08 December 2006

1267) An Example Of Living In Harmony And Together In Ottoman Society “Ereğli Coal Area”



Associate Prof. Dr. Ahmet ÖĞRETEN[1]

SUMMARY

Coal has been produced regularly in Ereğli coal basin since 1841. Most of the coal mines among 390 coal mines located in the coal basin were run by the partnership formed by miners from various nationality, religion, sect and countries. In this essay, Armenian and Armenian joint ventured miner’s activities are particularly mentioned.

Introduction

While producing this work, first of all written statements kept by administrative offices of Ereğli Coal Mines were taken into consideration. Some parts of these documents were stored in the library of Zonguldak Karaelmas University. In addition to these documents, the notebooks and the documents from Prime Ministry Ottoman Archive (BOA), Prime Ministry Republic Archives (BCA) and the Archive of Turkish Hard coal Enterprises Educational Office and other relating published journals and books ware also used to write this essay.

I-The Production of Coal in Ereğli Mining District

Ottoman Administration began to be interested in coalmines since the post era of Selim III through end of 18th century[2]. Since coal was the major source of energy of Industrial Revolution in the western countries, Ottoman Administration became more and more interested in coal production. During Mahmoud II reign the discovery of the coal, which was mainly used as an energy source in industry and as a main fuel for steamships triggered the coal mining in Ereğli region[3].

At the beginning Ereğli coal basin, which was under the control of Darphane-i Âmire[4] was transferred to Hazine-i Hassa[5] after its foundation (15 June 1847)[6]. Operation right of Ereğli coal mines was awarded to Ereğli Coal Mine Company (Ereğli Kömür Madeni Kumpanyası) which had 6 shareholders, who were rich bureaucratic people from Ottoman Statement, after a trial production lasting over 3 years[7].

The company consisting 6 shareholders and 6 partners had decided to become a company having 7 partners and 12 shareholders by the participation of Sultan Abdülmecid in 6 March 1846[8]. Due to sales and dead occasions, partners of the company were changed as time went by[9]. The coal production activity around the coalfield was carried out until the date of March 1865.[10].

The company did not directly take part in coal production activities by employing coal labors. Instead, the company made a new agreement with Austrian Croats, who were coal labors offering to buy the coal produced on a fixed price. That is to say, the coal production was transferred to subcontractors who were Austrian Croat[11]. Ahmed Fethi Paşa, who was one of the shareholders of the company, had defined the production style as a lump method in one of his report[12]. In order to produce first coal in Ereğli Region, the Austrian Corats were brought from Austria by Ahmet Fethi Paşa, who was the ambassador during the same period (March 1837) [13]. Later, there were other new coal miners who wanted to extract coal using same coal production style as Austrian Croats used.

The management of the coalfields was given to administration of shipyard (Tersane-i Âmire) to be run on behalf of Hazine-i Hassa (treasury property) in the beginning of March 1865[14].

In this period when coal fields were governed by Tersane-i âmire, mines – just like in “Kumpanya” were not given to the miners as a real property but given for to run the mines and it was called production right. Between the period of 1865 and 1882 miners had to sell all the coal they produced to Tersane-i âmire for the price determined by the navy administration (Bahriye idaresi) as in Kumpanya period[15]. With the decree made in 1883, producers were allowed to sell 40% of the coal to wherever they want to[16] and they had to sell rest of the coal produced (60%) to the Tersane-i âmire for the determined price as was in the past. They had to pay 16% tax for the coal they sell in the free market[17].

During the Tersane-i âmire, significant developments took place in mining industry and all of the coalmines started to be numbered due to increases in number of coalmines. In numbering the coalmines, it was started from the mines in Kılıç stream. Numbers till 33 were given to mines in Kozlu region, and starting from 34 the numbers were given to Zonguldak region, Kilimli region, Alacaağzı region and Ereğli region respectively and in total, 188 coal mines were numbered. After that time, the new coalmines were numbered no matter what their district is[18].

From 1878 of which the numbers of the mine started until 1909 of which end of the Tersane-i âmire[19], numeration was carried out for total 393 coalmines in Ereğli coal mining district. The mines eight of which were numbered never became active. The number of the coalmines that actively used in production was 385. And the founders of the two coalmines remained unknown[20].

According to the determinations through the names of the mines; 123 of these 385 mines were opened by Muslim Turks[21] without any partner, 45 by non-Muslim without any partner, 82 by joint ventures of Muslim Turks among themselves, 43 by joint ventures of non-Muslims and 87 by joint venture of Muslim Turks and non-Muslim. As can be seen from the numbers, 123 of the coalmines which were opened by Muslim Turks initiative and 87 of which were started by the joint ventures of Muslim Turks and non-Muslims. This case clearly implied that after Muslim-Turk initiative, Muslim-non-Muslim co-operations were mostly preferred in co-operations.

II-Turkish-Armenian Co operations in Coal Mining

For the case of Armenian miners who were non-Muslim, they took part in 41 out of 385 coalmines. 34 out of 41 coalmines were opened by the cooperation of Armenian and Muslim Turks and 4 of them were opened by joint ventures of Armenians only and 1 coal mine was opened by a single Armenian miner. 2 coalmines were opened by co-operations between Muslim Turks, Armenians, and other Christian’s miners. This case clearly shows that Armenian miners had the confidence with Muslim Turks co operations rather than co-operations with their own people. In some coalmines, Armenian miners became the partner after coalmines started. In these co-operations, they preferred to cooperate with Muslim Turks such as in the number 6, 21, 229, and 370 of coalmines.

The mining in Eregli region were started with official certificate, developed with production certificate, and continued with production. One of the most important and big initiatives recorded was started by Mevaliden Şükrü Effendi and Parsih Halaçyan Effendi in the Gobi Mountain in order to open 63 coalmines[22]. Reply to this initiative, 37 coalmines numbered from 301 to 337 were assigned by the administration to these miners. Since some of the coalmines were considered as a single coalmine, 7 of them seemed to be inactive according to the records[23].

II-1. The Guaranty in Coal Mining Sector (An example of solidarity)

The miners who wanted to manage coalmines in Ereğli Coal Mine basin were asked to find guarantors. Most of the times, the miners showed the other miners as guarantors. These guaranty structures of which generally consist at least three miners show the social cooperation and support each other in the Ottoman society without considering sectarian, religious and national differences. The guaranties were like the letters of guarantee that are approved by current banks now. It is known that banks do this service for money. However, there were not any evidences that these guarantors provided this service for money like current banks. In this respect, it can be said that it is a solid example of sharing and cooperation. These guaranties were arranged and changed when owners of the mine or conditions changed, according to new conditions.

The guaranties are documents that show that the liabilities of miners were undertaken by third persons. There is an example of a guaranty which has expressions of support this liability[24] says; “We as a guarantors, guarantee that these miners (names) are to produce and deliver coal under the condition of submitted agreement; if debt occurs during the operation to employers, to the management of the coal field, and deficit due to operation are to be paid by us; also the miners are to behave according to the mining rules agreed upon. In addition to that we guarantors became guarantor of each other. We sign and stamp this grantor letter”.

II-2. The Armenian Miners in Mining and examples of Cooperation

Coal Mine 6: It was founded in Karabayır, which is near the Kozlu region. It was opened by Kahveci Ömer Ağa before 1878. Ömer Ağa sold his 20 shares out of 30 shares as 10 shares to Bolulu Serkiz Nezaretyan and 10 shares to Ereğlili Mahmud Ağazade Ali Effendi respectively. In return, he was paid 6.473 Qurushes 10 pennies (para) for each “10 shares” in 1894. After this sales, the coal mine was administrated by these three shareholders and Hajji Süleyman Ağa, Gerzeli Hasan Ağa, Yasaf Ağa were guarantors of the miners[25].

No information was found to show administration structure of the mine between 1894 and 1899. According to records, 5.165 Qurushes and 23 pennies income taxes were paid from this coal mine in 1899[26].

Coal Mine 21: It was founded in Kozlu region and was operated by Murad Şaban, before in 1878. On 30 August 1883, this coalmine was evaluated as 40 shares and he sold 15 shares to Artin Karamanyan (an Armenian) and 15 shares to Merchant Ahmed Effendi. So, after this sale, this coalmine was shared by three owners. Some time later, there was a conflict between owners about Murat Saban’s share. This conflict was solved by two experts named as Aslıoğlu Bodos and Istefan Topcuyan[27].

This coalmine was merged with coal mine numbered as 18, which was owned by Abasızoglu Hüseyin Effendi and Kasap İsmail and was renamed as İhsaniye Limited. İhsaniye Limited was evaluated as 80 shares and owned by four partners: 20 shares to Merchant Ahmed Effendi, 20 shares to Artin Karamanyan Effendi, 30 shares to Abasızoglu Hüseyin Effendi and 10 shares to Murad Şaban. Due to debts of Merchant Ahmed Effendi, 2nd November 1892 his shares were sold out and his shares bought by his wife, Nafia Hanım. At the same date, 5 shares from Abasızoglu Hüseyin and 5 shares from Artin Karamanyan were sold out with the value of 10.000 Qurushes each, and total 10 shares were bought by Serkiz Rakıcıyan, who was a director of İhsaniye Coal Limited. After becoming a Company via merging, production fields were enlarged, and the guarantors of the company were Miner Hasan Aga, Rumbaki (son of Heci) and Onsekizoğlu Mehmed Aga[28].

172.590 kantar’s of coals for one year were produced in the coal mine numbered as 21 in 1893 fiscal year[29]. For the coal mine 21, the company paid 10.573 Qurushes income taxes to the government in 1899 fiscal year, which was arranged as the time from beginning of current March to end of the February of the following year. Later, in fiscal year 1904, the company paid 43.795 Qurushes and 10 pennies (para) income taxes for the mine 21 indicating increasing revenue of the mine[30].

Coal Mine 25:, This mine was founded by Milo, Yuvan and Kosti, who had Slavic-Orthodox culture, in a place called as Domuzini in Kozlu region before 1878. By the time, the mine owners had been changed. On 23 January 1898, 1/5 shares of the coalmine, which was evaluated as 35 shares were sold to Armenian Haçador Halaçyan Effendi. The other shares were owned by Kosti with 5 shares, Pavli with 14 shares and Petro with 14 shares[31]. Since they wanted to operate the mine by applying European style coal production techniques, using machine and the method of digging a perpendicular well, the miners wanted to enlarge their mining field by asking permission from the government. This request was accepted in a condition of not causing any harm to other miners around. The guarantors of the mine 25 were Gerzeli Hasan Aga, Miner Şirin and Miner Yuvan[32].

From beginning of March 1893, total annual coal production amounts were 63.810 kantar[33] and they paid 49.470 Qurushes and 10 pennies as income taxes to the government in the fiscal year of 1899[34].

Coal Mine 38: This coal mine was founded by Milo Hristo and Armenian Andon before 1878, but later it was totally owned by Andon. He evaluated the coalmine as 40 shares and sold 10 shares to Armenian originated Gürcü Pano for 50.000 Qurushes. For this corporation, Miner Musa oğlu Mahmud, Miner Cora and Miner (and factory owner) Yani were the guarantors[35].

From the date of 1887 the production level of coal in this mine which was managed by Andon and Istefan increased steadily. For the same fiscal year mine owner paid 109.192 Qurushes tax[36] and for fiscal year of 1899, they paid 84.012 Qurushes and 10 pennies (para)[37] to the government.

The partners of the mine stopped producing coal in this mine for the reason of renewal of mine 74 in 28 February 1893[38].

Coal Mine 70 : The mine was called in the name of Sirinyan which was located somewhere near Mağaraağzı in Zonguldak and it was founded before 1878[39]. According to the records of fiscal year of 1887, the mine was run by Teke Halil, Ahmed and Çoturoğlu[40]. This case clearly implied that Şirinyan had the idea of selling off the mine.

Coal Mine 93 : It was founded by Topaloglu Bayram and Armenian Kirkor, who is from Ankara, and was located somewhere called Kumtarlası in Kilimli before 1878. The mine was among the inactive coalmines in the year 1887 and was sold out to the other miners before 1889[41].

Coal Mine 94 : It was founded by Metro, Milo and Latin Yanko and was located somewhere near Ihlamurluk in Kilimli region at the right hand side of railway before 1878. It was run by Petro and Istefan during the fiscal years of 1887 and 1889. On 16th January 1895, the mine was evaluated as 30 shares and shared to its shareholders as follows; 17,5 shares to Petro, 7,5 shares to Tıngıroglu Agop Effendi and the rest of 5 shares to Hasan Effendi, who was from Sinop. The guarantors of the mine were miner Nikola Krakovic, Miner Rumbaki and miner Hasan Aga, who was from Gerze[42]. According to the records of 1899, the name of this coal mine was called as “coal mine number 94 Petro”[43].

After death of Tıngıroglu Agop his 7,5 shares was sold by his inheritors to Istefan Yorgiyadis, Ottoman citizen. This selling was confirmed by the members of parliament on 22th January 1919[44].

Coal Mine 166 : This mine, which was founded by Bosnian Suleiman, Salih and Sarıoglu and was located in Kilimli region. It was run by Armenian David Sıvacıyan having 20 shares, Papazoglu Marko having 5 shares, and Boco having 5 shares from 10th December 1887. The guarantors of the mine were miner Onsekizoglu Mehmet Effendi, miner Acente Huseyin Effendi and miner manufacturer Yani[45]. At the same year, the coal mine was sold to Salih Effendi. On following years, the coal production was terminated after the mine closed down in 1889[46].

Coal Mine 174 : This mine was founded by with the cooperation of Hajji Omar, Lazo, Istefan, Armenian Andon, who was from Ankara and Armenian Kirkor before in 1878. It was run by Koçekçi Marko in 1887. On 27th December 1892, it was totally taken over by Bodosaki[47].

Coal Mine 175: It was one of the mines founded in Kilimli region before 1878. It was founded in cooperation of Hajji Ömer, Lazo, İstefan, Andon from Ankara and Kirkor. In the following years, there was no available information about coalmine 175[48].

Coal Mine 177: It was founded in Kilimli region before 1878 by Mülazım Bey, Lazo, Hajji Omar and Stefan. The coal mine was evaluated as 40 shares and shared out as follows; 10 shares to Taşhancızade Ali Effendi from Bolu, 10 shares to Armenian Şinork Mihranyan Effendi, 15 shares to Armenian Istepan Topçuyan Effendi and 5 shares to Papazoğlu Yazıcı İstepan Ağa on 20th December 1897. On 21st August 1898, Papazoğlu Stefan sold his 5 shares to Yorgi and Vasil, who were son of Nepani and was Ottoman citizen, for 5.000 Qurushes with the help of his representative Çıkrıkçı Ahmet Effendi. On 6th August 1901, Ismail Nuri Aga, who was son of Kazan Mosque Imam, from Mudurnu town bought 2 shares from Ahmed Effendi, 3 shares from Stephan Topçuyan, 2 shares from Şinork Mihranyan, half share from Yorgi and half share from Vasil for 100.000 Qurushes. The guarantors of this coalmine were Yuvan, who was son Pavli, Miner Petro Istefan and Acente Şirketi[49].

On 25th March 1907, 8 shares of Şinork Mihranyan were sold to Ahmet Effendi, who was one of the sharers of the mine, for 700 Ottoman Liras by the representative Incisu Esavidis who was given the power of selling by Galata Law Court. With the power of selling from shareholders, Ahmet Effendi sold 20 shares including his 10 shares, 4 shares of Nuri Aga and 6 shares of Istepan Topcuyan to Aslıoglu Avraham, who was son Bodos Aga from Istanbul for 5.815 Ottoman Liras. Sava Savidis Nikola, Boşnak Ali Ağazade Ali Rıza and Durmuş oğlu Pavlaki became guarantor to this newly formed cooperation for the coalmine company[50].

The financial case of the company in 1899 was as follows; they paid 8.265 Qurushes as income taxes from the first six month’s income. In 1904, the tax for whole year was 37.387 Qurushes and 10 pennies (para) out of their annual total income[51].

The company was continued till 1913 with those sharers mentioned above. But, after the death of Taşhancızade Ahmed and Nepani oğlu Yorgi Effendi of whom having no inheritors, all of the shares of the mine 177 were transferred to National Mine Management. Two shares of Nepani oğlu Vasil Effendi were sold to Aslıoglu Avraham Effendi, who was one of the shareholders[52].

Later on, the coal mine was called as Tashancı Mine. 12 shares of Topcuyan Stephan Effendi were sold to Ottoman Mustafa Bey and this selling was approved by Members of Parliament on 4th November 1917[53]. After that time, no information was recorded about the coalmine 177.

Coal Mine 217: It was founded by Ohannes and Mahat in Amasra region somewhere near Tarlaagzı called Cınarlık Yılanlısu. Though it was founded after 1878, no certain date for the foundation was found out. Later on, the coalmine was abandoned by Ohannes and Mahat. The coalmine was bought by Armenian Sezak Pempeciyan in an auction for 1200 Qurushes on 4th July 1896. The guarantors of the mine, which started to produce coal were Miner Kasap İsmail, Miner Yuvan and İhsaniye Mining Company. On 28th February 1901, the mine was evaluated as 60 shares by Sezak Pempeciyan. He sold 15 shares to Serkiz Rakıcıyan, 15 shares to Agop Pempeciyan, 7 and half shares to Artin Pempeciyan and 7 and half shares to Efasid Bedliyan. After this selling, they became shareholders in the same company. For this new cooperation, the guarantors of the mine were Petro Istefan and Gerzeli Hasan and Abasizogli Husni[54].

Coal Mine 229: This mine was founded by Civa Matko, Gerzeli Hasan and Ali Effendi in Çataldere place near the Kozlu region. The mine was operated by merchant Ahmed Effendi and Artin Karamanyan in 30th May 1892. On following years, there is no written information about the mine 229[55].

Coal Mine 287: It was founded by Şükrü Effendi in Ayini place near Kilimli region. Şükrü Effendi sold his half shares to Cevahircioğlu Bodosaki for 2.000 Qurushes on November 1892 and they became fifty-fifty shareholder. Miner Onsekizoğlu Mehmet Effendi, miner Halil Bey and miner Hajji Galip were the guarantors of the mine[56].

For the fiscal year of 1893, the total annual production of the mine run by Şükrü Effendi was 4.830 kantar coals[57].

On April 1902, the border of the mine was enlarged and its value was evaluated as 30 shares. A new cooperation was formed as follows; 10 shares to Şükrü Effendi, 5 shares to Harafim Effendi (Armenian), 5 shares to Dimistani Effendi and 10 shares to Madam Mariye, wife of Bodosaki. Gerzeli Hasan, Yuvan, who was son of Pavli and Petro Istefan were the guarantors of the new cooperation[58].

In fiscal year of 1904, the mine was operated by Şükrü Effendi and his partners Armenian Harafim and they paid 63.902 Qurushes as income taxes[59].

After Istavri becoming one of the shareholders of the mine on 31 January 1906, the mine was operated by Mevaliden Şükrü Effendi, Harafim and Istavri up to 1908[60]. After this time, there is no record in written literature.

Coal Mines Numbered as 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324 and 325: These mines were founded by Parsih Halaçyan, Mevaliden Şükrü Effendi and Mustafa Bey in somewhere called Boyalık on Gobi Mountain. These mines were operated by Parsih Halaçyan and Mustafa Bey holding fifty-fifty shares since February 1898[61].

Parsih Halaçyan, who has a half of shares of the mines numbered from 301 to 330 mines in Gobi Mountain sold his shares to engineer Nogara, who was a Italian and Nogara’s partners on June 1907[62].

Coal Mine Numbered as 326, 327, 328, 329 and 330: These mines were founded by Mustafa BeyEffendi, Mevaliden Şükrü Effendi and Parsih Halaçyan to produce coal in an area with radius of 450 m in place of Göbi Mountain on 13th September 1892. After some time, these mines were owned by Parsih Halaçyan and Mustafa Bey holding fifty-fifty shares[63].

Parsih Halaçyan, who has a half of shares of the mines numbered from 301 to 330 mines in Gobi Mountain sold his shares to engineer Nogara, who was a Italian and Nogara’s partners on June 1907 [64].

Coal Mine 351: Murad Panosyan asked an official permission for coal exploration from National Mine Management in Gökgöl place near Zonguldak region on 6 May 1892. He was given the official permission on 15 July 1892. Panosyon had found two coalmines in the region. Before starting coal production in these mines, Murad Panosyan, businessman from Eregli, agreed with Şinork Mihranyan as his partner. They have founded mine 351 by the coal production license issued on 26th July 1893. They evaluated the mine as 40 shares having 20 shares each. Their guarantors for the mine were Istepan Topcuyan and Miner Petro. There has been no information on this mine on following years[65].

Coal Mine 352: Murad Panosyan asked an official permission for coal exploration from National Mine Management in Gökgöl place near Zonguldak region on 6 May 1892. He was given the official permission on 15 July 1892. Panosyon had found two coalmines in the region. In order to operate the mine, Murad Panosyan agreed with Şinork Mihranyan having fifty-fifty shares of the mine. They started coal production on 18th July 1893. Their guarantors for the mine 352 were Istepan Topcuyan, Miner Petro and Ihsaniye Şirketi. There has been no information on this mine on following years[66].

Coal Mine 370: It was founded in Incivez place, which was below the Kozlu-Zonguldak road. The mine was founded merging two old mines of which one of them was belong to Musa oğlu Ali and his partner Salih Effendi and the other was belong to Molla Recep and his partner Hammal Mehmet. The mine was sold to Murad Şaban in an auction for 6.050 Qurushes. Coal production and auction date of the mine were not determined. The mine was evaluated as 40 shares by Murat Şaban keeping 10 shares to himself. The rest of the shares were distributed as follows; 10 shares to Serkiz Rakıcıyan, 10 shares to Yuan Effendi, 5 shares to Ereğlili Musa and 5 shares to Ibrahim Effendi. Their guarantors for the mine were Kasap Ismail, Miner Ömer Ağa and Miner Cöbekoğlu Rıza[67]. With these partners, the coal production was carried on by production license issued on 23 April 1898[68]. The income taxes for this mine in fiscal years of 1899 and 1904 were paid as 4.752 Qurushes and 3.060 Qurushes respectively[69].

Coal Mine 372: This mine was founded by Karamahmudzade Halil Bey, Ismail Effendi and Aram Karamanyan in Köseağzı Stream place near the Alacaağzı region. They had an official permission for coal exploration from National Mine Management on 4 November 1897. The mine was evaluated as 100 shares and all shares were distributed as follows: 37 and half shares to Halil Bey, 37 and half shares to Süleyman Effendi and 25 shares to Artin Karamanyan Effendi. With these shareholders, they had an official permission for coal production from National Mine Management on 26 June 1898. Their guarantors for the mine were Miner Yuvan, Gerzeli Hasan and Miner Murad Şaban. Since they had not started to coal production within the 18 months, they lost their official permission for coal production on 11 December 1899[70].

Coal Mine 373: This mine was founded by Hilmi Effendi and Merchant Aram Hallacyan. However, foundation of the mine in which place, on which time, on which conditions and on what time till operated were not determined[71].

II-3. Cooperation In Trade Life

A very good example for “living together art” could be given from the one which was experienced in the Eregli Coal District. The Muslims and Non-Muslims managed to cooperate in trade and formed Zonguldak Trade Association together in 30 August 1919 (1335). In the first election of board members, both groups worked together in peace and harmony. The members of the association were as follows;[72]

Chairman : Miner Maksut Bey

Deputy Chairman : Bartınlı Kozmides Effendi

Members : Miner Mihail Hristo Effendi

: Miner Hoca İstefan Effendi

: Tradesman Karabet İstanbulluyan Effendi

: Tradesman Toma Fotyadis Effendi

: Tradesman Ohannis Hazarbetyan Effendi

: TradesmanBekir Sıtkı Bey

: Tradesman Heci Antranik Effendi.

As it is seen from the names, the chairman and one of the members was Turkish-Muslim and four of them were Armenian among seven Non-Muslim members.

In the second election of 29 March 1922 (1338), the chairman and the elected board members were as follows[73]

Chairman : The ex-city governor of Kastamonu, tradesman İbrahim Bey

Deputy Chairman : Hajji Ahmed Ali zade Ali Effendi

First assistant : Tradesman Alişan Bey

Second assistant : Boyacıoğlu Anesti Effendi

Members : Çakalzade Mehmed Effendi

: Eyüp Çavuş zade Ahmed Effendi

: Tradesman Ohannis Hazarbetyan

: Hajji Bekir zade Nuri Effendi

: Bodos Antomilidis Effendi

: Hırant Panoysan Effendi

: Kalınoğlu Koço Effendi

CONCLUSION

It is well known that the art of living together between Muslim Turks and Armenians goes back to 1071 the first entrance of Muslim Turks to Anatolia. This art of living together lasted for a long time until the early years of 20th century. This study shows that the art of living together between Muslim Turks and Armenians is “not a myth” but a prominent “fact”. There was harmony and peaceful partnership in the mining companies formed by Armenians and Muslim Turks. Armenian miners took part in 41 out of 385 coalmines in the five region. 34 out of 41 coalmines were founded by the cooperation of Armenian and Muslim Turks and 4 of them were opened by joint ventures of Armenians themselves, and only 1 coalmine was opened by a single Armenian miner. Two coalmines were founded by co-operations between Muslim Turks, Armenians and other Christians miners. This case clearly shows that Armenian miners had the confidence cooperation with Muslim Turks rather than their own people.

The guarantor system in the mining sector is the second eminent evident for Muslim non-Muslim co-operations. There were social co-operations and supports between coal miners without considering sectarian, religious and national differences as was general in Ottoman society. In this respect, the miners were the guarantors to each other in the mining sector without considering sectarian, religious and national differences. As expressed in the section II.1, the miners who wanted to manage coalmines in Ereğli Coal Mine basin were asked to find guarantors. The guaranties were like the letters of guarantee that are approved by current banks now. Unlike current letters of guarantee system of banking, it was provided without any payment. In this respect, it can be said that it is a solid example of sharing and cooperation.

Social cooperations and supports had also affected the coal production towards increases in produced coal amounts by time. According to the accounting records of fiscal year 1891, apart from Amasra’s mines in which there was no production activity, total produced coal in the coal basin by private sector were 1.403.987 kantar (104.398,7 tones). Also, 109.086 kantar coal were produced by government owned mines[74]. While it was produced 1.726.086 kantar (172.608,6 tones) coal by 96 coal mines in five regions during the fiscal year 1893[75], on October 6, 1917 this was daily 1.400 tones by private companies and 2.500 tones in total by all companies including government owned mines throughout Kilimli, Kozlu, and Zonguldak Regions, excluding Alacaağzı and Amasra regions[76].

The only conflict occurred in partners in mining sector was the death of partner Istefan Marko. On June 20, 1892 the deceased Istefan Marko’s wife and orphans, who were the shareholders of 38 numbered mines in Zonguldak region, requested their operation and share rights of the mining to be paid back them[77].

Most of the coal mines, which were Armenian partnered or Armenian miner owned were small companies. However, these small companies were defeated against the competition with big companies that were later entered in the sector and the small companies left the mining. Especially, French owned Ereğli Company pushed the small companies out of the region via having right to operate the Zonguldak port and railway enterprises, which directly linked to the Zonguldak port in the area.

During the First World War, although the Ottoman Empire had applied mandatory migration for some Armenians from Anatolia, the other Armenians who were living in Ereğli Coal Mines Basin which was part of the Kastamonu State were kept apart from the migration[78].

Nowadays, there is no any non-Muslim community living in the Ereğli Coal Mines Basin. Most of the non-Muslim, who were engaging in mining sector, came to Ereğli Coal Basin from other parts of the Ottoman state, i.e., a great part of them having different occupations had settled in Istanbul.

While one of non-Muslim nations, called the Rum holding Ottoman citizenship, were substituted according to Lozan Treaty, the Armenian miners, like other private sector miners, were left off mining as a result of the nationalization of the mining sector by Turkish Republic[79]. Some of them had gone to Istanbul, but the most of them had migrated to Western countries with the expectation of getting or setting up a new business as was done by 3 millions of Turkish citizens.
KAYNAKÇA

Arşiv Kaynakları

BCA. 30.18.01.01/015.58.1.

BOA. Dosya Usulü İrade Tasnifi (DUİT), nr. 21/ 2-3

BOA. Y.MTV, nr. 309/22.

BOA. A.MKT.MHM, nr. 372/66, 372/96.

BOA. D.DRB.İ, nr. 13/22, 13/27.

BOA. Hatt-ı hümayun, nr. 197/9882; 20448.A, 240/13417.

BOA. Hazine-i hassa Defteri, nr. 238, 246, 252, 790, 791.

BOA. HH.İ, nr. 2/24.

BOA. HR.MKT, nr. 35/53;.

BOA. MB, nr. 6/91;

BOA. MV, nr. 176/46, 210/7.

BOA. ŞD,Bahriye, nr. 6/51, 6/57, . 8/25.

BOA. Y.EE, nr. 109/16.

BOA. Y.MTV, nr. 306/12, 309/22.

BOA. Y.PRK.BŞK, nr. 16/31.

BOA. Y.PRK.HH, nr. 35/86.

BOA. Y.PRK.OMZ, nr. 3/68.

TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri 1303.

TTKEDA. Defter, nr. 8.

TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri Cild-i sâni 1315.

ZKÜ. Derdest Defteri 1307, nr. 23.

ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1305, nr. 72.

ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1320, nr. 98.

ZKÜ. MİKD (Madenci İsteklerini Kayıt Defteri), nr. 6,

ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85.

Makale ve Araştırma Eserleri

Cumhuriyetin 10 Yılında Zonguldak ve Maden Kömürü Havzası, Zonguldak Ticaret ve Sanayi Odası, İstanbul 1933

İMER, H.Fehmi, Ereğli Maden Kömürü Havzası Tarihçesi, Zonguldak 1944.

KILIÇ, Davut, “1915’te Tehcir Edilmeyen Ermeniler”, Ermeni Araştırmaları 1. Türkiye Kongresi Bildirileri, II, ASAM-Ermeni araştırmaları Enstitüsü yayını, Ankara 2003, s. 113-120.

ÖKÇÜN, Gündüz, “XX. Yüzyıl Başlarında Osmanlı Maden üretiminde Türk, Azınlık ve Yabancı Payları”, Prof. Dr. Yavuz Abadan’a Armağan, Ankara 1969, s. 803-895.

ÖZEKEN, Ahmet Ali, Zonguldak Kömür Havzası Tarihi, İstanbul 1944, s. 19-20.

SAVAŞKAN, Bahri, Zonguldak Maden Kömürü Havzası Tarihçesi, Zonguldak 1993.

TERZİ, Arzu T; Hazine-i Hassa Nezareti, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2000, s. 19-21

Tızlak, Fahrettin, “Ereğli Kömür Madeni Nizamnamesi” Belgeler Dergisi, TTK, Sayı 23, Ankara 1999, s. 123-146.

TTK. Genel Müdürlüğü Kütüphanesi, Zonguldak, nr. 2262.



[1] Staff in Zonguldak Karaelmas University Zonguldak-Turkey, aogreten@yahoo.com, 0542 646 95 05.

[2] BOA. Hatt-ı hümayun, nr. 197/9882; 240/13417.

[3] BOA. Y.PRK.HH, nr. 35/86.

[4] BOA. D.DRB.İ, nr. 13/22, 13/27.

[5] Arzu T. Terzi, Hazine-i Hassa Nezareti, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2000, p. 19-21.

[6] BOA. Hazine-i hassa Defteri, nr. 791, v. 2b-3b.

[7] BOA. Hazine-i hassa Defteri, nr. 790, v. 1b.

[8] BOA. Hazine-i hassa Defteri, nr. 790, v. 6a.

[9] BOA. Hazine-i hassa Defteri, nr. 238, p. 20.

[10] BOA. Hazine-i hassa Defteri, nr. 246, v. 89b.

[11] BOA. MB, nr. 6/91; HR.MKT. nr. 35/53; Hazine-i hassa Defteri, nr. 790, v. 9b-10a.

[12] BOA. HH.İ, nr. 2/24, belge 2.

[13] BOA. Hatt-ı hümayun, nr. 20448.A.

[14] BOA. Hazine-i hassa Defteri, nr. 252, v. 86a, derkenar.

[15] Ahmet Ali Özeken, Zonguldak Kömür Havzası Tarihi, İstanbul 1944, p. 19-20.

[16] A.A. Özeken, Ereğli Kömür Havzası..., p. 20-21; Bahri Savaşkan, Zonguldak Maden Kömürü Tarihçesi, Zonguldak 1993, p. 21

[17] BOA. Y.PRK.BŞK, nr. 16/31; BOA. ŞD. Bahriye, nr. 8/25.

[18] A.A.Özeken, Zonguldak Kömür Havzası …, p. 42; H.Fehmi İmer, Ereğli Maden Kömürü Havzası Tarihçesi, Zonguldak 1944, p. 18; Bahri Savaşkan, Zonguldak Maden Kömürü Havzası Tarihçesi, Zonguldak 1993, s.19-20;

[19] Gündüz Ökçün, “XX. Yüzyıl Başlarında Osmanlı Maden üretiminde Türk, Azınlık ve Yabancı Payları”, Prof. Dr. Yavuz Abadan’a Armağan, Ankara 1969, p. 877-878.

[20] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 330-336.

[21] Since there was Christian-Turk (orthodox) among the miners, the idiom of “Muslim-Turk” has been used by the author. Some examples of the Christian-Turks miner are given as follows: Durmuş oğlu Pavlaki, who is one of shareholder of mine 14 and 350; Aslı oğlu Bodosaki, who is one of shareholder of mine 104 and 86; Milo Şahin, who is one of shareholder of mine 71 and 143 and Karadon, who is one of shareholder of mine 17, 71 and 87.

[22] ZKU. MIKD, nr. 6, 24 April 1308/50, p. 8.

[23] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, s. 300-336.

[24] BOA. Y.PRK.OMZ, nr. 3/68, belge 1.

[25] ZKU. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 4.

[26] TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri Cild-i sâni 1315, p. 135.

[27] ZKU. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 20.

[28] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, no. 85, p. 20.

[29] BOA. ŞD. Bahriye, nr. 8/25.

[30] TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri Cild-i sâni 1315, p. 139; ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1320, nr. 98, p. 93.

[31] Although there seems incostistence with the numbers, it is written as it was in the records.

[32] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, no. 85, p. 24.

[33] BOA. ŞD. Bahriye, nr. 8/25.

[34] TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri Cild-i sâni 1315, p. 144.

[35] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, no. 85, p. 37.

[36] TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri 1303, p. 175, 246.

[37] ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1305, nr. 72, p. 188-189.

[38] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, no. 85, p. 37.

[39] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, no. 85, p. 69.

[40] ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1305, nr. 72, p. 199.

[41] ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1305, nr. 72, p. 195.

[42] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, no. 85, p. 93.

[43] TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri Cild-i sâni 1315, p. 202.

[44] BOA. MV, nr. 217/198.

[45] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 165.

[46] TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri 1303, p. 200, 280; ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1305, nr. 72, p. 239.

[47] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 173; TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri 1303, p. 201.

[48] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 174.

[49] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 176.

[50] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 176.

[51] TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri Cild-i sâni 1315, p. 205; ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1320, nr. 98, p. 132.

[52] BOA. MV, nr. 176/46.

[53] BOA. MV, nr. 210/7.

[54] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 216.

[55] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 228.

[56] ZKÜ, Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, s. 286.

[57] BOA. ŞD. Bahriye, nr. 8/25.

[58] ZKÜ, Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, s. 286.

[59] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, s. 286; ZKÜ, Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1320, nr. 98, p. 133.

[60] BOA. Y.MTV, nr. 309/22.

[61] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 300-324.

[62] BOA. Y.MTV, nr. 306/12

[63] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 325-329.

[64] BOA. Y.MTV, nr. 306/12

[65] ZKÜ. MİKD, nr. 6, 24 Nisan 1308/16, p. 3; ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 350.

[66] ZKÜ. MİKD, nr. 6, 24 Nisan 1308/16, p. 3; ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 351.

[67] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 369.

[68] BOA. Y.MTV, nr. 309/22.

[69] TTKEDA. Matlubat Defteri Cild-i sâni 1315, p. 172; ZKÜ. Matlûbât Cild-i sânî Defteri 1320, nr. 98, p. 105.

[70] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 371.

[71] ZKÜ. Vukuat Defteri, nr. 85, p. 372.

[72] Cumhuriyetin 10 Yılında Zonguldak ve Maden Kömürü Havzası, Zonguldak Ticaret ve Sanayi Odası, İstanbul 1933, p. 49.

[73] Cumhuriyetin 10 Yılında Zonguldak..., p. 50.

[74] ZKÜ. Derdest Defteri 1307, nr. 23, p. 2-3.

[75] BOA. ŞD, Bahriye, nr. 8/25, belge 4.

[76] TTKEDA, Defter, nr. 8, p. 1.

[77] ZKÜ. MİKD, nr. 6, 8 Haziran 1308/23, p. 4.

[78] Davut Kılıç, “1915’te Tehcir Edilmeyen Ermeniler”, Ermeni Araştırmaları 1. Türkiye Kongresi Bildirileri, II, ASAM-Ermeni araştırmaları Enstitüsü yayını, Ankara 2003, p. 118.

[79] BCA. 30.18.01.01/015.58.1.




Source: © Erciyes University 2006


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