of housing and public facilities it improved towards the end of the century. Especially the Armenian presence attracts the attention in this city; due to immigrations, they developed the city towards the end of the sixteenth century. These citizens led a problem-free life under the rule of the Turks and contributed also to the development of the city. They experienced no discrimination and lived together with the Turks and also took their place within the trade guilds. Moreover, they shared one anothers cheers as well as sorrows. All inhabitants of the city, with no regard to their origins, were equally affected by the social and political events in the seventeenth century. For example the Celali Rebellions, tax increase, price increase increment, inflation, wars and banditry have been the most effective ones. The people living in the same area united in order to overcome all these problems together. The only difference of the Armenians was their religion, which was respected by the Muslim population, and so a harmonious interaction could be felt in every area of social, economic, and administrative life.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Birol AKGÜN - Zeynep BOYACIOĞLU
Res. Assist. Metin ÇELİK
Selçuk University
Faculty of Economics and Administrative Science
Depatrment of International Relations

Although the "Armenian question" has long been discussed as a historical issue, this unsettled "historical" subject still affects the contemporary state identity of the two nations, and influences Turkish and Armenian bilateral and international current relations. Moreover, since both states are democratically governed, public opinion trends concerning countries seem to be playing a critical role in their foreign relations, too. This paper treats the "Armenian question" not as a historical matter but rather as a political issue of the day, and tries to uncover the perceptive framework of the issue in both nations. With this aim, it analyzes the findings of two comparable sets of public opinion data collected by TESEV, a political think-tank organization located in Istanbul, in 2004. It is expected that such a political evaluation of the question will shed some new lights in understanding the "Armenian question" as well as theoretically aims at providing new evidence to recently popularized constructivist debate in the literature of foreign policy analysis.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Birsel MATARA
Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Fine Arts

It was not a coincidence that the art of photography has come to Ottoman Empire and chose Grand Rue de Pera short while after the invention of it. Pera (today known as Beyoglu) was like a mosaic of culture, including different kinds of nationalities and life-styles such as; Jews, Levantens, Greeks, and Europeans. At the end of 19th century, Pera was not a little Europe, but it was the middle of Europe. Certainly one the properties that made Pera special were non-Muslim photographers who have interesting personalities. When Muslims, banned for painting because of Islam, were discussing whether photography was a sin or not, non-Muslims opened their studios in Pera's splendid stores, worked in all areas of photography and took pictures of people from all classes. In scope of this presentation, Ottoman photographers with Armenian origin, Abdullah Freres (Kevork, Viçen, Hovsep), Phebus (Bogos Tarkulyan), who have contributions in developing and spreading photography among Muslim Turks and witnessed Ottoman's socio-cultural aspects, natural and historical beauties, and multi-cultural life style with their photographs will be examined along with their photographs.


Assist. Prf. Dr. Cafer ULU
Fatih University

Relationships among Turks and Armenians have begun since the IV.th Century and maintained until recent years. Armenians, who have lived under a single administration in the same country for many years, have been influenced by the Turkish cultures. Turkish-Armenian cultural relations and especially the influences of the minstrels' literature have have affected one another for many centuries. Until the end of Ottoman Empire these relations have become closer. Our study will include Turks and Armenians and their relations at the time of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish epics, legends, folk songs and literature have highly influenced Armenians. Armenians have influenced Turkish societies in the fields of architecture, theater, cinema, art, music, literature, and language. In this article the socio-cultural interactions of the Turks and the Armenians will shed into light


Instruc. Cengiz KARTIN
Erciyes University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

After the foundation of the Ottoman Empire and its regular governmental innovations, the societies belonging to different religion and nations have interacted, and have been influenced by the cultural and religious affairs of one another. Depending upon this interaction Armenians have converted to Islam with their own free will, and have fulfilled their duties concerning the religious rituals of Islam.

The coherence and the unity among these societies have a lot of utile reasons in every respect. Firstly, the government's objective policy and unprejudiced approach to the minorities and its own nation have been impartial; these societies have had the equal rights in every respect. The idea of justice and the socio-economic regulations of the Ottoman Empire have been also of significance of the bilateral interactions when compared to its contemporaries.

The bilateral relation between Turk-Armenian societies is strengthened depending up the coherent policies of the government. In this article, the role of the Ottoman Empire and its reflections to the conversion movements of Armenians are going to be held into light.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Cihat GÖKTEPE
Kafkas University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

This article will analyse the social and cultural attitudes of the Turkish administration towards the non-Muslim communities, particularly Armenians. In this context the condition of Armenians, the status of Church, the perspectives of the Ottoman administration towards the Armenian Church and society, inter-communial relationships and practices will be explained with examples in this article.

Moreover, at the same period the relationship of the Ottoman Turks with the other non-Muslim communities especially Greek Cypriots on the Island will be comparatively evaluated.

The intercommunial relationships particularly Turco-Armenian bilateral relationship during the British administration will also be taken into consideration within the period of the Ottoman administration in the Island.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Davut KILIÇ
Fırat University, Faculty of Theology

The Islamic religion, with its famous phrase"there is no force in Islam", has given permission to non-Moslems to live freely in the Moslem lands. The above-mentioned phrase asserts that religious judgements haven't been applied to non-moslem people living in Ottoman Empire and they have been permitted to have their belief and customs within the frame of tolerance.

When the Turkish people settled in Anatolia, the Armenians were given wide privileges by them and were given concessions of different congregations in order to be saved from the cruelty of the Greeks. The first spiritual centre of the west Armenians was Kütahya. After the conquest of Bursa the religious centre was moved to Bursa which became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. After a short while, when Fatih Sultan Mehmet Sultan conquered Istanbul, it was transferred to Istanbul with an imperial edict in 1461. By assigning the Sulu Manastry Greek Church to Armenians in Samatya, Fatih determined the religious leader Ovakim as the Patriarch of the Armenians living in Ottoman Empire.

The privileges given to the Greeks and Jewish were given to the Armenians too. All the religious authority, except for the Orthodox and Jewish was given to the Armenian Patriarch. The Patriarch was a mediator between the Sultan and his congregation. The non-moslem population had relation with the Padishah and his people. That's the Patriarch, too, had responsibility towards Padishah and officers with their behaviours, taxes and other liabilities. That's why the Armenian Patriarch used to deal with the affairs of the people. In other words, the chastity and integrity fortune and conscience freedom of people belonging to the Istanbul Armenian Patriarch was under the control of the Patriarch.

With the regulations of the Armenian Nation in 1863 some important authority parts of the Patriarch were given to the new Council. The Corporeal Council took the responsibility of lots of things including judicial and administrative affairs. This regulation is very important as it runs a new period over the religious, political and communial existence of the Ottoman Armenians and to show how positive the Ottoman Empire was towards them.


Res. Assist. Dilşen İnce ERDOĞAN
Dokuz Eylül University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

Armenians came to the Anotolia in VI.th century, and lived together with the Turks thousands of years. Armenians were influenced by the Turkish customs and they found the opportunity of believing in their own religion thanks to the unifying policy of Islam religion. Hovewer, when the Ottoman Empire began to weaken and the intervention of European powers in almost all subject occurred, the Turkish-Armenian relationship started to weaken and became worse. The main reason of the deterioration of the relation between the Turks and Armenians was the wicked deeds of the missionaries, councils and the external powers. In XIXth century there were almost 40 Armenian rebellions in Eastern Antolia. The most important rebellion was the Van rebellion in 1896; due to the strategic place of Van, the Armenians rebeled agains the Ottomans.

Both the innocent Turks and the Armenians suffered from the Armenian revolution. At that time the American missionaries helped the Armenians, especially the orphans and established the Van Orphanage. In this investigation, the reports, which were written by Mr. Raynolds in September, December, and November, and in 1897 from January to September to Boston, were evaluated. Furthermore the articles of The Republican, The Hartford Courant Newspapers in 1896, written by Mr. Raynolds, will be used to define the importance of the Armenian orphans for the Americans.

* Ottoman-Tipu Sultan Relations:A Critical Assessment Of The Role Of Armenian Merchants In Mysore
* Contribution Of The Ottoman Education System To The Turkish-Armenian Interactions
* Clever Higar's Story From Gregorian Kitchak Texts
* Samples Of The Literary Production Of Early Gregorian Kipchaks
* Turkish-Armenian Relations In The Turkish National Struggle Novels
* Armenian Schools In Kayseri From The End Of The 19th Century To The Beginning Of The 20th Century According To The Kayseri Armenians History Book By The Armenian Historian Arsak Alboyaciyan
* Young Turk-Armenian Relations During The Second Constitutional Period, 1908-1914
* Turkish Originated Armenian Names
* Religious Concessions Of The Ottoman Empire Towards Armenians Within The Frame Of The Church Constructions
* Kypchak-Armenian Community According To The 16th-17th Centuries Kypchak -Armenian Documents And Their Commercial Activities With The Ottoman Empire And Russia
* Turkish-Armenian Social Relations:Some Reflections Of Armenians Immigrated To Usa From The Ottoman State In The 19th Century
* Common Musical Traditions Of The Armenians And Tatars
* The Armenian Widows And Orphans And The Policy Of The Ottoman Empire Towards Armenians
* Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Turkish Embassy Letters And The Representation Of The Armenian Society
* Survey Of The Social Life Of Armenians In The Ottoman City Of Kayseri In 17th Century (According To The Sharia Court Records Of Kayseri)
* Bursa Armenians In The Work Bursa Tour Of The Bulgarian Researcher Nikola Natchov (1859-1940)
* Armenians In The Ottoman Society In The 18th Century: Observations And Thoughts
* 13 Wards And 7 Socities (Examples Of The Socio-Cultural Interactions Among The Societies In The 19th Century)
* Turkish-Armenian Relations On The Viewpoint Of Belief
* Social Lives And Conversion Movements Of The Balikesir Armenians According To The Sharia Court Records
* Regarding To The Written Sources Of Polovtsians-Armenian Turkish-Armenian Relationships
* Economic Interactions Of Turks And Armenians In The 19th Century In Kayseri
* The Estate (Tereke) Of The Armenian Women
* Ottoman-Armenian Relations In The Light Of Indian Sources
* A Case Study Of The Turkish-Armenian Economic Structures In Tokat In The First Half Of The 19th Century
* The Art Of Living Together In 1909 "Cemİyetler Kanunu" And The Armenians In The Constitution Ii
* Reflections Of The Social Lives Of The Muslim-Non-Muslim Societies In Urfa During The Ottoman Period
* Economic And Demographic Analysis Of Armenians In The 16th Century In Kayseri
* Armenian Composers In The Ottoman Traditional Turkish Music
* Turkish Names Used By Non-Muslim Ottoman Citizens According To Diyarbakir Province Jizye Records Dated Hijri 1104-1105 (A.D. 1691-1692)


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aftab Kamal PASHA
Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
School of International Studies

Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan since 1779 until 1799 ruled from Srirangapatna, Mysore over large areas of what is now called Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in South India. The British were opposed to both the rulers and used their power and influence with the Mughal Emperor in Delhi not to accord legitimacy to the Mysore rulers. Tipu Sultan approached the Ottoman Sultan who accorded permission to assume the title of an independent monarch and the right to strike coins and to have the Friday Khutba read in his name. Tipu also got friendly letters, Khillats, a sword and a shield studded with precious stones by the Caliph and his Grad Wazir. Regarding military help sought by Tipu, the Ottman ruler turned down the request as he was facing several outside threats. The French promised help to Tipu. The Mysore ruler had strong trade ties with the Sultan of Oman and also extensive trade contacts in the Gulf-Red Sea region and with the Ottoman Empire. Mysore became prosperous due to state monopoly of trade as Tipu placed restrictions on European trading companies especially the British. Tipu's tremendous interest in international trade and other foreign economic matters in the midst of battles, challenges from the British and other threats, reveals his far sightedness and realization that promotion of commerce and industry is the true strength of his Kingdom. The British viewed Tipu as a dangerous competitor and their goal was to put an end to all his trading activities and imaginative enterprise. Tipu wanted to secure trade privileges with the Ottoman Empire on a reciprocal basis; he wanted facilities in Basra in exchange for similar ones in Mangalore, that Turkey help in establishing various factories in Mysore by sending technicians. Tipu encouraged Armenian Christian merchants to come and settle in Mysore and gave them special privileges as they were seen as successful businessmen. He was also keen to utilize their expert knowledge and promote trade since the Armenian merchants were well known for their extensive knowledge and wide contacts in key trading centers, Tipu greatly valued them. The Armenian merchants specialized in the export of high quality textiles and Tipu patronized them as he laid great emphasis on exports and wide contacts with the Ottoman Empire.
Although Armenian merchants had lucrative business in Tipu's Kingdom but some scholars are of the opinion that the British extensively tapped their knowledge about Indian ruling Princes and used it to consolidate their position/power in India. Ultimately the British defeated and killed Tipu in 1799. This paper focuses on Tipu's trade and other ties with the Ottomans as also the role of Armenian merchants in Mysore in particular and South India in general. It critically examines the place of Armenian merchants in the Ottoman Empire in relation to South India. The paper is based on Indian sources at Mysore, Mumbai and Delhi.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Erdal AÇIKSES
Fırat University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The most considerable matter relating the minority societies' arrangement of their own dynamics within the Millet System was undoubtedly the resolving of the religion and education systems. Each society was arranging his religion and education institutions with reference to their own facilities and values. There was not any discrimination about these fields and after the constitution of the Ministry of Education, the regulations had been constructed according to this, and separate control mechanisms for non-Muslim schools had been established. This application was not discrimination but a necessity of the system.
Quotations had been allocated for the societies within the schools established by the state. The education had been mixed in the schools. The societies notably had offered cooperation to the Central Government in order to protect their students from the detriments of the missioner schools and to prevent people to prefer the foreign schools, and in this sense developing the education system had been thought as a precaution. All the measures had been applied for the education field had been implemented in order to provide the Turks and the Armenians with a common and peaceful life as Ottoman citizens.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Erdoğan ALTINKAYNAK - Sevda ALTINSOY
Karadeniz Teknik University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Turkish Language and Literature

Clever Higar's story is one of Greorian Kitchak texts. Garkavets, Deny, Triyarski and Kudasov have studied on these texts. The original text is recorded in Vienna Armenian Priests Congress Library as numbered 468.

There are a lot of components of Turkish folk-culture in the text. In this text we can see the perceptions we run into in Nasreddin Hodja Stories, Oguz Kagan Epic, Kutadgu Bilig and Dede Korkut Stories.

In this study we present complete text of the story with its transcription and also its original. We transfer common relations of sensation, thought and moral values, which are included in this text comparing with Anatolian folk-culture.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Erdoğan ALTINKAYNAK
Karadeniz Teknik University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Turkish Language and Literature

Gregorian Kipchak texts haven't been annihilated during the 2nd World War though some scientests claimed. These texts have enriched the museums and archives of different countries. Gregorian Kipchaks name their primary language as Hipchak Tili, Kipchak Tili, Kipchaks' Tili, Bizim Til, Tatarca.
In our notification we present the countries which have got these texts and the short quotations from the texts in these countries.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Esat CAN
Trakya University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Novels, written in the the Turkish National Struggle period, ephasize the most important period of the Turkish history and point out different themes and significant matters including the minorities. These minority themes are generally related to Greeks because of Turkish-Greek war, but there are also some matters related to Armenian minority or Armenian hero stories. Another characteristic of Turkish struggle, the inevitable results of historical events, is the separation of different nations lived together in many centuries each other and is the turn on own directions and destinies.

Turkish novelists mentioned on their novels that minorities had negative manners. While the novelists were committing the Turkish struggle, certain aspects were used to disappear the world history area. While general atmosphere was like this, some other novelists also mentioned on some good examples about minority people who are generally Armenian heros behind of these negative aspects.

Doctor Minas in Küçük Ağa novel of Tarık Buğra, Pandikyan Efendi in Sırtlan Payı novel of Attila İlhan, Mıgırdıç Efendi in Esir Şehrin İnsanları novel of Kemal Tahir, Madam Elekçiyan in Sahnenin Dışındakiler novel of Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar, Artin Usta in Toz Duman İçinde novel of Talip Apaydın, Margosyan Efendi in Var Olmak novel of İlhan Tarus, Zadik Usta and Siran in Saragül novel of Ömer Polat were these positive manner novel heroes. These people who lived together with Turkish friends peacefully with conscious manner as human in many centuries were against this fight and policy or withstand their racist and quarrelsome Armenian's efforts.
In this paper, the personalities, ideas, manner and behaviors of these Armenian novel hero will be analyzed giving examples as the art of live together peacefully from Turkish Struggle period.


Rec. Assist. Esma İgüs PARMAKSIZ
Mimar Sinan Fine Arst University

The proceedings are based on the section titled Armenian Kayseri History of the Armenian Historian Arsak Alboyaciyan published in Cairo, 1937 in Armenian Alphabet.
In the relevant section of his work, Alboyaciyan tells about the active schools belonging the Armenian society in the interval between the last period of XVIII.th Century, and beginning of XX.th Century.

Although it has not been translated into Turkish yet, introducing this work, which is a comprehensive and unique study on the history of Kayseri, to the interested researchers within the symposium will be beneficial.

The following titles will be taken into account for that purpose:

A-Definition of the education concept and the function of education in the modernization and political indoctrination process in Europe and Ottoman Empire
B-The meaning of education and teaching in the Ottoman Empire in the context of modernization
C-Education activities in the Armenian society of the Ottoman Empire in XIX.th century
D- Armenian schools in Kayseri at the end of XVIII.th century and the beginning of XX.th century


Prof. Dr. Feroz AHMAD
Yeditepe University

Even before the restoration of the constitution in July 1908, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) a.k.a. the Dashnaksutiun and the Young Turks collaborated to bring about the fall of the Abdulhamid regime and to restore the constitution. After the constitution was restored, the collaboration continued and the two sides worked together to make the new regime work. Even the incidents in Adana in April 1909 failed to undermine the working relations because the Dashnak understood that the Unionists - members of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) - were seriously committed to the constitution and that it was the liberals and conservatives who wanted to destroy it.

The two sides negotiated on the number of deputies the Armenian community should be elected to parliament, as well as on laws parliament to be passed. Moreover, the Unionists sought the active help of Armenian professionals - such as engineers and agronomists - in order to carry out schemes of reform in Anatolia. The Young Turk governments also tried to resolve the 'land question' in eastern Anatolia that plagued relations between Armenian peasants and the Kurdish tribes.
Working relations between the two sides continued into the middle of 1914. Moreover, the Ottoman government, now under CUP control and much weakened by the catastrophe of the Balkan War, was willing to make concessions to Great Power demands on behalf of the Armenian community. Thus the Porte permitted the appointment of two European governors for the six provinces in eastern Anatolia. The relationship might have continued to be resolved peacefully had war not broken out in Europe in July 1914; the Unionists and the Dashnak now been victims of Great Power intrigue.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Galibe HACIYEVA
Nahçıvan State University

Turks have a great variety of preserving purely Turkish names depending upon the religious aesthetics and cultural civilizations through ages. For this reason the Azerbaijani-Turkish name system influenced the Armenian' name system. Thanks to the interaction of the Turks and the Armenians, the origin of the names of the Turks highly affected the names of the Armenians. For example Demirçiyan, Zori Balayan, Şahnezeryan, Koçeriyan were the names of the Armenians originated from the Turks. Although the names were originated from the Turkish culture, some of the Armenian historians destroyed the original historical sources and claimed that the names were purely originated from the Armenian culture.

Armenians settled in the lands of Azerbaijan and Caucasians, and in those regions there were Azerbaijan-Turks before the settlement of the Armenians. The major reason for owning the Turkish names of the Armenians was to interact one another. Due to these interactions, Armenians considered themselves to be the legal owners of the Azerbaijan lands, and original Turkish names. It is a known fact that the Armenians owned these names and changed them by using prefixes and suffixes. For example some region names such as Müküz, Muğancık, Muğanlı, Muğan, Karahaç, Karahanlı, Karahut, Karapapak, Karaüren, Arsak, Mığrı and etc. were changed and used by the Armenians. In this article, the origins of the names of the regions and the people will be focused on in the light of the historical documents.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Gülbadi ALAN
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The bilateral relations of Turks and Armenians have such a long historical background. Within this long historical background the most important concern has been the reconciliation and the affluence between these societies. This quality of the bilateral interaction has influenced the Armenians; not only have they spoken Turkish, but also they have done their religious rituals by using Turkish language in their daily lives. In this respect the major concern of the construction of this worthy bilateral interaction is the concessions of the Ottoman Empire among the minority societies in the fields of economic, administrative, social and cultural developments
These concessions of the Ottoman Empire have influenced the religion of the Armenians, as well. In case of not opposing to the major governmental politics of the Ottoman Empire, Armenians have been let free in their religious rituals at every respect. The freedom of the religion between the societies has improved the relations. One of the well known and the most important concern of this bilateral interaction is of course the well-established attitudes of the Ottoman Empire towards Armenians in the reconstruction of the churches.

In this article, the religious concessions of the Ottoman Empire towards Armenians especially the reconstruction of the churches will be asserted. The subject matter will be evaluated with the condition of Armenians' church reconstruction demands; the approach of the Ottoman's related to these demands, and the freedom in religion.


Lect. Dr. Gülnisa AYNAKULOVA
Gazi University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In Galichia-Podolsk Ukraine Armenian colonies whose language was Turkish firstly, during the period of the Golden-Hord in the time of Mongols, must have taken place in the fourteenth century. Afterwards, last decade of XV the century the Ottoman Turkish captured the city "Kefe" (1475), the movements of colonization began to there. Armenians who settled in Kefe abandoned the cities Crimea and Kefe and immigrated beside their coreligionists living in the region of Podolia and Galichia in Ukraine. In present, these Armenian colonists are not Turkish speaking people anymore, they use Ukrainian, Russian and Polish like the other local inhabitants. But the documents written in Turkish with the Armenian alphabet displayed clearly what language they used to speak and how they spoke it in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This literature consists of mainly The Armenian-Qypchaq Law Book and The Code of Procedures. However, religious literary works and historical papers have also been recognized in that time.

If we focus on the language written in The Armenian-Qypchaq Law Book and The Code of Procedures: language experts claim that this Gregorian-Qypchaq language resembles one of the Qypchaq and Cuman languages from Crimea, in terms of origin and structure Trakay dialect of Karaim language, Cuman, Qypchaq-Urum dialects and dialects of Crimean Tatar Sphere. In the sources of The Armenian-Qypchaq Code of Procedures, many of the commercial privileges possessed by Armenians are emphazised. These privileges were given to Armenians on the grounds that they were much too beneficial for the countries in the region. Commercial activities of the Armenians were still on the run even in war times, under the protection of the fighter parts. For example, during the Hotin War between 1620 and 1621, the number of paper of privileges given to the Armenians of Kamenets by the Ottoman government varies between 8 and 13. These papers provide Armenians with the privileges of traveling in the lands of Turkey and "Vassal" countries safe and sound and with fulfilling their commercial works. These Gregorian Qypchaq Armenians were assigned to various posts in Ottoman bureaucracy, such as interpreter, advisor, undersecretary, mediator, escort, even diplomat due to the fact that these people were competent in Ottoman Turkish close to Crimean Turkish, also close to Qypchaq language. In this notification, based on the Qypchaq-Armenian documents of XVI-XVII centuries, will be discussed the commercial relations and various activities among Gregorian Qypchaq Armenians, Ottoman Empire and Russia.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Gürsoy ŞAHİN
Afyon Kocatepe University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

It is known that culture of food is an important sign of social interaction in every society. Hence the majaor aim of this presentation is to focus on the food names used by Armenians who immigrated to USA from Ottoman territory in the end of 19th century, and is to reflect the Turko-Armenian interactions.

Based on the data food names such as "halvah, dolma, lahmejuns, prınzov pılaf, bulghur pılaf, shısh kebab, khabourga, kadın budu kufta, chee kufta, mantı, baklava, burma, kurabıa" belong to the two cultures, Turkish and Armenian. It can also be said that mutual interaction has still been living and these kinds of examples are the results of these interactions.


Tataristan Sciences Academia
Institute of Language, Literature and Arst, Department of Arts

The historical-political and regional conditions defined many general traits in cultures of Armenians and Turks. They were, mostly, pronounced in the epoch of Ottoman Empire. As an example of the revealed interactions of these cultures, among many others, the Crimean and Kazan Tatars can be shown.

The investigations in the field of musical and musical-poetic traditions of the Crimean and Kazan Tatars show the cultural interactions among the all-Turkic and the all-Muslim world. One of the possible aspects of this study is to compare the musical and musical-poetic heritage of Armenians and the Kazan, Crimean Tatars.
Art of ashugs of Armenians represents a part of musical-poetic heritage from the Turkish Muslims, which are of significance in the mutual interactions.
It is known that repertoire of the first Armenian ashugs Gul Ogli Erzinkaci (XV c.), Naapet Kuchak (XVI c.) included the Turkish songs. The Muslim hymns sung by the Crimean and Kazan Tatars were included in the repertoire of Armenian ashugs.

The creative Armenian ashugs, a famous Sayat-Nova among them, are represented by the musical-poetic patterns. These patterns are the essence of traditional cultures of many Turkic societies. The performance of the melodies used as the classical subjects of Muslim East Leyli and Medjnun, Farhad and Shirin, Shahsenem and Garip and others, by the Armenian ashugs show us once again close musical-poetical links between Armenians and Tatars.

According to the Armenian researches, the Armenian ashugs were preceeded by mtrubs at the musical-poetic stage. The creativity of mtrubs can be found in the medieval musical cultures of the Kazan Tatars. The classical poetic texts such as the "Jumjuma-I Sultan" of Hisam Katib of the Tatar-Turkic poet of the XIVth century, point to this fact. The function of mtrubs was similar both in the Armenian and Kazan Tatar musical cultures.

The common musical traditions of Armenians and the Crimean Tatars can be revealed at the mode and melodic-intonation level. It is pointed out by the centuries-old cultural contacts and regional peculiarities.

The analogies are traced at the level of instruments as well. The traditional instruments characterizing the Armenian musical art are also typical for the Tatar musical tradition. Such instruments as zurna, tar, kemancha and others were the classical art instruments of both the Kazan and Crimean khanates.

The interactions of the Armenian musical tradition with the traditions of Iranians, Azerbaijanians, Turks and Crimean Tatars are of importance. The interconnections of the musical culture of the Kazan Tatars with Armenians can be traced and revealed by Armenian-Iranian, Armenian-Azerbaijan, Armenian- Turks, Armenian-Crimean Tatars intercorrelations.

This fact opens up fresh opportunities for studying the cultures of Armenians as well as Turkic peoples.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Hasan BABACAN
Afyon Kocatepe University

In our study, the era of Abdulhamit II and the Ottoman Empire's policies towards the Armenian widows, orphans and and poors in Ottoman Society will be shed into light. It will be drawn attention to the widowhouses, orphanages for the Armenians built by the Ottoman government. The Armenians had the equal rights like the other societies in the Empire, and the Ottoman policy towards these societies was of significance.

This presentaion aims at clarifying the governmental practices to the Armenian Orphans and the aid campaigns for the poor, the money transfers through the Ministery of Finance (Hazine-i Hassa), the efforts of constructing shelters and the buildings, and etc with the help of the historical sources. It will also be asserted to the Ottoman government's aids to the Armenian poors in the Ottoman society, and the missionaries' interference to the aids and the competitions of these missionaries.
In this study, it will also be stated the shelter and financial aids for the orphans and poors, and the recovery of the live standarts depending on the necessities of the Armenians


Rec. Assist. Hasan BAKTIR
Middle East Technical University

In order to observe and evaluate the culture, region and the customs of a society, one has to live within this society. The process of living in a society requires the one to learn, understand and teach how to put the theories into practice. These kinds of acquisitions are the major concerns, which let societies to interact one another. These acquisitions, of course, depend upon the awareness and competence of the target culture. For this reason, it may be asserted that the analyses of a target culture are strictly related to the relevant informations about the society. In this respect travellers to the Ottoman society from Britain during the 18th century recorded their observation from a distant point of view; they did not take the culture and the society into consideration together. Among many, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, was a well-known traveller. Lady Montagu's Turkish Embassy Letters were widely read and was a popular work in the 18th century England. She had an Access to Ottoman elite woman society and had interesting observations about it. However, her records about Armenians and other minority societies in the empire were not satisfactory. Her awareness of the Ottoman social and cultural context was not comprehensive enough to depict the hearth of the society and to give an efficient image of minority societies in the Ottoman society. Therefore, her records and interpretation about the Armenian minority in the empire cannot be valued. In the present study we aim to investigate the representation of the Ottoman Armenians in Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Turkish Embassy Letters.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Hava SELÇUK
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The judicial records, on which this study is based, date back to the 17th century. Sharia court records are the most relevant sources in order to understand the condition of the Armenian women and men in the Ottoman and Islamic society. The Armenians of Kayseri used the Muslim court regularly. They brought their problems to the court.

Thanks to these sharia court records in Kayseri, the conversion of Armenian women and men to Islam is observed. A study of conversion with the light of the sharia court records may give an idea of the Muslim and non-muslim relations.

In this article, the status of the Armenians in the Ottoman city of Kayseri will be pointed out within the perspectives of mariage and divorce, social life, personal wealth (asset), the Armenian church in Kayseri and marriage of the Armenian with Greeks and Muslims


Dr. Hüseyin MEVSİM
Ankara University
Language and History-Geography Faculty
Department of Western Language and Literature
Bulgarian Language and Literature

Nikola Natchov, who lived between 1859 and 1940, did valuable researches during the 19th century. That era was considered to be the era of Bulgarian Renaissance with its prominent scholars. In the autumn of 1879, just after the Russian-Ottoman War, he arrived to ursa from the city Kalofer, where he followed Filibe, Edirne, İstanbul, Mudanya to reach at, to own his father's inheretence. His father died before Natchov arrived to Bursa, and he had been the cart-driver in Silk Khan. Throughout his first long journey to Bursa, Natchov, 20 year-old young man, took his daily notes about Bursa and published a book entitled "Bursa Tour"or "Journey Notes" in 1934. In his book, Nikola Natchov portayed interesting observations and clues about the social lives of Bursa Armenians.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. İbrahim GÜLER
İstanbul University
Hasan Ali Yücel Faculty of Education

A great deal of research has been conducted and published in recent years on Armenians in Ottoman society from 19th century to the early 20th century. This is undoubtedly because of the international politics that Armenians and their supporters have been following about Turks and the Republic of Turkey. However, little attention has been drawn to the condition of Armenians in the Ottoman society in previous centuries, so the number of publications regarding this topic is limited.
On the other hand, it is possible to find documents about a variety of topics of previous periods in the archives of the Imperial Council (Divan-ı Humayun) and to reach important information related to the condition of Armenians from 15th century to 19th century, which has hardly been investigated. It is possible to analyze Turkish-Armenian relations through facts that these documents reveal rather than biased approaches to the issue and to prevent political problems of today.

I consider this meeting as an opportunity to evaluate the documents about Armenians in the Ottoman Society from the Ottoman archives of the Prime Ministry (Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi).

In this respect, I hope that this study will help to illuminate the so-called Armenian problem, which has been a nuisance in Turkey's domestic and foreign politics. As a researcher involved in studying the 17th century Ottoman society, I aim at observing and determining the place of Armenians in the Ottoman society in the light of general and superficial comments and relevant documents.


Library of Mardin History
Project Coordinator

Mardin and its surroundings has been the homeland of many ethnic groups, tribes and religious communities due to its geographical location. In 19th century, Mardin was a city including 13 neighborhoods and 7 different religious socieites (Muslim, Catholic Armenian, Suryani Kadim, Catholic Suryani, Semsi, Keldani and Jewish) around its castle that lived together in harmony inspite of the political chaos. In 19th century, the communial organizations of each group and the socio-economical structure of the region have been a distinctive factor in relationships of the people living in Mardin and its surroundings.

The change occurred in that region in 19th century has been distinctive in relationships of the groups among one another. Especially the weaknesses of the Ottoman Empire and the Western interference have altered the political dimension of the socio-economical conditions of the region. While the conflicts of the Muslim tribes among one another and other religious groups were taking place around Mardin in 19th century, the city life of Mardin reflected a classical Ottoman city vista in spite of all negative policies of the other powers.

In this article, I will focus on the examples in the light of the Prime Ministry Ottoman archives and Mardin courtesy records, and draw attention to the the communities who shared the same city and neighborhood, and lived together in harmony in contrary to the general structure of 19th century.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. İsa YÜCEER
Yüzüncü Yıl University
Faculty of Theology

The relations between the Turks and the Armenians reflect the characteristics of Muslim-Christian relations. In the past, people from different religions were able to live together and establish proper relations. The differences in their beliefs did not prevent them from spending centuries in peace. In the announcement, it will be stressed that there is no apparent reason why people from different religions and beliefs cannot share the same environment. It will also be stated that there were examples in our past where people lived together in harmony by showing respect to other's beliefs, and thanks to this harmony the societies believed in their own doctrines.


Assist. Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı MERCAN
Balıkesir Üniversitesi
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Anatolia started to become a Turkish Land after 11th century, especially after the eras of the Seljuk and Begliks dynasties and took its final shape throughout the Ottoman period.

Muslim-Turks, who came to Anatolia, encountered various ethnic and religious groups in this land. After a long process of history, Anatolia turned out to be their homeland. The Turks had also managed to preserve consensus and to be together with those different ethnic groups. The national traditions of the Turks and the tolerance of the Islamic administrators led all the societies live in harmony.

It is a known fact that some of the Armenians lived in the eastern parts of Anatolia from Kars and Ani to Van and Hakkari, and in the Caucasus regions, and some of them lived in the southern and central Anatolia. The reason for these settlements was the Byzantine rule; the Byzantine state had settled them there to stop the attacks of the Muslim Araps first, then of the Turks.

The major concern of this study is to investigate the social life of the Armenians in Balıkesir according to shaira court records. In the light of the court records it will be focused on the conversions of the Armenian to Islam. Conversions had very many different reasons; they sometimes happened by the force of political powers or of the individual interests. Therefore I intend to point out the implicit factors of the conversion cases of the Armenians.


Prof. Dr. İsmail Veli ÖMEROĞLU
Bakü State University
Azerbaycan National Sciences Academia
Institute of Turkish Societies Folk Culture Department

The historical explanation of Turkish-Armenian relationship shows that there were a lot of correspondences, cultural, social, economical and even ethic closeness between these nations as they had together lived in many regions, had relationships for hundred years. Turkish people had taken an active part in the forming of Armenian ethnos, art and culture. Historical facts show that in the Crimea, Hungary, Poland and other Europe countries they had common language, art and writing. In ancient times as a result of political disorders two sides fights disorders of attitude were, in short time the peace was attained and then common livings were recontinued. The relations between Armenians and Turkish people were so strong that, they had translated their church prayers into the Turkish language. In 1618 in Lvov the prayer called "Alkish bitigi" (greeting writings) was written in the Turkish language but with Armenian alphabet and it shows that they had taken the Turkish language for themselves as "a life language". In XVII in Armenian people's courts the using of Turkish language was left very many monuments. All these facts show that Armenian people were connected with Turkish people.

Except Azerbaijan and Armenian, in other countries Armenian and Turkish (Azeri) people have normal common work and there are many facts that they don't do any harm, and it is the main fact that it helps to solve the problem.
In the submitted article to the symposium the Polovtsian-Armenian language problem is especially mentioned. The people's who lived in Poland having got the Christianity belief, writing and social problems in courts documents having noted with Armenian writing are analyzed.


Lect. İsmigül ÇETİN
Erciyes University
Yozgat Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Kayseri established in B.C 2800, and had been an important centre of population during history. Kayseri was captured by the Ottoman State in 1467, and protected its quality as an important centre of trade. When it was captured, by the Ottoman State in 1467, it became the the city of Karaman Province till the Tanzimat period, and after the Tanzimat period, it belonged to the Bozok Province and then it became a sanjak of Ankara due to the Province Regulations in1867.
Kayseri was a city, where more frequent Armenians lived, was the centre of population. According to the official Ottoman Statistics in 1914, 184.292 Muslims, 20.590 Greeks and 50.174 Armenians were living in Kayseri Sanjak. When total population 255.056 was taken into consideration, Armenian population was a twenty percent of the total population. Consequently, it may be asserted that this sanjak was a good example to understand the relations of the Armenian and Turkish communities.
The eleven of the sharia court records related to Kayseri in the years of 1809-1904, formed by Muslim judges in law courts, and all the events, complaints and the other matters were recorded, and registered. These records depict the economic bonds of the Turkish and the Armenian communities. In this article, the economic bond of the Turks and the Armenians will be taken into consideration.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Jülide AKYÜZ
Kafkas University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The studies about the Armenians assert that they lived under the Ottoman rule, and mainly deal with the political issues. Nowadays, socio-cultural studies are of importance. The nations living together in the same surrounding influence one another. The social and cultural interactions of the Turks and the Armenians can be better understood when the records in Sharia court are closely examined. It is known that, Sharia law allowed the non-Muslim nations in a Muslim state to act in accordance with their own legal rules, but when they wished they could also apply for the Islamic courts. The estates (tereke) of the Armenian women recorded in the eighteenth century Ankara Shari'a courts. By this way, the social and cultural conditions of the Armenians, especially the women can be better understood.
The women owners and their condition in family relations, belongings, clothes, jewelleries, dowries and the goods used in the houses portray the social and cultural state of the Armenians in the Ottoman society.


Prof. Mansura HAIDAR
Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
School of International Studies

For a variety of reasons, the political events in the Ottoman Empire during the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century had particularly attracted the attention of Indians. Turkey's initiatives and activities had served as the light house for Asians who shared common aspirations, passed through similar woes and weals and found themselves bound with Turkey by a sense of solidarity and common interests. The process of thought generated in Turkey and channelised into different movements had a mesmerizing effect on the Asians and its rays reached India also. A lot was, therefore, written in India about various happenings in Turkey to cater to the requirements and to satisfy the yearnings of concerned Indians who watched with rapt dismay and silent concentration the fluctuating fortunes of a land which had governed Eurasia for centuries. While discussing the Armenian issue which had raged global reactions and generated widespread polemics with all its long standing issues and longer ranging repercussions, it seems worthwhile to turn towards hitherto unexplored Indian sources. In this paper, an attempt is being made to present the various facets of Ottoman-Armenian relations after wading through the thought provoking analysis of contemporary Indian thinkers.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet BEŞİRLİ
Gaziosmanpaşa University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The life styles, wealth, and incomes of the societies, and their economic structures and potentials are important subject matters to be examined in the historical sources. The societies in different races and religions within the Ottoman society lived together and established social and economic relations and influenced one another. In terms of lifle style, behavior, and social structure, it was observed that they were within similar organizations. This co-existence preserved its structure in the government center and the provinces. During the Ottoman period, Tokat was the one of the cities where the Muslim and non-Muslim social and economic relations were observed. In this study, the economic structure and income levels of the Turkish and Armenian societies in Tokat will be evaluated during the first half of the 19th century, and their prosperity levels will be compared due to the sharia records. It is known that the estate records depict the individual and the social belongings. In other words, these records depicted the prices of goods, foods, animals, houses, gardens, shops, real estate, various enterprises, houseware, clothes, kitchenware and etc. In addition to this, the cashes of individuals, their debts and credits, dowry of a marriage to be paid by the husbands, expenses for washing, expenses of a corpse, taxes to be paid in law were recorded in these records.

In this study, the income levels and life status of both societies in Tokat will be compared in the light of the sharia court records.


Dr. Mehmet Emin ELMACI
Dokuz Eylül University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

In the period of Constitution II, illegal societies and committees were legalized in 16th august in 1909 with Ccemiyetler Kanunu. According to the Kanun-i Esasi, dated 21st august, 120th item was added and establishing a legal commity was approved of. After the approval of the item, illegal societies were not given permission to establish a commitee in the Ottoman Empire. The major aim of the "Cemiyetler Kanunu" was to unite all ethnic groups in the Ottoman Empire, and to protect the multinational structure. There were lots of discussions in the Otoman Assembly about this law.

Except for the Muslims, all members in the Assembly held the idea of ethnicity. This attitude was against to the "Cemiyetler Kanunu". The Armenian members in the Assembly followed the same ideas of the Muslims, and had debates about the unity in the Ottoman society.
In this article, the "Cemiyetler Kanunu" and its regulations will be focused on.


Dr. Mehmet Emin ÜNER
Harran University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

In the first half of XVII century, there were non-muslim minority groups in Urfa who shared the city center with the Muslims. Most of these people were Christian Armenians, and some of them were Jews. In this study, it is understood that although the non-muslims had their own neighborhood, they shared the social activities with the other inhabitants of the city and were in good relations with one another. The non-muslims could perform trade activities with the Muslims and undertook the management of Islamic foundations.

In addition to this, the judicial records show little conflicts in these relationships. Their shops and houses were closer and they trusted one another in every respect. This type of relationship found its place in stories and homours as well.


Doç. Dr. Mehmet İNBAŞI
Atatürk University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Throughout the Ottoman History Kayseri maintained its significance as the Ottoman city where culturally and racially different communities coexisted peacefully for centuries.

In Kayseri, both Muslims and non-Muslims lived together. Throughout the 16th century, the population included Muslim-Turks, Armenians and Greeks. Armenians in Kayseri, who were non-Muslims, were living in a location between Kiçi Kapı, or Ayavasil Kapı and Sivas Kapı.

After the Ottoman rule, more information was gathered from the inhabitants of the city. Referring to the records of 5 tahrir registers of title deeds dated 1484, 1500, 1520, 1570 and 1584, we obtain some ideas about both Muslim and non-Muslim population.

In registers of the deeds, starting from the city center, the residental districts were registered respectively. In the city firstly, Muslim districts, then non-Muslim elements were written under the name of "Cemaat-ı Zımmiyan" or "Cemaat-ı Gebran". Between the Muslim and non-Muslim people in the city, under the name of those who were the craftsmen, their crafts were used by the register. Muslim and non-Muslim men who paid tax were considered as "hane" and the bachelor as "mücerred". The villages that we called, and then rural settlement units were written one by one and as silver coins, the yearly cost of the products raised in a village was shown in income section.

Among the books register of title deeds where characteristics we mentioned, 5 different books related to Kayseri are examined here.
In the book dated 1570, totally 652 people were registered as "Cemaat-ı Ermeniyan-ı Kayseriyye, Cemaat-ı Ermeniyan der Bab-ı Sivas, Cemaat-ı Ermeniyan-ı Şarkıyan, Cemaat-ı Ermeniyan-ı Sisiyan". As for 1584, the districts inhabited by both Turkish and Armenian population were first stated. These were Şehreküstü, Bektaş, Oduncu, Tatur, Tavukçu and İnceşehir residential districts.


Instruc. Mehmet KINIK
Erciyes University
Faculty of Fine Arts

Most of the Armanian music composers grown in Ottoman music traditions generally belonged to the Ottoman society. They were highly influenced by the Turk-Islam culture that was also entitled the social music. This is the truth even though they have composed of the songs on their own religion. The reason of this reality is that Ottoman music culture that has large cultural interactions with the foreing cultures and traditions. This feature has ensured a multi-cultured music tradition on ottoman music. The Ottoman music addressed to all societies icludin the minorities in the Ottoman society. Ottoman music which is not only subject to religious basis essentially focused on the interaction of the Turkish culture and cultures of various regions involved in the very large geographic ranges of Ottoman empire during it history. The non-Muslim and non-Turkish musicians who were the members of various nations and communities could have possibilities to act their arts within Ottoman music without facing any negative reactions. The non-Muslim musicians in in Ottoman music tradition, especially the Armanians were not only acting their arts to their own communities but also sharing them with Ottoman people and administrators. At this point, we can say that Ottoman has given concessions to Armanian just like they have done to other nations during their history. The Armanian musicians in the Ottoman music have contributed to the Turk-Islam philosophy of Ottoman culture.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Mehmet Salih ERPOLAT
Dicle University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

According to Jizye Records Dated Hijri 1104-1105 (A.D. 1691-1692) there were total of 4137 non-muslim taxpayers, 2850 of which lived in the citycenter while 1287 of which lived in villages of Diyarbekir.

Within those records one could meet with several Turkish names such as Arslan, Kaplan, Şahin, Allahverdi, Malkoç, İlbeği, Bayındır, Kızıl, Budak.
In this study we would like to give detailed information on Turkish names in record we mentioned above, including dispersion of those people within city and villages and proportion of Turkish names among these inhabitants.
We will also evaluate the reasons of widespread usage of Turkish names among non-muslim citizens and affects of Turkish culture upon non-muslim citizens' name selections.

* Turkish-Armenian Relations In Develİ According To The Sharia Court Records Number 42 (1894-1895)
* Economic States And Administrative Functions Of The Non-Muslims In The Sub-Province Of Maraş In The Late Ottoman Empire
* Relations Between The Government And Its Societies During The Last Era Of The Ottoman Empire: The Attitude Of The Ottomans Towards Armenians
* Common Descriptions In The Turkish-Armenian Illustrated Arts At The Intersection Of St.Gregory-St.George
* Armenian Religious Activities In The East Anatolia In The Early Years Of 1900 (1900-1914)
* Marks Of The Turkish Literature In An Armenian Myth
* Some Reputable Armenians Of The 18th Century
* Social And Cultural Relations Between Turks And Armenians In Kilis And Antep Sub-Provinces In 16th Century
* Loyalty In Exile: Case Of Member Of The Ottoman Family And Armenian Migir Efendi
* A Lover Of Armeni: Mahcubi Baba And His Two Poems
* Armenian Catholic Church And Society In The Ottoman Empire
* Turkish-Armenian Relations In The Late 19kp And Early 20th Centuries: The Case Of Kayserİ
* Ottoman State's Supervision On The Armenian Schools
* Armenians And The Turkish-Armenian Relationships In The Works Of The 19th Century Voyagers
* Turkish-Armenian Relations In Kirkor Ceyhan's Stories
* Turkish-Armenian Relations In The Health System
* Regarding To The Archive Documents, The Armenian Commercial Activities In Middle Anatolia At The Beginning Of The 20th Century
* Armenian Schools In Maraş At The End Of The 19th Century
* The Armenian Alphabet In The Turkish Literary Sources
* Armenians In Nation System
* Existence Of Armenians And Turkish-Armenian Relations In The Surroundings Of Lake Van In The 16th-17th Centuries
* Living Together: Faİk Alİ Bey And Kütahya Armenians
* Socio-Economic Characteristics Of Sivas Armenians In The Ottoman State
* Armenians In Bursa And Its Vicinity Between The Years Of 1860 And 1880
* Armenian Characters In The Plays Of Tanzimat And The 2nd Constitutional Periods
* Yervant Oskan, An Armenian Sculptor And An Instructor Of The Fine Arts School
* A Good Example For Living Together: Turkish-Armenian Relatonships In Harput
* The Process Of Religious Differentiation: Disintegrating The Armenian Community In The 19th Century And Its Repercussions In Kayseri
* Armenian Officials In Ottoman Bureaucracy


Instruc. Mehmet SÜME
Abant İzzet Baysal University

45 out of 192 documents in Develi Court Registers belong to non-Muslims. Out of 45 of these documents, 4 belong to the Greeks (holding a Turkish citizenship) living in Aygösten Quarter. The remaining 41 documents belong to Armenians. In the register number 42, there are documents related to marriage, divorce, and disagreements on the issue of land and water and inheritance.
Any documents regarding a disagreement between Turks and Armenians have not been found. Canonical Courts have dealt with the cases of not only the Turks but also the Armenians.
For instance, the Canonical Courts also did the distribution of all the properties of an Armenian when he died. Moreover, these courts used to decide on the heirs of the person died. In case of a conflict among Armenians, they could assign a Turk as proxy or vice versa.
In commercial relations, Armenians and Turks officially shared the same lands, properties and even animals. Although both Turks and Armenians owned fields, vineyards and orchards, Turks mostly carried out farming while the Armenians mostly did trade.
The records of the number and economic values of the belongings Armenians had reveal us the fact that Armenians were economically wealthier than Turks.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Mehmet YETİŞGİN
Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Undoubtedly, the non-Muslim people had a significant role in the Ottoman economy. Their economic activities were usually in profitable sectors, including commerce, goldsmith, iron processing, carpentry, construction and medicine. For centuries, they concentrated on the economic matters due to the obstacles for being a soldier or a public servant. Thus, as well as having a wealthier position when compared to other communities of the Empire they had the chance of having a large share in the state economy.

Within the sub-province of Maraş, the non-Muslims dealt with profitable economic activities. They were rich people having many shops and international companies in the city center. Thanks to the wealth, the non-Muslims of Maraş lived a better life. They played important roles in local administration, especially in the administration fields related with the economic activities.


Mehtap Dağcı

Like the other minority societies, the relations between the Ottoman Empire and the Armenians have been deteriorated after the second half of the 19th century. Within this period, the crucial fact is not the change in the policy of the Ottomans against the Armenians, but the wicked approach and exploits of the external powers. Due to the political games of the external colonies, the minority groups in the Ottoman Empire rioted against the Ottoman government. The enmity of the Armenians was originated from the wicked deeds and the provocations of these external colonies.

In spite of these destructive political games, the Ottoman Empire had never stopped protecting its minority groups, and even throughout its collapse period, the Ottoman government still felt the responsibility of providing the safety of all the minority groups. The most striking instance about this concern is the policy of tolerance of the Ottomans during the First World War; the Ottoman Empire had both protected and saved its society and the minority groups even during its weakest period. In line with this humanitarian attitude the government has protected and brought up both the Turkish and Armenian orphans during the war.

In this article, the policy and attitude of the Ottoman Empire towards the helpless Armenian orphans will be scrutinized. These policies of the government will be evaluated within the framework of humanity towards its nation and minority groups.


Mehtap Dede KODAMAN
Trakya University
Faculty of Education

Descriptions in the illustrated arts reflect some characteristics of culture. Beliefs, life style, social facts and events are always reflected in these descriptions. When it is considered from this point of view, illustrated arts may carry more documentary worth than inscribed cultural inheritance. Sometimes more common characteristic can be seen as a result of common lives and beliefs. Belief of St.George (St.Gregor) that has close relation with Tour of Gregarious (Migration of Nations, Migration of People, Great Immigration, Tribal Immigration) is one of the common moral values of two communities coming from similar sociological processes. The figure of St. George as being the theme of both Turk and Armenian Artists' art will be described and dealt with within the scope of Turk - Armenian relations and art guilds of tradesmen.


Inst. Meral ŞAHİN
Afyon Kocatepe University

The period prior to First World War is a process in which Armenian religious activities were experienced intensively and it is hard to believe that Armenian political activities were free from Armenian Church. In this study, it is aimed to enlighten in detail the religious process between said years by relying on both domestic and foreign archival documents and especially on foreign reports on this issue.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Mesiha TOSUNOÄ?LU
Res. Assist. Deniz MELANLIOÄ?LU
Kırıkkale University
Faculty of Education

Historical events sometimes got Turks and Armenians closer and sometimes separated them. However, all developments during this historical process resulted in an interaction between two nations. The most evident area in which these impressions can be observed is the literature.

When the works in Armenian literature are studied, it is evident that the results are always the same: Armenian literature has been affected by Turkish literature, even that their literature is formed by inspirations from Turkish literature.

Türkmen (1983, 1976) documented that Armenian folk literature is mostly formed with the impressions of Turkish folk literature and that Armenian poets imitated Turkish folk poets. He also brought out to light that Armenian poets imitated Turkish poets exactly the same way.

Scientific studies have proved that there are many Turkish poems in Armenian literature. This situation is considered as the result of geographical condition and cultural relationship in historical process, so that Armenian literature is affected by this condition naturally. Because the language constitutes ideas and forms them, and creates cultural interactions in all area where it is spoken or written.

The Armenian literature has been affected by Turkish language and has found inspiration in Turkish literature. 'The Armenian Myths' which was collected by Yelena Çudinova and Roberta Hovhannesyan can be given as an example.

We are going to examine an article (tale) from 'Armenian Myths' in respect of form and content, and explain with examples how it was affected by Turkish literature.
It is important to reveal the effects and marks of Turkish literature in species that forms Armenian literature in order to prove the power of Turkish literature in an environment where globalization is being discussed and our cultural values are being disregarded for the purpose of participating in some associations. Besides, what is more important is to reveal the interaction areas of Turkish language and Turkish culture, and to protect Turkish identity.


Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The presence of non-Turk and non-Muslim communities in Istanbul did not take its origin from the Ottoman period. Because of being the capital city and the center of trade, there had always been not only the Western colonies but also Anatolian and East Mediterrenian originated people in Istanbul (Jeneusians, Venician, Pizzans, Catalonian, Provansians, Armenians, Arabs, Georgians, Jewish etc.). New owner of İstanbul, Mehmed the 2 nd, wanted to facilitate the city as a capital city and had offered privileges to new Muslim and Non-Muslim communities.

The Armenians in Istanbul which was also the cultural capital of the empire, not only worked as embassy translators, but also worked as money changers and bankers, thus they had significant roles in the financial structure of the capital as well as whole empire.

The mission of Abraham Kuleliyan who was the father in law of, the author of Tableau Général de L'empire Ottoman and translator at the Swedish Legation, was a typical instance of the above explanations about Armenian community. In 1774 Mouradgea d'Ohsson married Eva Kuleliyan (1754- 1782). Eva's father, Abraham Kuleliyan, was one of the important Armenian money changer (fınancers, merchant-bankers), who then played leading roles in Ottoman finance, quickly making and losing huge fortunes. Kuleliyan was also Catholic, as the wealthy sarrafs tended to be. He had lost his first fortune in 1763, upon the fall of his patron, Grand Vizier Mehmed Ragıp Paşa. Kuleliyan recouped his fortune by 1774, becoming a financer to the Treasury of the Two Holy Cities, offıcially controlled by the Dar üs-Saade Ağası or "Chief of the Abode of Felicity," the Chief Black Eunuch of the Imperial Harem, one of the highest palace functionaries. While engaging, like most moneychanger, in trade, Kuleliyan thus had lucrative responsibilities in managing the huge revenues from the charitable foundations that supported Mecca, Medina, and the pilgrimage; the foundations for the imperial mosques of Istanbul were also included. Ignatius Mouradgea d'Ohsson was born in Istanbul, and his education in the city's French and Dominican schools made him a versatile linguist and exemplar of the intellectual elitism and westernization tendency associated with Armenian Catholics. He became a translator at the Swedish Legation in 1763, second translator in 1767, and first translator in 1768.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Metin AKİS
Kafkas University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Kilis and Antep cities were the centers of sub-provinces carrying the same names. Inhabitants of these cities composed of non-Muslims, including Armenians, and Muslims living together with each other in social life. With their houses, districts, working places, and cemeteries people of these cities lived in peace and tolerance. Any Armenian group or any other religious group was not externalised from the society in terms of social life practices. Mosque, church, and synagogue were servicing for these varied groups side by side and simultaneously to meet their worshipping needs. Ottoman State's approach towards these non-Muslim groups was an approach of a Muslim empire state. People of different religious groups were recognized and respected by Ottomans in their religious bodies.

Land registers, court records, and imperial court records constitutes the main sources of this work. In these sources there are the examples of how people from different colours, religions, languages and cultures lived within a one-part body and the examples of tolerance and cultural mosaic.


Prof. Dr. M. Metin HÜLAGÜ
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Like the other nations the Armenian community continued their life under the Ottoman rule as the non-Muslim subjects. They have the same rights and privileges what the other non-Muslim subjects had. They were not exposed to any oppression or unfair treatment. On the contrary, they have had more rights and privileges than the Muslims.
The Turkish and Armenian relations were formed in trust and regard and sustained for centuries. They were got assistance and support of the Ottoman administration and protection continuously.

The regard, trust and faithfulness of the Ottoman Armenians for the Ottoman administration and the continuity of these peculiarities for centuries gained for them the adjective of the Teb'a-i Sadika-i Şahane or Millet-i Sadıka.

Turkish-Armenian relations which witnessed a disagreement period for a while was not a period approved by all the Armenians, but by a small political number who were used as a tool by the European powers. The majority of the Armenian community went on to preserve their Millet-i Sadıka adjective. They were ready to continue their historical regard and faithfulness again even the decline of the Empire and the lack of the imperial familiy's political and financial power and privileges upon their deportation.

In this paper, it was aimed to explain the relation of Mıgır Efendi with the member of the imperial family in exile and persistence of his faithfulness for them.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhittin ELİAÇIK
Kırıkkale University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Mahcubi Baba who wrote poems and nefes on Bektasi Order is a poet of Armenian origin like A?yk Vartan and Serkiz Zeki. In this paper, Mahcubi Baba's two poems containing Islamic views will be dealt through analytical perspective.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Murat Bürkan SERBEST
Kafkas University
Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

The relationship between Ottomans and Armenians first began in the period of Orhan Bey. Orhan Bey gave permission to Armenians in organizing as a different religious community in Anatolia. The spritual center of Armenians that had been in Cotyaeum (Kütahya) was moved to Prussa (Bursa). After Sultan Mehmet II "The Conqueror" had made Istanbul the capital of new Empire, in 1461 Armenian Patriarchate was established in Samatia (Samatya) in Istanbul and adminstrative and religious privileges were given to the Armenians. Since then, Armenians had organized as "Gregorian Nation" in the "Ottoman Nation System". In the Ottoman Nation System all Armenians were qualified as pre-chalcedonian (The Christian groups which didn't accept the decisions of Chalcedonia Council dated 451). On the other hand, all pre-chalcedonian religious groups, (Armenians, members of Coptic Church and Syrian Orthodox Church) -which belong to Armenian ethnicity or not- endorsed the authority of Armenian Patriarchate. No sooner had Suleiman the Magnificent acknowledged the capitulations to France, the catholic missionaries, who was under the protection of France, began their activities. Thanks to the treaty between France and Ottoman, which was renewed in1604, France obtained the privileges for protection of the Catholic groups in the Ottoman Land. In 1700, Mekhitar, who was an Armenian priest from Sivas, settled in a monastry near Venice in order to unite the Rome Catholic Church and Armenian Patriarchate. This monastry was transformed into a missionary center for converting Armenians to Catholic sect. This foundation became effective very much on Gregorian Armenians and it caused that a lot of Gregorian Armenians converted to Catholic sect. Gregorian Armenians reacted to this situation and in 1701 Armenian Patriarchate demanded the goverment to arrest Catholic Armenians and the confiscation of their printing houses.

After the increase in the population of Catholic Armenians, Pope Benedictus XIV designated Armenian priest Abraham Ardzivian as "Catholic Patriarch of Clicia" in 1742 and this person began to use "Patriarch" title as Abraham Peter I. But Ottoman Goverment didn't acknowledge this Patriarchate foundation officially. After Bucharest Treaty, dated 1811, certain Armenians declared outright that they were catholics. Finally, in the period of Mahmut II, Armenian Catholic Church was founded officially on 5th January 1831 and "Armenian Catholics" were accepted as a different religious community.

After Tanzimat (Reorganization), there were attempts to form new regulations for reconstituting the Church System. In 1863 a new regulation (Nizamname) was prepared for Armenian Gregorians. In 1911 an initiative was taken to prepare a Nizamname for Armenian Catholic Church. [In this period, the draft workings of Greek Orthodox, Bulgarian Exarchate, Greek Catholic and Chaldean Church regulations (Nizamnameler) were being continued.] These works were completed in 1913. Armenian Catholic Church had important differences from Gregorian Church in terms of both church organization and life style of its members.


Prof. Dr. Mustafa KESKİN
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History
Hüseyin CÖMERT
Erciyes University KAYTAM

Turks and Armenians lived together since the time of Great Seljukian Empire. Kayseri is a good example for this.

Turkish-Armenian relations, the subject of our study, cover the years between 1960 and 1915 as the "Armenian Question" arose during these years. This issue was originated by the external interferences instead of the internal ones. As we know that the "Armenian Question" in the Ottoman Empire became one of the most important issues between the years of 1860 and 1915. The main cause and supporters of this long lasting issue were the interference of the foreign powers. Thus, the Ottoman Armenians with the help and encouragement of those powers started to demand their national liberation and started movements within and outside of the Empire. So, this way of problem solving not only damaged relations between the two nations but also destroyed the mutual trust between these two nations.

There used to be some quarters and villages within the boundaries of Kayseri where most of the population, if not all, were Armenians. Muslims and non-Muslims lived together side by side in some other parts of the Kayseri city and city quarters. They shared each others happiness as well as sadness. They traded in the same enviroment with their Turkish fellow neighbours. They spoke Turkish language and used the same language in their daily or official corrospondences.
In short, relying on the archival sources, we will examine the rise of conflict between the Turks and Armenians in Kayseri.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Mustafa Murat ÖNTUÄ?
Afyon Kocatepe University
Uşak Faculty of Education

Upon declaration of "Reform Edict" non-Muslims in the Ottoman State gained the freedom of opening schools in unlimited numbers. Armenians benefited from this opportunity by doing their best. Armenian Schooling gained an impetus through financial support of the affluent Armenians and Armenian Cultural Associations. Armenian Cultural Associations were merged in 1880 and the Armenian Schools Union was established. This central organization attempted to organize the curricula of the Armenian Schools and the minimum educational qualifications required for teachers of these schools. Following the 1878 Berlin Agreement, the issue of Armenians was turned into an international problem and the Armenian Nationalist Movements increased significantly. In a relatively short period of time, the Armenian Nationalist Propaganda done in the Armenian Churches and Schools which were widespread across the country caused Armenian terror activities to increase. As a result of the protective policies and intensive missionary activities of the Imperialist States on the Gregorian Armenian Community of the Ottoman Society, the Armenian Patriarchy in Istanbul was divided into three segments.

Around 1879, it was clearly observed that the nationalist intensions (feelings) were developed and became widespread amongst the Armenian Priests. The Armenian Archbishops openly proposed and favored the right to express their national identity and national autonomy. At the same time, the Armenian Patriarch in Istanbul openly supported the Armenian Community's seperation from the Ottoman State. As a result of all these activities, kids in Armenian Schools were full of ideas concerning Armenia. It was in this climate that the Ottoman State imposed managerial pressures on Armenian schools that were growing rapidly and beyond the control of the Ottoman State. Therefore, the Ottoman State took some measures against these schools around the last quarter of the 19th Century. After careful analysis and evaluations of the documents to be found at the Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives, we could argue that aims of the measures taken by the Ottoman State were not closure of the Armenian Schools or abolishing their right to be educated. Supporting the argument, there were 120 Armenian Schools in Anatolia in 1834 whereas this figure went up to nearly 840 (40 of which were in Istanbul) in 1900. This study aims to investigate following issues in the light of the archival documents:

* How the supervision of the rapidly growing Armenian Schools was provided by the Ottoman State,
* The approach of the Ottoman State towards Armenian Schools, and
* Managerial precautions taken by the Ottoman State for the Armenian Schools, such as not allowing Muslim kids to be educated at the Armenian Schools, the courses that were allowed to take and not to take and the financial support provided by the state for the Armenian Schools.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mustafa OFLAZ- Dr. İsmail MANGALTEPE
Yüzüncü Yıl University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

In 19th century so many voyagers came to the territories of the Ottoman Empire from the western countries. Although some of them came sincerely to know the Ottoman Empire well, most of them had different aims. These voyagers researched social, political, economic, religious and ethnical structures of the regions they moved around and reported the information they gathered to their governments. Also some of these voyagers were specially sent to Anatolia by western countries due to political reasons, which was proved by the information in line with this aim reported by these voyagers. However, there were also some voyagers who came independently just to visit and know well the Ottoman Empire.

Since they came with a certain purpose, voyagers sometimes did not write what they saw, on the contrary they wrote what they wanted to see. Consequently they could not put the Armenians' relations with Muslim folk on a healthy ground.

Followings are some of the voyagers most of whose travel books have not been translated into Turkish; Amédée JAUBET, Friedrich ?duard SCHULZ, Charles Felix-Marie TEXİER, Baron Felix de BEAUJOUR, Eugéne BOR?, Vital Casimir CUİNET, Le Compte de Cholet ARMAND-PİERRE. Among these voyagers, Texier tried to influence purposely the other voyagers who would come after him through wrong visions and propagandas he used when defining the social, economic and ethnic structures of the folk in the regions he moved around. E.Boré, however, expressed the reason of his travel to Anatolia in his letter he sent to one of his friend as the following; "You will ask me, why?', 'why do you put up with this hard privation?" "The only answer is 'for the sake of Armenia's love".

Voyagers and archeologists have written about Armenians by giving the information from work of Moise from Korene. Most of this information is wrong and willful and there are a lot of contradictions on the information given by voyagers on the same subject.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Mümtaz SARIÇİÇEK
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Turkish Language and Literature

Kirkor CEYHUN is an Armenian storyteller who writes in Turkish. He was born in Zara/Sivas, in 1926 and died in Germany (Bonn) in 1999. He lived in Turkey until 1982. Then he immigrated to France where his sons lived. Ceyhun is such a storyteller who was feeling Anatolia's sound in Turkish. He wrote three storybooks and described in that stories that these nations had lived friendly for thousand years. In this article, Ceyhan's these stories will be analyzed from the thematic aspect.


Prof. Dr. Münir ATALAR
Gaziosmanpaşa University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

In this article, we will focus on the map of Turkey belonging to the General Directorate of Social Services (The Ministry of Health and Social Services), which was drawn by a person named Rüştü in 1928, and reproduced by the Hilal printing press. The reason for our concern on this map is that, at the bottom of the map, we exactly see the following written expression: "it is a map that shows all the health and social institutions attached to the general and private budgets, and municipalities; the hospitals of individuals, companies, societies and foreigners; boundaries and shores health centers, and quarantines**; mobile and fixed incubators; and steam boxes."

On the above-mentioned map of Turkey, places of the health centers spreading throughout the country are marked with special symbols, legends and numbers. The health centers of Istanbul and Izmir, probably because their numbers were more, are placed at the bottom right of the map as enlarged.

Again, on this map, there also exists "a comparative graph that shows the number of beds in hospitals in terms of kind and variety of diseases". In addition, the meanings of the special symbols on the map are as follows: hospitals attached to the general budget..., hospitals belonging to Greeks, hospitals belonging to Jews, hospitals belonging to Catholic Armenians and Catholics, hospitals belonging to Americans, hospitals belonging to Austrians, hospitals belonging to Iranians, hospitals belonging to Italians, hospitals belonging to English people, hospitals belonging to Bulgarians..., hospitals belonging to French people.
Since the 15th century, the Ottoman State had ruled the non-muslims under its authority by organizing them to include into the nation system. In addition to this, the Ottoman State also let the Armenian people establish their own hospitals and keep them running under the leadership of their own religious leaders as long as they obeyed the law.

The non-Muslims are seen to have played an active role in the field of health in the Ottoman State. As doctors, they provided health services both to the State and Armenians by establishing hospitals. The State made financial contributions to these institutions. For example, Sadrazam Ali Pasha contributed 500 gold coins to the repair of Yedikule Armenian Hospital.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Naci ŞAHİN
Afyon Kocatepe University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

It is beyond doubt that economical activities play a great and an important role in the development of economic structure of cities. In this context, we have tried to determine economical activities of Armenian people in Middle Anatolia, their branch of businesses and sectors by relying on archive documents, first-hand and second-hand resources and observations. In our study, we have taken it as a base that the economic, commercial and industrial infrastructure of Middle Anatolia should be analyzed depending on reliable researches. In this context, we aimed to enlighten the place of Armenian lifestyle and their privileges in Otoman economy.


Instruc. Nejla GÜNAY
Gazi University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

-History of educational and training activities of Armenians in Maraş.
-Armenian community schools in Maraş and student number, curricula and teachers of these schools.
-Religious characteristics of the schools (Gregorian, Catholics or Protestant).
-Comparison between the Armenian schools and Muslim schools in Maraş.
-Institutions founded by other states where the Armenian students educated; activity areas, student numbers, financial sources, lesson programs, purposes and missionary activities of these institutions and their relations with Maraş people.
-Ties between the all schools where Armenians educated in Maraş and the Armenian schools in other cities.
-Business sectors and professions of educated Armenians.


Prof. Dr. Nevzat Özkan
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Science

The Armenian Alphabet made out of 38 letters, and Mesrob Maşdots developed the phonetics of it in 5th century. The number used by the Armenians had also its own Numerical System.

The Armenian language is divided into two dialects. The Armenians who live around Anatolia use the first dialect, and it is the mixture of the Turkish-Armenian languages. The others who live around the Caucasians use the second dialect, which is common in European countries.

The Turks and the Armenians first interacted in the Era of Seljuk in 11th century. After the collapse of the Armenian Bagradit Dynasty, most of the Armenians migrated to Crimea. These people interacted with Kıpçak Turks, whose order was Gregorian, and they recited Turkish literary works by using the Armenian letters.
The Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire published more frequent books, lyrics by using the Armenian Alphabet between 14-19th centuries. In addition to this, the Armenian minstrels (aşuğ) put oral sources into writing by using the Armenian letters in Turkish literary works.
In this article, the usage of the Armenian letters in the Turkish literary sources will be asserted.


Nurdan İPEK
İstanbul University
PhD. Student

Ottoman state, being tightly bounded the principle of 'there is no compulsion in religion' in Islamic law, signed a liability agreement with the non-Muslims living in the territories it conquered and warranted the security of these peoples' lives and properties. In a similar way the Armenians had been included in the statute of "nation" and owned some privileges even more than the other communities had owned in the Ottoman State since 1461. Armenians who are second after Greeks in protocol order in managerial field satisfied with life conditions they were provided and even in church prayers they often thanked the Sultan because of his kindness. Against these thanks, they were given the guarantee for the continuity of privileges dependent on the loyalty of the community. In these privileges despite that the decision mechanism was given to the Armenians in religious and special subjects, Ottoman management, according to the necessity of its 'father' role to the society, always helped the Armenian community when they were in need. The Armenian community accepted the financial aids, such as meeting the deficits from the state's budget, being exempted from real estate taxes, as a big gift and in return they showed loyalty to the management. As a gift of being "Teba-i Sadıka" (Faithful Community), Armenians were given the chance of having close relations with the palace and were commisioned at the vital positions through the arrangements made in legal field.


Prof. Dr. Orhan KILIÇ
Fırat University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

It is a well-known fact that in the Ottoman territory there were different communities of different language and nationality. Within the borders of province of Van, certain amount of Armenian population lived in its sub provinces of Van, Bitlis, Erciş, Adilcevaz, Bargiri (Muradiye), Muş and Hakkari.

Applications and views of Ottoman central and local administrations to Armenian existence did not come to the point of dissatisfaction by the side of Armenian population in terms of economic, administrative, judicial and social aspects. They were given the right and the chance of repairing and expanding their temples and electing their representatives. Through the tax exemptions applied for them, the Ottoman State prevented them to leave the region due to the negative conditions emerged as a result of Ottoman-Safevi relations. Within the scope of the Ottoman law system, they were not subjected to any treatment different than Turk-Muslim community.
Archives depict that within two-century period, except some judicial disputes, there were no negative event-taking place between Armenian and Turkish community in Lake Van surroundings. The most tragic events occurred in the area were burning of Van city in the beginning of the 20th century and collective genocide of the Turk-Muslim society by Armenians in Zeve did not emerge as a historical revenge and it is clear that these events have no historical background.
In this paper, we will present the amount of Armenian population in the surroundings of Lake Van in 16th and 17th centuries and their administrative, judicial and economic status within the light of Ottoman's documents.


Dr. Ömer ÇAKIR
Çanakkale 18 Mart University
Faculty of Education

Faik Âli (Ozansoy) was a poet who took part in firstly Servet-i Fünun and then Fecr-i Âti literary groups. As well as being a poet, Ali Faik was also an administrator who governed various provinces and sub-provinces. When he was the governor of Kütahya province in 1915, the issue of displacing Armenians arose. However he didn't obey the order of the government. Moreover, he protected the Armenians near the province, who were forced to migrate and he dealt with their problems sincerely. Because of his attitude, Kütahya was another city besides İstanbul and İzmir, from which Armenians weren't forced to move during the World War I.

After years, an Armenian called Arşak Alboyacıyan told about Faik Ali's support to Armenians in detail in his memoirs. The part of the memoirs about this matter was translated into Turkish as an article signed by Sarkis Seropyan. (Vicdanlı Türk Valisi Faik Âli Ozansoy, Tarih ve Toplum, Nu.23, November 1995)

Both Armenian and Turkish sources admit that Faik Âli didn't send Armenians under his control for displacement and helped them in great amount. In return, after the World War I, Armenians gave a speech of gratitude (hitabe-i şükran) in the courtyard of Kütahya Church.

I discovered an open letter to Armenians about these matters written by Faik Âli published in a newspaper in those years. Sources related with this subject do not mention about this letter. However this letter is very important to contribute both to the events in 1919 and Arşak Alboyacıyan's memoirs. In this letter Faik Âli gives messages to Armenians about living together in peace.

In this presentation the art of living together will be discussed based on this letter as a crucial document.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ömer DEMİREL
Cumhuriyet Universty
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

Sivas was one of the Anatolian cities where the Armenians had started to dwell since 11th century and which had a very high Armenian population density. It is clearly reflected in the archives that relations between Muslim Turks and Armenians before and after the Ottoman (Empire) period were without any problems and even at a level to be taken as a model. Armenians, who lived in comfort and prosperity like the Muslim Turks, worked as tradesmen and merchants and to some extent they held the regional commercial activities in their hands during the Ottoman period. Besides enjoying their religious, cultural and socio-economic life, they gained equal rights in administration and management with Muslim Turks after Tanzimat (Reorganization). In this article, the socio-economic characteristics of the Ottoman (Empire) period Armenians in Sivas will be analyzed by searching a great number of archives, especially the court registers and official title registers.


Instruc. Özgür YILDIZ
Erciyes University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

Turks and Armenians have lived in harmony for ages. Ottoman Empire was one of the empires applying the art of living in harmony and tolerance effectively.

Turks and Armenians have lived in Bursa and its neighborhood in harmony for ages. Armenians established churches and chapels in this region and practiced their religions freely. According to the documents of American Board of Foreign Mission, considerable numbers of Armenians lived in Bursa and its neighborhood between the years of 1860 and 1880. Armenians and Turks were educated at the same schools. The education was provided in Turkish and Armenian languages in these schools. Turkish and Armenian orphans lived together in the Armenian Orphanage in Bursa. Ottoman tolerance can be felt deeply in this field. The documents, which were examined, showed that there were not significant public security problems depending on the relations between the Turks and Armenians in this area.

This paper, based on the documents of American Board of Foreign Mission, aims to give information about the Armenians lived in Bursa and its vicinity between the years of 1860 and 1880. Main target of this paper is to bring a new perspective to the Turkish and Armenian relations.


Celal Bayar University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Turkish Language and Literature

Non-Muslims, especially the Armenians had a significant role in the development of Turkish theater tradition. The first theater actors/actresses were appeared among Armenians and the first Turkish actors and they also trained actresses.

The subject of this paper is the Armenians, who constituted the fictional personalities and characters of the theater plays of the time. Armenian characters also took part in the first examples of drama and comedies of the modern Turkish theater in addition to traditional genres such as Ortaoyunu and Karagöz-Hacivat. In this presentation, the plays written in the Reorganization period and after the proclamation of 2nd Constitutional regime will be handled.

İki Karpuz Bir Koltuğa Sığmaz, Eyvah, Görenek, Belâ-yı Muhabbet, Mızrak Çuvala Sığmaz, Ermeni Mazlumlar yahut Fedakâr Türk Zabiti, Yıldız'ın Sonu, İstibdat Vahşetleri yahut Bir Fedainin Ölümü, Haile-i Mahmut Şevket-Hürriyet Kurbanları, Mithat Paşa yahut Hükm-i İdam, Abdülhamit ve Genç Türk Bir Haremağası are the works included here. The personalities and characters of these plays carry certain differences and common features depending upon the time (political and social conditions of the time) and upon the genre of the plays, as being comedy, drama or etc. Our purpose is to bring forward these features and differences employing the related character analysis methods.


Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University

Sculptor Yervant Oskan was the founder and first instructor of the first fine arts school (Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi) sculpture department, which was included in the education system during the rule of Abdulhamid II. From that point of view, Yervant Osgan was an important milestone among the Ottoman sculptors with regard to his artistic qualities both as an instructor and as an artist in the tradition of Turkish plastic arts.

In our presentation, the history of the art of sculpture in the Ottoman plastic arts, sculpture in in the 19th century, Yervant Osgan biography, the instructor side of Yervant Osgan within the school of fine arts (Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi), his place within our plastic arts and his works within the special collections will be discussed.

Because the base point of the symposium is the peaceful social co-existence of the Ottomans and Armenians, the instructorship of Yervant Osgan in the Ottoman School of Fine Arts (Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi), which was a very valued school at that time, would just be a very fine example for such co-existence.


Assoc. Dr. Rahmi DOÄ?ANAY
Fırat University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

Living together in a society with peace and harmony (or at least achieving this goal) is first of all a matter of tolerance and self-confidence. Secondly, it is a matter of achievement of sharing. Throughout the history, the Turkish nation has not only governed people of different religion, ethnicity and culture, but also achieved sharing and living together with them whole-heartedly. Other than living together in the same society, the minorities had also been allowed to take part in the government organization at least since the proclamation of Reorganization. Turkish history shows (to those with an unbiased perspective) that the Turks have no kind of complexity to commit massacre to any nation.

Armenians are one of the communities that the Turks have lived together with sympathy, respect, tolerance and justice for a millennium. If there is a tragedy at the end of a millennium, it should be asked why the hundreds of years of harmony (living together) has failed? Our intension is not to try to answer this question and find out who is responsible, but (by giving the good examples of co-existence in the city of Harput) to contribute to the efforts to prevent jeopardizing the future of Turkish and Armenian nations because of a tragedy which has become a history.

The data we used in this study were obtained from "salname records of Mamu'retü'l-Aziz", in other words from the official almanacs. It is clearly seen in the almanacs belonging to the period between 1881 and 1908 that there are civil servants and administrators of non-Muslims at all levels of government organization, including the Armenians. The subject matter is the officials of non-Muslims and Armenian origins in the administration. Muslim, non-Muslim, Turk, Armenian etc, they lived in harmony with tolerance, solidarity and peace in the same society.

It is seen that in Harput (Mamu'retü'l-Aziz, Elaziz, Elazığ) there were about 700 non-Muslims (almost all of them Armenians) out of 6070 civil servants between 1881 and 1908. It is also noted that of these Armenian civil servants, some were in provincial, sub-provincial and district councils with administrative and financial responsibilities, and some served as vice-governors. It is known that these non-Muslim civil servants and administrators were given awards and medals in the framework of general Ottoman administration procedures.


Res. Assist. Ramazan ADIBELLİ
Erciyes University
Faculty of Theology

In recent years, especially in the contexts of so-called genocide, lots of conferences on Turkish-Armenian relations during the Ottoman period were held, and a lot of essays were written. As a result these activities, Turkish-Armenian relations were reduced into one dimension by neglecting the other aspects of the problem.

For example the process of religious differentiation in the 19th century that fragmented the Armenian community and its repercussions on the social order were scarcely examined. Therefore the study of this process will not only clarify how the members of the Armenian community perceived themselves, but also why and in which way the atmosphere of togetherness lasting for centuries gradually tended to perish.

In this article, after drawing the main lines of the process of religious differentiation, we will examine the repercussions of this process upon the 19th Century Armenian community in Kayseri relying essentially on the declarations of the witnesses of that period in order to make the matter more concrete.


Dr. Recep ÇELİK
State Archives Genel Müdürlüğü

Armenians had lived together with all nations of the Ottoman Empire, including Turks, in peace and security until the end of the 19th century.
They never had complaints or problems with the Ottoman Administration.

Using their recognized rights and privileges, Armenians quickly developed and acquired a comfortable social position. Furthermore, adopting the Turkish-Ottoman culture, lifestyle and administration, the Armenian society deserved the Ottoman confidence and the reputation as "millet-i sadıka" (the Faithful nation).
Thanks to this reputation, the Ottoman Armenians, as it had been in business, obtained important positions in official services too.
Using the archival documents, this paper aims to give detailed information concerning the Armenians working in official positions in the Ottoman Bureaucracy.

* Armenians From The Novelist's Point Of View
* 19th Century Armenian Schools And Their Activities In Ottoman Empire Management
* Regarding To The Court Registers, Armenians In Afyonkarahisar (1910-1914)
* Turks And Armenians In An Ottoman Subdivision: Darende
* Armenian Members And Their Activities In The Ottoman Assembly During The Second Constitutional Period (1908-1912)
* Symphysis Of The Turks And Non-Muslims In Anatolia: Turkish -Armenian Relations As A Case Study
* Armenians Of Istanbul Before The Turkish Conquest
* Social And Cultural Interactions Between Turks And Armenians Through Out The History
* Armenians In The Architecture Of The Late Ottoman Period
* Samples Of Interaction Between Cultures In Ottoman Administration: Relations Of Abdulhamid Ii With Armenian Statesmen
* Armenians In The Public Service And Social Life Of Diyarbakir
* Turkish-Armenian Relationships On Internet
* Selected Memories About Living Together In The Ottoman Society
* Policy Of The Ottoman State On The Construction And Restoration Of The Armenian Churches (1839-1856)
* Living Together In A Tolerant Society: Non-Muslim Armenians In The Ottoman Society And Law: The Case Of Kayseri
* Armenians In Egypt In The 19th Century
* An Armenian Pasha In The Ottoman Bureaucracy: Agop Kazazyan
* Social Aspect Of The Turkish-Armenian Relations
* Architects Of Culture Of Co-Existence: Armenian Artists And Intellectuals In The Periods Of Ottoman State And Turkish Republic
* An Example To The Art Of Living Together In The Ottoman Society: Socio-Cultural Interactions And Mutual Supports Between Turkish And Armenian Societies In Yozgat
* Reflections Of The Armenian-Azerbaijan Co-Exİstence In Azerbaijan Drama
* Turkish-Armenian Social Relations In Cyprus
* The Armenian Propaganda Against Turkey During The Turkish Independence War And The Anti-Propaganda Of The French Who Support Turkey
* First Steps On The Development Of Turkish Theater And The Armanian Artists's Role
* The Balyan Family And Turkish Mosques
* Gregorian Turks As A Strategic Object
* The Image Of The Turk In The Armenian Literature
* Two Different Pictures Of Turkish-Armenian Co-Existence: Literary Works In Turkish And English On Turkish-Armenian Co-Existence
* Decorations And Medals Bestowed Upon Armenians By The Ottoman State


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Recep DUYMAZ
Trakya University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Turkish Language and Literature

The founders and the governors of the Ottoman Empire were Turks. This empire, which had reigned for six centuries, governed plenty of nations, whose languages, religions and cultures were different, and which existed on the lands of Asia, Africa, and Europe as well as Anatolia, the center of Ottoman Empire's sovereignty. This multi-national governance lasted until the nineteenth century without any concussions that would jolt the existing system.

The End of the Multi-National Governance

This way of governing, which was developed by the Ottoman Empire, collapsed at the beginning of the twentieth century after it was badly jolted in the nineteenth century. This downfall undoubtedly caused deep sorrow firstly for the communities under the body of the empire, and then for Turks, who were the founders and the governors of this empire. Besides this downfall, the synergy, which had existed on these lands for centuries, and also the beauties that resulted from this synergy passed away.

Today, the duty of the artists, who have the feeling of responsibility, is to convey the beauties of the centuries when this multi-national governance was used to rule the empire, to the modern ages. Furthermore, the duty of the scientists, who have the feeling of responsibility, is to bring out the reasons and results of how and why those beauties ended. These results will undoubtedly prevent the prospective losses and grieves.

The Role of Novel

Novel is one of the most common branches of art in the modern age. There are some views claiming that a novel is a mirror, which reflects the relationships among individuals, families and the society of the time when that novel was written. According to these views, a novel is a mirror, which reflects the individuals, families and the society truly. Through this mirror, we can observe the individual and social relations through selected typical and concrete examples, and we have the opportunity to get to know the motives that stimulates a person, who has complicated characteristics within the framework of a case. This achievement gives us the opportunity to know and understand the people and the events of that era more closely.

In accordance with the data of modern psychology, the first step for removing the controversies is to know and understand our partner

The novels titled Çalıkuşu (1922), Pervaneler (1924), and Haçin (1975) include events, parts of events, and characters, which put forward nice, meaningful and thought-provoking aspects of Turkish-Armenian relations.


It will certainly be useful to look at the Turkish-Armenian relations through a novelist's eyes in order to recognize the people constituting these societies more closely. The facts that will be put forward by this recognition will make the two parties get closer to each other and enrich their statutes in the evaluation of their relationship with each other.


Assoc. Dr. Remzi KILIÇ
Niğde University
Faculty of Education

Turks and Armenians have lived together in Anatolia for over nine hundred years. Orhan Gazi who besieged it in 1326 invited Armenians to Bursa. Ovakim Efendi that came to Istanbul as an Armenian Spiritual Leader after the conquest of Istanbul established Armenian Patriarchate. They were shown sympathy, tolerance and reliance and the Ottoman Empire State recognized their spiritual leader.

The Ottoman Empire State had shown tolerance and freedom to different ethnic groups living together in the same community. Armenian community lived in freedom and peace, until the Era of Mahmut II. Armenians were learning and teaching their language and culture as well as practicing their religion in peace and freedom in their schools.

In this study, we are going to analyze and determine the contributions to social and cultural life of Armenian Community schools established by Armenians. In addition, teacher and student numbers in Armenian schools will be provided.

Besides, the support, contribution and viewpoint of Ottoman Empire State towards Armenian educational institutions will be investigated. What are the contributions of Armenian schools to Turkish-Armenian relations, to their development and change during 19th century under the rule of Ottoman Empire State? Are there any positive effects of Armenian Schools to Turks and Armenians living together for centuries? These issues are going to be fully explained.


Prof. Dr. Sadık SARISAMAN
Afyon Kocatepe University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

In this study, especially in the light of Court Registers, the focus will be on the relations between the Armenians and Muslims in Afyonkarahisar between 1910 and 1914. The main study areas will include the number of Armenian population in Afyonkarahisar, quarters they densely populated, their importance in the social and economic lives of the city, cultural relations with Muslims, Armenians converting into Islam and the rate of conversions.

Besides, Afyonkarahisar Armenians efforts on being effective in trade due to the location of Afyonkarahisar as being at the intersection point of railway and land roads will also be considered.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Said ÖZTÜRK
Ottoman Research Center

The political aspect of the 'Armenian Problem', which emerged in mid-19th century, has hindered making studies and researches on the socio-economic and cultural relationships and interactions of these two nations, i.e. Turks and Armenians, who have lived together in harmony for centuries.

In fact, these two nations have had very close relationships and influenced each other, particularly in Asia Minor.

Ottoman administrators treated not only Armenians but all the minorities from the perspective of divine responsibility, which gave birth to an atmosphere of tolerance and affection.

The place we shall take as the subject of our communiqué is Darende, where a certain number of Armenians had been living until 'Tahjir' (the Emigration). Although their demographical density was not high, they had a considerable place in the socio-economic life of the town.

Turks and Armenians have ever lived in Darende together in tolerance embracing life in cooperation, commiserating with each other in grievances and sharing the felicity of one another on their happy days. As a matter of fact, they lamented after their Armenian neighbors who had been subjected to emigration and saw them off as far as Aleppo. Yet, their good relations have ever continued even after the Emigration.

In our presentation, taking Darende as an example, we shall elaborate upon the population of Armenians, who have lived in harmony with Turks, their economic opportunities, their relationships with Muslims, the events during the Emigration, the relationships between the two peoples after the Emigration, etc.


Res. Assist. Seher BOYKOY
Uludağ University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

During the development of parliamentary system and constructional framework in Turkey, the first and second Constitutions were very important. "Kanun-u Esasi", the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire, was declared in 1876. With the declaration of "Kanun-u Esasi", the first constitutional system was established in the Empire and the first Ottoman Parliament was opened on March 1877. There were two parliaments in Constitution I. With the Otto-Russian War in 1877-78, Sultan closed the first Constitutional era. This period lasted 30 years without parliaments and ended with the declaration of Constitution II in 1908. In this new period, four Assemblies gathered. The first legislative period covering four assembly years (1908 to 1911) was followed by the second legislative period with one assembly year (1912), the third legislative period covering five assembly years (1914 to 1918), and the fourth legislative period with one assembly year (1920). The fourth legislative period was different from the others, because there were no Armenian members in the Ottoman Parliament and the nationalists began the national movement in Anatolia.

Therefore, the starting point of our study on the second Constitutional period will be the issues relating to the first, second and third legislative periods of Ottoman Parliaments and Armenian members and their activities in the Council. The idea of "Ottomanism" represented by the Committee of Union and Progress marked the political policy of the Ottoman Empire. As a result of the idea of "Ottomanism", the representatives of the minority groups such as Araps, Bulgarians, Armenians, Albanians, Greeks and Serbians united under the Constitutional Parliaments in which the Turks stayed as the dominant element. However, in spite of the positive expectations of the members of Committee of Union and Progress, the new composite and homogeneous Council structure composed of members who were ready to conflict with each other. Among the representatives of minority groups in the Constitutional Parliament, the Armenian members played an important role in terms of internal and external political developments of the period as well as their relations with the members of Committee of Union and Progress which was the effective and significant political organization of that period. This situation considered to be of importance in relation with demonstrating the role of ethnical differences in shaping of the government and opposition by taking the Armenian members as criterion. In this presentation we will try to evaluate the impressions of the events occurred during elections of 1908, 1912 and 1914 on Armenian deputies attitudes towards the Ottoman administration, their views on Committee of Union and Progress, influence of the government and opposition groups on Armenian deputies, and their relations with revolutionary movements. Archival documents, newspapers and magazines, which were published in this period and basic publications, will be used as sources during the study process.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Selahattin DÖÄ?ÜÅ?
Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Turkish tolerance in Anatolia was shaped by the amalgam of Islamic and Turkish traditions; which enabled peaceful coexistence of different religious and ethnic groups in harmony. Sufi tradition combined Islamic values with Turkish traditions of tolerance and created universal philosophy. Ibn Arabi, Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, Yunus Emre and Hacı Bektash Veli were founders and pioneers of this Sufi philosophy and their teachings enormously contributed to Anatolian social harmony. In this paper, I plan to present Turkish-Armenian communal life within the framework of examples given from Kayseri and Maraş court registers.


Dr. Selim KAYA
Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Despite the Armenians behaved well to the empire's interests, they were treated as second-class citizens in Byzantium Empire. The Imperial Government used the political problems in the east as pretext to pressure Istanbul's Armenians. When the news circulated that Armenians had been collaborating the Ottoman Turks, the government burnt down Armenian churches and exiled their priests. Some Armenians, under Byzantine's religious pressure, converted into the Orthodox faith and others tried to retain their faith around clandestine churches. After the Turkish Conquest, Mehmet the Conqueror recognized the rights for the Armenians to establish their own church under the authority of Armenian Patriarch.

In my presentation, I plan to sketch the Armenians' status in Byzantine Empire and their relief under the Turkish rule.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Selma YEL
Attorney Orhan Gazi DEMİRTAŞ
Gazi University
Gazi Faculty of Education

This study on cultural interaction, friendship and solidarity between the Armenians and Turks arose as a result of living together in peace and tolerance for centuries has been prepared by employing the oral history method through interviewing with the witnesses of the events or gathering the narratives about this issue. In line with this purpose, interviews were made with Karnik TEKE (82 years old) who lives in Yukarı Talas Street and her husband Viyanüş TEKE (75 years old) and Atik ERKUYUMCU (65 years old) who is the executive board chairman of Surp Krikor Lusvoriç Gregorian Armenian Church. Some materials will support data obtained from these interviews. Furthermore, in accordance with the same oral history method the interview made with Lawyer Ali DEMİRTAŞ who is registered to Kayseri Bar and residing in Talas will take place and he will convey us his father Gazi DEMIRTAŞ's, who died when he was95-year old, memories about the common social lives of Turks and Armenians in Talas. Besides, we will listen to 85-year-old Ayşe DEMIRTAŞ's memories. Followings are the subjects of our research: -Turkish and Armenian cuisine

-Common traditions, customs and the similarities in social life,
-Points related to the friendship and sharing in common social life
-Armenian families and children protected by Turkish Families during the emigration -Views of Karnik TEKE, Atik ERKUYUMCU and also the other Armenians on Armenian question.
As a conclusion, with this research, historical background of Turkish-Armenian relations, and their common physical and spiritual values are described by presenting real proofs.
Additionally, this research aims to contribute to the friendship and fraternity between Armenians and Turks, which have started to be established in the Turkish Republic period.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Selman CAN
Atatürk University
Faculty of Fine Arts

A general view of the studies concerning the late period of Ottoman architecture makes it clear that non-Muslim architects come to the fore. Especially the Armenian researchers indicate that Armenian architects built most of the buildings in the 19th century. Even though such claims are away from scientific basis and contradict even with themselves, they have taken place in the literature of art history.

Parallel to the restructuring of the Ottoman State in the 19th century, the pattern of architecture also changed and in 1831 Hassa Architects' Council was replaced by Ebniye Directorate, an institution which was central to building and development works and in which plans, designs and projects were prepared. The regulations concerning the building and repair of the buildings were reorganized in this period, too, and the new system was adopted as munakasa (open reduction). This system was intended to enable the buildings to be done at low costs by means of competition. However, the local architects with a lower level of income seemed to be secondary to the Armenian ones with a high level of income, who were known for their closeness to financial sources. Since the names of these architects are often mentioned in the cost notebooks and debt papers prepared for the buildings, it is thought that it is these architects that drew the project and design of the building. However, the real architects of them are different from the ones who applied these plans. Therefore, the Armenian architects took the role of contractor, not that of architect, in the buildings that they built.

Our studies of the Ottoman archives have revealed the genuine place of the Armenian architects in the architecture of the late Ottoman period. The real architects of many buildings attributed to the Armenian ones have been determined through their records. The presentation to be delivered makes a general and broad evaluation of the period in question in terms of architectural history, based on archive documents.


Res. Assist. Serkan GÜL
Erciyes University
Yozgat Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Turks and the Armenians had lived peacefully for along time. However, in the 19th century, the peaceful relations turned into a continuous hatred and struggle between two nations. There were many reasons for this development. During the reign of Abdulhamid the Armenian Question reached to peak and the Armenians as an Armenian enemy and killer portrayed Abdulhamid. It was argued by the Armenians that Abdulhamid had a personal hatred against the Armenians.

Despite the Armenian accusations, the reality was seemingly different. When we consider the Abdulhamid's official and personal relations, we can see that Abdulhamid appointed many Armenian statesmen to critical positions in the state service. There were ministers like Ohannes Pasha, Agop Pasha and Mikhail Pasha as well as many other bureaucrats in the Ottoman Empire. Another important point is that Abdulhamid's relations with the Armenian statesmen were not limited with state administration. We know that Abdulhamid established very close and personal relations with these Armenian statesmen.

In my presentation, I will demonstrate Abdulhamid's relation with the Armenians in the context of his personal experiences. Thus we may reach a point of view about his approach towards the Armenians.


Sakarya University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

The proceeding on "Armenians in the Public Service and Social Life of Diyarbakır" begins with the condition of the Armenians in the social life of Diyarbakır and includes the Armenians who were in public service. An official document including a list of the Armenians servicing in the governmental affairs formed the basis of this presentation. This document, which illustrates the names, salaries, services, ex-services (some of them), ranks and medals of the Armenians, is essential for a broad understanding of the public life. To sum up, the main aim of this paper is to point out the condition of the Armenians in governmental affairs by means of using different documents from the Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives, native-foreign first and second hand sources. The other issues also discussed are the Armenian schools, the other occupations they dealt with, such as press, their situation in the public life in line with their rights and freedoms and their relationship between each other and with the official establishments.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinç ÜÇGÜL
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Turkish Language and Literature

Today, Internet is the fastest and the easiest means of gaining, using and sharing the information. Providing data on various issues, the possibilities of gathering information easily are other benefits of Internet. I searched the Internet for the subject of this symposium via google, altavista, yahoo and alltheweb, which are sites in Turkish, English and Russian. In addition to this, I also searched the web with yandex.ru and rambler.ru, which are widely used search engines in Russian. The aim is to find statistical information about the Turkish-Armenian relationship by revising the writings of Turks, Armenians and the third parties, i.e. those from other nations. The aim of these thoughts are not important factors for this study, it may be a detailed study. The aim of this study is to determine the number of articles, writers, headings and types like magazines, newspapers, books or special writings found at Internet. In addition, the discussion of TV programs related with this issue is another important manner. After this study is completed, we will be able to discuss and compare and contrast the different thoughts about the topic.

Nations create the history, not the historians. Prejudices against our history have to be terminated by realities, historians, and public. While observing various articles, it can be deduced that Armenians try to make deep impacts on the thoughts of other nations.


Dr. Seyfullah KORKMAZ
Erciyes University
Faculty of Theology

In this research we compiled certain selected memories related to some communities in the Ottaman Society in general, and that of Armenians in particular.
The first group is the selection from the memories of an Armenian officer named Ohannes Apresyan who is the character portrayed by the American writer Leonard Ramsden Hartill in his book "Men Are Like That". Ohannes Apresyan tells that his father was a wealthy merchant, Armenians formed the wealthy portion of the society, his village was consisted of Turks and Armenians equally and most of his childhood friends were Turks.

The second group is related with the people of Darende never forget the Armenians who were forced to settle in Aleppo (Which was one of the prosperous and safe provinces) by the decree in 1915. They visited them on their way to pilgrimage to Makkah or when called at Aleppo for business.
So many memories related in this research demonstrate that all nations lived in peace, harmony and serenity in the Ottoman State.



Today, as it has been in past, the biggest problem of human is how to make different cultures get along together. The Ottoman State is a crucial example to evaluate how they manged to deal with such a diversity in culture, etnicity, language and religion without having great problems.

For centuries, the Ottoman State, by forming a synthesis of different cultures it had inherited, ruled the communities having different beliefs and cultures in harmony and without any conflicts. The Ottoman state, relying the philosopyh of being a state on the safety and wellbeing of the people under its sovereignty, tolerated and provided the security of the non-Muslims' worshipping places as a part of the freedom of belief and worshipping. The documents in Ottoman archives prove this allegement. And also, they permitted the reconstruction of churches when they were in bad condition and building new ones in case of need.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Süleyman DEMİRCİ
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

This paper relies on the court records of Kayseri. By examining the court cases in these records it will be possible for us to assess how the Ottoman judicial system dealth with the complaints in the Ottoman sub-province of Kayseri. It will then be possible for us to see how common people fought with rising problems in the Ottoman society, or how they sought justice, and to what degree they knew what their legal rights were and what not by examining the court records themselves. The result of this analysis will help to revise a number of misconceptions regarding the Ottoman justice system - a study of the Armenians in the Ottoman society from the court records may yield a certain insight about the nature of the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Süleyman KIZILTOPRAK
Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

As one of the communities that composed the citizens of the Ottoman State like the Greeks, Bulgarians, Albanians, Arabs, and Turks etc. Armenians had some relatively extensive rights and liberties within the borders of the state. In accordance with the Ottoman nation system, they could organize their religious, educational and health services through private foundations they had, without any restrictions exerted by the central authority. In this context as one of the communities of the Ottoman state they had all the opportunities to have education at all levels. There were also no restrictions for them to go abroad for education and then to serve for the Ottoman State in bureaucracy. In this system, there are many Armenian origin Ottomans served in different bureaucratic units especially in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and promoted to the minister levels. Moreover some of them were appreciated by the state for their services in their profession. Their sons and descendants took over and continued the professions of their ancestors. There are Armenian families like Dadyans during the reign of Selim III (1789-1807), the Düzeoğulları and Balyans during the reign of Mahmut II (1808-1839) who reached important posts in Egypt. It is also possible to see such events during and after the reign of Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Pasha. For instance, different individuals of the family of Abroyans, Yusufians and Nubarians advanced to the important posts in the Egyptian bureaucracy.

The basic aim of this article is to see the roles and contributions of the Armenians, who were one of the communities constituting the state, to the new policies in Egypt during the modernity efforts. We will also mention about the fields of work, the charity institutions like foundations and schools of the Armenians settled to Egypt with the incitements of Mehmet Ali Pasha.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Şakir BATMAZ
Erciyes University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Agop Kazazyan, who did not graduate from a high school and had a great talent and eligibility in solving the financial problems, was the Minister of Finance in the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Abdülhamit II. Throughout the great economic and political conflicts in the Ottoman Empire, Kazazyan contributed to improve the financial matters. The major reasons for his contributions to the government were his admiration to Sultan Hamit and "the Ottoman culture" once he had learned from his family surroundings.

When the responsibility of the Ottoman Bank administration was given to Kazazyan, he fulfilled a "Financial Reform" by reducing the expenses, and increasing the incomes. While he was preceding his reforms, he was oppressed to resign from his present post, for that reason he sent his resignation to the Sultan beyond the shadow of doubt. Thanks to his contributions to the Ottoman government, he was given silver and golden medals, and honoured by Mecidi and Ottoman medals.

Agop Pasha fell over the horse presented by the Sultan Hamit, and perished; his unexpected death caused a deep sorrow among the Armenian, the Yıldız Pavilion, and the Istanbul societies.

In this article, the contributions of Agop Kazazyan to the Ottoman finance within the frame of Loyal Nation (Millet-i Sadıka) will shed into light.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Şenol KANTARCI
Süleyman Demirel University
Atatürk's Principles of Research and Implementation Center

The conflicts between the Turks and the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire were emerged during the last quarter of the 19th century and this conflict climbed in the 20th century. This issue is still on the world agenda as the Ottoman atrocities. The Turkish- Armenian relations deteriorated with the Berlin Congress in 1878. The Armenian political activities started with this and transformed into Armenian rebellions towards 1896. The incidents of 1905, 1909, and 1913-1914, the immigration of the Armenians with the "exile and settlement" law (displacement) in 1915, the political events between the Turks and the Armenians from 1915 to 1923, 1965 to 1985, difficulties and conflicts in political relations of the Turks and Armenians lived in the Otoman Empire are the main subjects of the investigations made on this issue.

The political conflicts caused the peaceful co-existence of the Turks and the Armenians, lived together in the Ottoman administration throughout centuries, to be kept in the background. The Armenians enjoyed the opportunities of tolerant and unifying policy of Islam religion. They became privileged society among non-Muslims and even Muslims in the Ottoman Empire. The beginning of the Turkish-Armenian peaceful coexistance, the general characteristics of the Turks and the Armenians, the Ottoman states attitude to the minorities, the opportunities of the Armenians in commerce, artisanship, farming, and administrative works are the subject of this presentation.


Editor -in- Chief of Atatürk'ün Bütün Eserleri

Armenians, one of the most important minority groups in the Ottoman State, introduced many new things to the society through their artistic skills and talents. They contributed much to our cultural and artistic lives during the Ottoman period and the early years of Turkish Republic;

The staging of the first drama in Western form, the founding of the first musical association (named Ark Musiki Cemiyeti), and the establishment of the first female chorus in Turkey. The first female drama actress, the first sculpture, the first opera diva, the first piano instructor and the first violin instructor of the Navy Cadet School, the publisher of the first comic magazine, many well talented architects, supporters during the days of Turkish War of Independence, the first Christian member of the Turkish Parliament, the author of the first Turkish etymological dictionary, the redactor of the"Turkish Encyclopedia".

Our Armenians; their lives and their works. Testimonials of their living families.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Taha Niyazi KARACA
Erciyes University
Yozgat Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Çapanoğulları founded the city of Yozgat in early 18th century. People from various ethnic roots had been settled to the region by this dynasty. In this respect, determining the socio-cultural interactions between Turkish and Armenian societies, and changes in social life will be a specific approach to art of living together in an Ottoman city.

Yozgat is one of places in Central Anatolia where Turks and Armenians are densely populated. Despite the differences, Turks and Armenians, who came together in the city by migrating from other various regions and constituted two different societies, were able to create a common area to live together. Disregarding the impacts of political problems, both sides have lived peacefully in the city for a long time.

In this presentation; two different societies' areas of living, family structures, their social and cultural interactions, neighborhood relations and helping each other especially in cases of difficulties and natural disasters, will be pointed out in the light of documents.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tamilla Abbashanlı-Aliyeva
Osmangazi University
Department of Turkish Language and Literature

There are plenty numbers of sources about the Armenian settlement in Azerbaijan in the Azerbaijaniam history books. Among many other books, the one entitled Dağlık Karabağ: Tarihi Faktlar, Olaylar (Nagorny Karabagh: Historical Facts and Cases) (Bakı, "İlim", 1989), is sufficient enough to have a general idea about this settlement. This literary work, written by the prominent Azerbaijan historian Prof. İ. Aliyev, emphasizes that Armenians have never had lands in Caucasians. They have claimed to own the lands of the Azerbaijan Turks as if it were their land, and established a so-called country of Armenia Caucasians. The Armenians living in Nagorny Karabagh have come from Turkey, Iran, and Syria and have been settled there by Russia. Armenians have lived in ease and peace at the heart of Azerbaijan-Karabagh, and have got along with the Azerbaijanis. Notwithstanding these interactions, Armenians have considered themselves to be the legal owners of the Azerbaijan lands, and as a society they have become the "spoiled child" of Russia. The humanist Azerbaijan Turks have lived together with the Armenians applying the ethics of humanity. In this respect the influence of these ethics has highly been observed in the literary works of the poets and the authors within their period. Prof. Dr. Adem Sultanlı, the prominent scholar of Azerbaijan, asserts that Armenians have even participated in the religious rituals in the oral literary period in Azerbaijan. M.H.Ahundov, the first playwright of Azerbaijan and of the east, points out the friendly interactions of the Turks and the Armenians in Azerbaijan. Throughout the occupation of the Red Army (1920, 28th April), N. Nerimanov, the president of a republic of Azerbaijan, who is also one of the best friends of Ataturk and the author of Azerbaijan, recites the relations of the Turks and the Armenians in his drama "Bahadır and Suna". In his drama, Nerimanov tells in sorrow the love story of a Turkish boy (Bahadır) and an Armenian girl (Suna) who have never reunited due to their different religious beliefs.

Furthermore C. Cabbarlı, the prominent playwright of the Soviet Union period points out the Armenian-Turkish war in 1905 and in his work 1905-ci Yılda he states that the societies of the Armenians and the Turks had been against war, and asserts that as an external force, Russia, has encouraged these societies to wage wars against one another. Almost all the books published in Azerbaijan, insistently point out the friendly approach of the Turks towards the Armenians and the other societies in every respect, and this approach depicts the humanity of the Turks towards all the societies living in Azerbaijan.


Dr. Ulvi KESER
Maltepe Military School

In Cyprus, the population of the Armenians, known to have helped the Ottoman military forces during the conquest of this island, was some 150 just after its British annexation. The Armenian population, which somehow increased during World War I, spreaded all over the island in particular after World War II., and an interwoven social life with the Turkish Cypriot started. The Armenians having had a very monotonous and peaceful life with Turks could not stand the turmoil in Cyprus especially after 21st December 1963 and started to leave the island just due to the Greek Cypriots' activities on the way of Megali Idea to realize Enosis. The Armenians in Cyprus were particularly well known and distinguished in business life, and they introduced a good many original things such as the "Kayseri sucuğu" and "pastırma" to the Turkish Cypriots as well as being perfect neighbors, preferring to be with their kins and the friends during the holy Muslim bairams, and helping their neighbors in need. After 1963, Armenians in Cyprus left the island by migrating to other countries, mainly to the USA, Britain, Australia and Canada.

The aim of this article is to enlighten the Turkish-Armenian social relations in Cyprus in terms of social, cultural, commercial and humanistic aspects especially up to date 21st December 1963 on which the inter-communal conflict comes to the surface. Following sources have been used during the preperation of this paper;

1- General Staff ATASE Archive
2- Turkish Cypriot National Archive
3- Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives
4- Prime Ministry Republic Archive
5- Private Archives both in Cyprus and Turkey
6- Oral Interviews
7- Published materials (Books, articles, magazines, etc.)


Prof. Dr. Yahya AKYÜZ
Ankara University
Faculty of Educational Sciences

it is worthwhile to investigate the Armenian attitude and behavior in various states against the Turkish Independence War. However, our historians investigate the Independence War mostly based on our national sources. Outside sources are usually neglected, or unknovvn. Therefore, in our talk, we would like to focus on the Armenian propaganda in France against Turkey and anti-propaganda of some French. The information that we present will not only provide significant contribution to the history of our Independence War, but also shed light on the reasons why the Armenians today pay a great deal of importance to international propaganda.
We will analyze this topic under the following five titles:

. The birth of the Turkish National Movement and the Armenian Propaganda
. The Paris Peace Conference and the Armenian Propaganda
. Turkish-Armenian War and the Armenian Propaganda
. Turkish-French War and the Armenian Propaganda
. The anti-propaganda of the French who support Turkey

In addition, we will present two original caricatures about the Armenian problem that are published in French and American newspapers in those years.


Lect. Yasemin SARI
Kocaeli University
Faculty of Fine Arts

AIM: To evaluate the interaction between Armenian and Turkish societies within the context of the art of theater by analyzing cultural structures of these two societies who lived together within the territories of the same state for a long time; and to demostrate the activities of these societies within the formation process of Turkish theater developed on the base of 19th century European realistic theater perspective.

METHOD: The theater's position in Turkish and the Armenian societies; their theater conceptions and reflections of these conceptions on theater; theater groups, writers, actors, theater buildings and the Otoman Palace's attitude to theater in 1839-1923 period; discussing the people who played important roles in the institution of Turkish Theater, Armenian artists influences in these processes.

RESULT: By evaluating Turkish and Armenian societies culturel intreactions in the context of Turkish Theater's history, we concluded that, in the institutionalization of Turkish Theater and the determination of contemporary Turkish Theater's conception the Armenian artists had played an important role.


Dr. Yasin Çağatay SEÇKİN
İstanbul University
The Faculty of Forestry

The contact, dialogue and cooperation, which have been observed for centuries between Turkish and Armenian societies, were also seen in the field of architecture. The strong collaboration among these cultures played an important role in the creation of the monumental architectural works, which were built in different periods of Ottoman Empire.

Many Armenian master-builders and qualified workers, who came from Anatolia, were employed in architectural works built in Istanbul. Some of these master-builders won the Court's approval and were promoted to the Chief Royal Architect by Sultan, for both their artistic talents and their success in personal relationships.

Among them, Armenian Balyan family who moved to Istanbul from Belenköyü in Karaman has a distinctive place in architecture of the Ottoman Empire. Members of the Balyan Family, who began to be known during the reign of Sultan Selim III, worked for Empire approximately 200 years and built various palaces, kiosks, mosques and churches for the Empire, especially during the reigns of Sultan Mahmud II and Abdülmecid.

In this discussion the religious buildings, which were designed by Balyans will be reviewed in particular. For this purpose, Dolmabahçe Mosque, Ortaköy Mosque, Aksaray Valide Mosque and Tophane Nusretiye Mosque, which were built by the Balyan family, will be analyzed in terms of both structural and spatial context. The contributions of the Balyan Family who were Christians with Armenian roots to the architecture of mosques as the most important architectural element of Turkish and Muslim culture will be discussed.


Prof. Dr. Yaşar KALAFAT
ASAM Kafkasya Araştırmaları Masası

In this article, the identity of Turks will be asserted within the frame of the Gregorian Turks and their religious identity. It is stated that the non-identity of the Christian-Turk strategy brings forward the idea a great loss in national identity. In case of having the strategy of the Christian-Turk identity, the Turkish Republic will gain more frequent advantages.

It is a known fact that the Turks belonging to the Gregorian order, who lived in Anatolia, and are now living in Azerbaijan, have the cultural heritage of ethymology, toponomy, mythology, religion, and the folk literature.

This article aims to focus on the Gregorian Turks in every respect.



In this study, the image of the Turk portrayed in Armenian literature shall be analyzed. Research conducted on this subject indicates that the First World War, the Armenian relocation, the Armenian Church, the lack of diplomatic ties between the two countries, the Armenians having resided under the Otoman Empire as a minority group for several years and various other events have played an important role in the formation of the image of the Turk in Armenian literature. Moreover it should also be taken into consideration that political, social, and economic factors have also played an important role in the development of Armenian literature.


Assist. Prof. Dr. Zekeriya BAŞKAL
Gaziosmanpaşa University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

In this work, the reflections of Turkish-Armenian co-existence in five literary works written in Turkish and English about the same period will be discussed. The reflection areas, the framework that this co-existence is perceived in, and the effects of the society in which the authors of the literary work in this perception will be analyzed. It will be argued that as well as historical events and works, literary works, too, play an essential role in the current perception of Turkish-Armenian coexistence.


Res. Assist. Zeynep İSKEFİYELİ
Sakarya University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History

Bestowing decorations and medals in the Ottoman Empire began to take place in the last quarter of the 18th century. Decorations and medals are symbols given to those who become successful by working very hard with endeavor, service and self-sacrifice in the existence, unity and integrity of the state. The aim of giving symbol is both rewarding and encouraging the other citizens of the society for the same success. In this frame, because of their good service, the Ottomans bestowed decorations and medals in certain periods to Armenians called as "Millet-i Sadıka" (the most obedient servant of the Porte). In this presentation, giving various examples of decorations and medals granted to Armenians by certain reasons, it is focused on their effects on the Turkish-Armenian relations. First of all, decorations and medals were granted to Armenian Catholicos, Patriarchs, bishops and clergyman together with plenipotentiaries, Armenian notables and zealous members of the Armenian community.

For example, Armenian patriarch was bestowed a decoration on account of the defense of his community's lawful request. Besides, the Armenian ladies who knitted the sultans' purse, which was delivered to Sultan on the occasion of his birthday, were bestowed medal of industry and clemency decorations. Furthermore, decorations were granted to mufti of Van with Armenian plenipotentiary owing to their exertion in the repair of the Fortress of Van. It is possible to meet with such kind of examples in the documents of the Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives. This is a conspicuous peculiarity of Turkish-Armenian togetherness that had lived in repose and tranquility, justice and safety for a long period in the lands of Ottomans.


Symposium Summary Papers are kindly provided by:

Professor M. Metin HULAGU,
Vice Dean,
Lecturer at Faculty of Arts and Science, Dept. of History ,
38039 Melikgazi-Kayseri / Turkey


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