08 December 2006

1269) The Balyan Family And The Turkish Mosques



Yasin Çağatay Seçkin, Ph.D.

İstanbul University

cagatays@istanbul.edu.tr

0212 226 11 00 / 25386

1. INTRODUCTION

In the 19th century, undoubtedly, the most important event that shaped the Ottoman environment of politics, art and science was the declaration of Tanzimat[1], the administrative reforms, which is regarded by many researchers as the formalization of the Westernization movement.[2] The administration changes often changed the architecture and urban appearance of the country, through their practices.[3] The change program of Tanzimat is also heavily reflected in the field of architecture. In the buildings of the era, significant innovations are observed in terms of plan construction, building material and style.[4]

Tanzimat is an era of change and innovation which takes Europe as the model. The style opted by the advocates of change is naturally a Neoclassical one of Western origin. The art trends symbolizing the Western culture matched with the Westernization movement which had been certified by Tanzimat and which had become the official discourse of the state in Istanbul of the 19th century. Imperial Edict of Tanzimat chose picking from the West in many fields instead of producing from its own values. Therefore it couldn’t reach to vast population through its ideas and practices, however, its results in the field of architecture left its marks in the architecture of Istanbul in particular.[5]

In the first twenty years of Tanzimat, foreign architects like Fossati and in the following years the Levantine and non-muslim architects had been influential on the architecture of the era.[6] The Armenian Balyans were among the said non-muslim architects and makers of many 19th century structures since they were imperial architects. All of them, starting from Krikor Amira Balyan who worked for the Sultan Selim III, worked as imperial architects.[7]

As mentioned by Prof. Dr. Afife Batur, who has extensive researches and comments on Balyans: Balyan Architecture has important hints for grasping the contents and programs of Westernization, for learning how it was perceived, and for getting to know its trends and longings.[8]

2. THE BALYAN FAMILY

The declaration of Tanzimat must have directly affected the Balyan Family who worked as the imperial architects of that period.[9] Likewise, in all works done by Balyans, the Western styles which were the preference of the period were remarkable. Balyans accelerated the transformation process which developed in the last period of the Ottoman Architecture towards the Western eclectics. They left their marks on the period by leaving so many works of art under the service of total 6 Sultans.

Balyans, who are an Ottoman family of Armenian origin, moved to Istanbul in the end of the 18th century from Derevenk Village of Kayseri.[10] Dülger Bali Kalfa who moved to Istanbul and started to work for the palace, had 4 children. His children were named as Baliyan or Balyan because of his name.[11]

These architects with the Balyan surname followed each other for 100 years and maintained an effective professional life in the 19th century architecture of Istanbul. Likewise, when it is looked at the overall building list of Balyans who worked as imperial architects during the 19th century, it is seen almost the official building programme of the period.[12]

After the first trials made in the 18th century within the attempts to extend to the West in the architecture, it is noticed that the Balyans' name was more effective in the 19th century when the imitation process got accelerated and an obvious change of taste took place. This change of taste is also observed in the mosques which are expected to be most loyal to tradition.

3. OTTOMAN MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE

Mosque structure in the Ottoman Architecture consists of a cubic body and a spherical cover which gives an identity to mosque and which establishes its symbolic meaning.

After Pantheon and Hagia Sophia, it was the Turks who focused on the quality of internal space creation rather than the quality of the external symbolism of the dome.[13] The main reasons of the fact that the Ottoman mosques accepted the dome are resulted from the pursuit of a central schema, need for an enlightened space and its consistent response to structural problems. Especially the symbolic meaning of the Ottoman mosque due to the position and power of the Empire in the Muslim world urged it to be monumental. This pursuit of monumentality opened the way of structural development and the dome contributed to this pursuit as a cover element.[14]

This contribution is so great that it has been the main element governing all shaping of the structure in the Ottoman Architecture. The dome crowns the structure, shapes all structural and spatial building, but doesn’t declare its identity independent from them. With this form, the Ottoman dome is accepted as the latest and most consistent stage in the history in structural terms.[15]

After this last point reached in the Classical Era, in the period which had developed under the influence of the Western styles, it was attempted to place the dome on high rims and to give a perpendicular appearance to mosques.[16] The most important part of the space influence in the Westernization era which differs from the Classical Period is that the perpendicular dimension of the structures is more exaggerated in the space and mass.[17]

The Western influence in the Ottoman mosque architecture started to enter in the period of the Sultan Ahmed III. In this period, Rococo styles were dominant in Europe. The elements of the Ottoman Architecture of the Classical Period started to be replaced by the Rococo details and ornamentations imported from the West. In the further centuries, this change wasn’t limited to Baroque and Rococo, and the eclectic styles like Neogotic and Neoclassic earned their places in the new architectural conception.[18]

Tophane Nusretiye Mosque, Dolmabahçe Bezmialem Valide Sultan Mosque, Ortaköy Mosque and Aksaray Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque, which are designed in Istanbul by the non-muslim Balyans are the important examples where the said eclectic styles as well as the change in the 19th century regarding the space, structure and ornamentation could be examined.

4. THE MOSQUES OF THE BALYAN FAMILY

4.1. Tophane Nusretiye Mosque (1826)

It is the mosque made by Sultan Mahmud II in the same place of the Arabacılar Mosque, built in Tophane-i Amire in the period of Sultan Selim III, which was burned down in the Firuzağa Fire (1823).[19] Despite the Baroque characteristics of the Nusretiye Mosque, the details of the mosque are of the then fashionable Empire style[20].[21] The architect of the mosque, which is accepted as a transition building between the Baroque and Empire styles, is Krikor Amira Balyan and the mosque is his most notable work.[22]

Krikor, as the architect of the principal public buildings and the palaces built in the periods of Sultan Selim III and Sultan Mahmud II, is the most important personality of the first generation of the Balyan family.[23]

The main elements of the Nusretiye Mosque are as follows:

- Square planned main worship area (the Harim) and a polygon planned mihrab[24] attached to it.

- In the east and west of the Harim, side galleries which are closed to inside and open to outside.

- In the entrance side of the Harim, a gallery which is open to inside and a place of last congregation attached to it.

- In the east and west of the entrance of the mosque, two-floor Sultan Palace.

Each of these above mentioned elements are like an autonomous unit and the general composition of the structure occurs of the groupings of these autonomous units. Mass composition is generally symmetrical according to the axis through the mihrab, except a few points between the eastern and western part of the Sultan Palace.[25]

The high pendentive[26] dome covering the Harim is the most decisive element of the composition in terms of its size.[27] The walls with big hanging arch where the dome rim sits don’t reach up to the rim level in the corners and the pendentives descend along the hanging arches and connect to corners (Figure 1). On the corner pillars, there are pseudo-weight towers with empty inside.

These onion shaped pseudo-weight towers and the curved buttresses that connect them to the dome rim, pilasters[28] with bump pedestals between the rim windows, overflowing hanging arches and decorative consoles where the arches sit, two armed curved stairs up to the last congregation place[29], all have the traces of Baroque architecture (Figure 2). However, what is really remarkable in the structure other than these and similar elements is the attempt to emphasize the perpendicular nature. This is provided by the proportion increases in the dome rim and sphere.

As it can be understood from here, Turkish Baroque conception is maintained in the elements of the external front of the Harim. However, Empire style is more heavily emphasized in the general planning and in the areas other than the Harim. For example, windows of the Sultan Palace with plain rectangular frames and the round arches of the last congregation place and the side arcades were designed in accordance with the Empire style.

Many antique elements were used in the external facade for decoration purposes. Especially the exaggerated palmette[30] motifs are remarkable. Palmette motif is located as high relief in the centre of the three arches carrying the domes of the last congregation place, on the inscription over the main door, over the top line windows in the external walls and over the doors at the two sides of the main door. Acanthus[31] and garland[32] motifs and the volutes[33] on the column heads are seen as the other antique elements frequently used in the mosque.

The place where the Empiric style is really dominant is the internal space. Especially the acanthus motif is worked in various styles. In the main dome and the supporting half domes the golden gilded acanthus motif is embroidered as lower relief. Again, acant motif is also seen on the lower windows. Especially around mihrab and minbar[34], the acanthus, garland and palmette motifs were repeated frequently in the internal space; and there are volutes at the head of pilasters and half columns.

The mosque, with the influence of the many antique architectural elements it has, can be considered as the transition building in the inclination from Baroque to Empire. It is also seen in the Nusretiye Mosque that the proportions are changed and the vertical development is exaggerated. This is noticeable in many fields from the square based prism appearance of the main mass to the thinness of the minarets. Nusretiye Mosque appears to be divided into two main divisions in terms of both spatial shaping and facade arrangement, although it represents integrity for the material and construction: The Harim and Sultan Palace. This difference, which is also seen in other mosques built in the 19th century, is regarded as an explanation of the division of religious and political powers along with other meanings.[35] Apart from these, Nusretiye Mosque is the last example of the window arrangement of the Classical Ottoman Architecture with its facade including four-line window rows.[36]

4.2. Dolmabahçe Bezmialem Valide Sultan Mosque (1853)

It is built by Garabet Amira Balyan as a charity building with the order of Bezmialem Valide Sultan, mother of Sultan Abdulmecid.[37] Garabet, who was the imperial architect during the periods of Sultan Mahmud II, Abdulmecid and Abdulaziz, is a personality with key position in the continuity and effectiveness of the family. He consigned his name to history as “The Architect of Dolmabahçe Palace”[38]

The most obvious formal feature of the mosque is that it has a clear planning and geometry. The geometry-dominant design in the building is one of the most integrative examples of the Empire or Neoclassical styles. The Harim is a square planned, high mass with dome. Sultan Palace is a prismatic low mass with rectangular plan. The Harim and Sultan Palace look like they have been designed separately based on their functions and combined thereafter.[39]

The Harim is imposed on a square plan. The corners of the square plan are emphasized with 1 meter enlargements. This way, it has been attempted to create a baldachin[40] structure. The walls of the Harim are finished with the big carrier arches and the dome sits directly on these walls through the pendentives. Strong demonstration of the big carrier arches on the four sides of the building and clear demonstration of the pendentives outside the building are the other features strengthening the baldachin image.[41]

The circular window arrangement in the carrier arches joins to the geometrical construct of baldachin with a unique expression and this is a proposal changing the visual habits of this traditional structure (Figure 3). The shaping of the inside of the arch is met with a triple division in the facade.[42]

Pseudo-weight towers on the corner pillars and on the end of the pendentives, though, contradict with the baldachin structure which is tried to be established and weaken the construct. This also contradicts with the Empiric and Neoclassical styles which are dominant on the whole of the structure.[43]

Similar disparity in the mosque as a whole is also seen in the minarets’ settlement in the plan. The minarets rising in two ends of the Sultan Palace damage the integrity of the structure because of their positions independent from the geometric construct.

Sultan Palace, as mentioned before, has a very plain appearance as a product of the effort to give certain autonomy to non-worship-related areas. This mosque in particular has a different political identity because of its visual and physical relation with the Dolmabahçe Palace. That time, the state protocol used to perform the Friday Public Procession Ceremony in this place.[44] Because of this said official identity, the decorations in the two-floor Sultan Palace facade with the classical architectural elements consist of the triglyph[45] motifs in the eave cornice[46] and the triangular pediments placed in a meshed manner on the upper windows.

In short, the Mosque has a sedate appearance with its scheme where basic geometrical shapes are used, half circle arches, windows with pediments and facades that are free of decoration at some extent. Inside the mosque, there is a decoration of Empiric style which also represents occasional Baroque character. Palmette and acanthus motifs as well as Lesbian and Ionic cymatiums[47] are the main antique elements used in the interior.

4.3. Ortaköy Mosque (1854)

Ortaköy Mosque was built during the years when the Dolmabahçe Palace was constructed and the monumental texture of the city moved towards the Bosphorus as one of the structures symbolizing this movement. The Mosque was built by Nigoğos Balyan with the order of Abdulmecid.[48] He is the first person of the family who is claimed to have academic training and has a quite efficient professional life despite his early death (he died of typhoid fever at the age of 32).[49] The design of the Festive Ceremony Hall of the Dolmabahçe Mosque and the imperial doors is attributed to Nigoğos Balyan who is the architect starting the transition from the Neoclassical and Empiric styles adopted by the family since Krikor to the historian eclectics and who performs all of his attempts in this direction.[50]

The mosque, like the Nusretiye Mosque, consists of Baroque dominant Harim and Empire style Sultan Palace sections which are clearly differentiated from each other. What makes Ortaköy Mosque different from the Nusretiye Mosque is the fact that these two sections are planned in equal size.

The Harim is covered with an obvious dome on the high walls. The dome has a very plain structure on a blank rim with curved supports. The openings on the rim where the windows are generally located are decorated with relief rosettes.

Pendentives descend along the hanging arches and connected to the tower like elements in the corners. There are decorative figures on these elements with no real weight tower of static term.[51]

Walls, like in the Ottoman mosque tradition, don’t rise to the dome rim level in the corners. All three openings forming the walls are arranged in concave manner and the embedded columns among the concave surfaces are highlighted in an evident style (Figure 4). This conflict strengthens the movement in the facade and reflects a Baroque rendition.[52] Beside of this Baroque mark, a Gothic effect is given to the facade by the decorative, rather than structural, design of the said columns.[53]

The external facades of the Harim are decorated with engraved and relief ornamentations of stone in a composite style. Even to look at the round arched windows is enough to get sufficient idea on this matter (Figure 5). Palmette motif on the column heads of the pilasters between the windows and Lesbian cymatium on the arches and Ionic cymatium and guttas[54] on the cornice just above the windows are remarkable.

By means of the large and high windows like in the Dolmabahçe Mosque, there is a very illuminated atmosphere in the interior of the mosque. The building is virtually like a palace pavilion with a sea view.[55]

Contrary to the Harim, Sultan Palace is designed very plainly. The decorative elements here are simple mouldings[56] around the windows with low arches and the triangular and circular pediments in the halls. Again, this remarkable difference between the spaces can be interpreted as an explanation of the concept of the division of religious and political powers. The transition from the classical shaping in this section to the composite style exhibited in the Harim is done through the oval entrance stairs designed in Baroque style.

Despite the structure exhibition which is totally detached from the composite and Classical Ottoman Architecture tradition because of the reasons caused by the general historian-eclectic approach of its architect, it is remarkable with both its front with transparent quality by being torn apart with big gaps and its structure giving an identity to the location it exists now.

4.4. Aksaray Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque (1871)

It is the mosque built by Agop and Sarkis Balyan with the order of Pertevniyal Valide Sultan, mother of Sultan Abdulaziz.[57] Some resources also mention the name of Pietro Montani of Italian origin as the architect of the Valide Mosque.[58]

The Mosque consists of a main worship place of square shape whose corners emphasized with the rising towers from the ground, a last congregation place completely retracted inside and a Sultan Palace.

Valide Sultan Mosque is one of the most characteristic examples in the religious buildings category of the eclectic architecture which is effective in the Ottoman Architecture starting from the second half of the 19th century.[59] However, in general sense, it has a different design and decoration conception than all of the 19th century mosques so far. Although the Gothic and Orientalist effects are intense in the Mosque, there are many eclectic styles are used. For example, the facade arrangement with sharp arched windows have Gothic effects; heavy intricate decoration concept in the whole of the building has Baroque effects; oyster shell forms in the decoration details have Rococo effects; the dome with high rim has Renaissance effects and the Islamic decorations in the facade have Orientalist effects. The sliced sharp arched niches used in the interior within the early Ottoman decoration art are seen in the facade of Valide Sultan Mosque.[60] This practice can be expressed as the reflection of the interior based decoration principles to the facade and it is one of the innovations seen in the Valide Sultan Mosque.

The most remarkable decoration intensity is seen in the corner towers. The niches with muqarnas[61] or the plain ones, corner pilasters and various star motifs are the main decoration motifs in these towers. The towers terminate with one finial each with slices of onion shape. Highlighting the towers with these kinds of finials is a practice generally seen in the examples of the Indian Architecture.[62]

The central parts accommodating the three window axis in the mihrab and the two adjacent facades of the mosque are brought forward with a projection and their surfaces are finished with a decorated triangle pediment. The traditional hanging arches cannot be seen in the facades of the mosque, but a facade clad independent from the interior structure. In this design, the dome is virtually taken to the back plan. The polygonal rim with sixteen edges changed the known image of the dome with its geometrical structure and decorativism.[63] By taking the dome to the back plan, the monumental status wanted in the architecture of the mosque is tried to be caught by the big triangle pediments in the facade.

The dome of the mosque sits on a high rim which increases the perpendicular effect in the building. Its dome with high polygonal rim is detached from the lower structure and positioned with an independent arrangement (Figure 6). When the dome is removed, the main mass of the mosque is not damaged and it doesn’t look like any civilian architecture example (Figure 7). On all surfaces of the polygonal rim there is one Gothic window each and there are pilasters in the surface corners.

The space under the dome is extended laterally by keeping the hanging arch intradoses very large. Thus, despite the relatively small diameter of the dome, a larger central space is obtained.[64]

Valide Mosque was presented as a Neoturk style work of art in a book called Usul-i Mimari-i Osmani (Ottoman Architecture Methods) prepared for the 1873 World Exhibition in Vienna and printed in the same year. However the Gothic rendition and details which doesn’t exist in the Turkish-Islamic Architecture, which are impossible to overlook even at the first sight, invalidates this claim.[65] Kuban says for the Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque that it “brought totally foreign accents to the middle of the city” and describes its facade which is Gothic and Orientalist mixture as “strange”.[66]

In short, the mosque is designed in an eclectic way where the Western and Eastern styles are used together. Especially in the external decoration, Orientalism and Gothic appear two main elements sharing a same effect.[67] Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque can be interpreted as a successful synthesis of different tastes and valuable example shaping the architecture of the period, although, at the first sight, it seems to have a complex and inconsistent structure identity due to reasons like it accommodates solutions open to discussion in terms of structural emphasis and space effect and so many different style within its body.

5. CONCLUSION

It is known that the Ottoman mosque architecture produced how successful works of art in the Classical Period. Especially, the importance given to dome by this architecture, which is very developed in terms of structure, is known. The dome is the main element managing the whole shaping of the structure.

One of the main criteria in evaluating the domed structures is to determine the way the structure form is affected by the geometric and structural characteristics of the dome. In the Classical Ottoman Architecture, the carriage of the dome was transferred to massive pillars and the need for walls was removed. Therefore the horizontal and vertical extension of the dome was provided.

In the four mosques of the 19th century studied in this research, however, it is seen that the massive pillars are left with a view to apply Western styles and therefore the dome diameter covering the space is reduced. This condition brings with its train a relative reduction in the interior space as well as it causes a weakening in the sense of monumental status.

Again, the solution of the Sultan Palace section placed in front of the main worship place by the elements like folding roof which are unique to civilian architecture damaged the monumental expression in the entrance facades. The weakened monumental status is tried to be recovered by the use of triangle pediment or similar antique elements like in Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque.

In parallel to the expectations of the styles of the period, the solution of the dome on a lifted rim for the sake of creating a vertical effect in the space affected the integrity between the dome and the main worship space. The conception differences in the designs of the Harim and Sultan Palace and like seen in the Dolmabahçe Mosque the debated positions of the minarets in the general mass composition are seen as the other elements affecting this integrity.

Depending on the lifting of the dome, the proportions in the mass composition are changed. For example, like in the Nusretiye Mosque, together with the dome and the main mass, minarets, too, are lifted and have a thin appearance. This and similar applications caused difference in terms of rhythm and proportion between the mosque architecture approaches of the Classical Period and Westernization Period. In one sense, the proportional discipline among the components of the structure has changed.

Another point that needs to be stressed in the Ottoman mosque architecture is the information that, in relation to monumental status, the dome sizes vary in accordance with the status of the person who got the mosque built. The dome sizes used in the vizier mosques in the past became to be used in the sultan mosques in the new period.

From these aspects, it will not be wrong to say that all four mosques are different from the Classical Ottoman Architecture in terms of architectural monumental status, composition, structure and status definition.

This different attitude is evident also in terms of facade arrangements and decorations. Mass movements of different depth in the facade arrangements and rich facade decorations done with precast elements like pilasters, floor mouldings and window frames are new innovations to the Classical Ottoman mosque architecture. The success of the architect in using these innovations, like in the circular windows placed in parallel to hanging arches as in the Dolmabahçe Mosque, could give the structure a uniqueness and movement.

In conclusion, Balyans are a family who left their marks in the 19th century Ottoman Architecture. By some of their attempts, they gave direction to the eclectic approaches in the last period of the Ottoman Architecture. Especially as a result of their successful team work, they accelerated the transformation process in the architecture. In the works of Krikor and his son Garabet Balyan, who both got trained in the Imperial Architects' Guild, the traces of the Ottoman architectural tradition are preserved more. Starting from the sons of Garabet, who are claimed to got training abroad, the Western styles and forms dominated the works of the family. The Baroque affected Neoclassical approaches of the first generations extended to historian-eclectic approaches and finally to attempts introduced as if a new style and called Neoturk. What needs to be remembered here is the fact that these four mosques, which are often criticised for their extremely decorated and selective-composite structures, for being far from the monumental status in the traditional mosque composition and for their weak points in terms of formal integrity, are the structures reflecting the common taste of the period. From this angle, Balyan Family, although their architectural interpretation and synthesis are debated, in relation with the requirements of the Post-Tanzimat Period, followed the current trends in the West and performed optimistic attempts in adapting these trends to Istanbul, the Imperial Capital.



[1]Tanzimat is the name referring to a period of modernizing reforms instituted under the Ottoman Empire from 1839 to 1876.

[2] Aygül Ağır, Balyanların Eğitimleri Üzerine Notlar, Afife Batur'a Armağan – Mimarlık ve Sanat Tarihi Yazıları, Literatür Yayınları, İstanbul, 2005, p.65.

[3] Cengiz Can, Tanzimat ve Mimarlık, Osmanlı Mimarlığının 7 Yüzyılı: Uluslarüstü Bir Miras, 25-27 Kasım 1999, YEM Yayın, İstanbul, 2000, p.130.

[4] Can, C., ibid, p.131.

[5] Aygül Ağır, Balyan Ailesi’nin Mimarlığı’nda Palladio İzleri, Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies, IV, No. 3, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2001, p.1-2; Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Tanzimat Öncesi ve Tanzimat Döneminde İstanbul’da Darülfünun Kurma Teşebbüsleri, 150. Yılında Tanzimat, Ankara, 1992, p.389.

[6] Can, C., ibid, p.136.

[7] Doğan Kuban, İstanbul Bir Kent Tarihi, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1996, p.374-375.

[8] Afife Batur, Balyan Ailesi, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. II, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.36.

[9] Aygül Ağır, Balyanların Eğitimleri Üzerine Notlar, Afife Batur'a Armağan – Mimarlık ve Sanat Tarihi Yazıları, Literatür Yayınları, İstanbul, 2005, p.65.

[10] Ağır, A., ibid, p.65; Selçuk Batur, Balyan Ailesi, Tanzimattan Cumhuriyete Türkiye Ansiklopedisi, C.IV, İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul, p.1089-1090; Kevork Pamukciyan, Ermeni Kaynaklarından Tarihe Katkılar, C.IV: Biyografileriyle Ermeniler, Ed. Osman Köker, Aras Yayıncılık, İstanbul, p.90.

[11] Batur, A., ibid, p.37.

[12] Batur, A., ibid, p.36.

[13] Aras Neftçi, Batılılaşma Dönemi Osmanlı Cami Mimarisinde Strüktür Analizi, Osmanlı Mimarlığının 7 Yüzyılı: Uluslarüstü Bir Miras, 25-27 Kasım 1999, YEM Yayın, İstanbul, 2000, p.137; Doğan Kuban, Türk ve İslam Sanatı Üzerine Denemeler, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, İstanbul, 1982, p.104.

[14] Jale Erzen, Mimar Sinan Cami ve Külliyeleri, ODTÜ, Ankara, 1991, p.18-19; Leyla Baydar, Batı Tesirine Kadar Osmanlı Mimarisinde Estetik Kriterler, PhD. Thesis, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, 1986, p.30; Müzeyyen Çorbacı, Tasarım Yardımcı Araçları Işığında Günümüz Cami Yapısında Oluşan Biçimsel Dönüşüme İlişkin Bir Çalışma, MArch Thesis, İTÜ, İstanbul, 1998, p.64-66.

[15] Doğan Kuban, Mimarlık Kavramları, YEM, İstanbul, 1992, p.64.

[16] Çorbacı, M., ibid, p.78.

[17] Doğan Kuban, Kent ve Mimarlık Üzerine İstanbul Yazıları, YEM Yayın, İstanbul, 1998, p.75.

[18] M. Ece Çaldıran Işık, XVIII ve XIX. Yüzyıl İstanbul Camilerinde Antik Öğeler, MArch Thesis, İTÜ, İstanbul, 1991, p.42-43.

[19] Pars Tuğlacı, Osmanlı Mimarlığı'nda Batılılaşma Dönemi ve Balyan Ailesi, İnkılâp ve Aka Yayınları, İstanbul, 1981, p.29.

[20] The Empire Style, sometimes considered as the second phase of Neoclassicism, is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that takes its name and originates from Napoleon's rule of France, known as the First French Empire. This style has influenced the Ottoman architecture, starting from the period of Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839).

[21] Kuban, D., ibid, p.75.

[22] Afife Batur, Nusretiye Camii, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. VI, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.105.

[23] Afife Batur, Balyan Ailesi, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. II, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.37.

[24] A niche in the wall of a mosque or a room in the mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca.

[25] Tuğlacı, P., ibid, p.30.

[26] Pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room.

[27] Afife Batur, Nusretiye Camii, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. VI, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.105-106.

[28] A pilaster comprises a slightly-projecting pseudo-column built into or onto a wall, with a capital and base.

[29] The last congregation place is the name of area which is designed for lingerers. It’s a kind of portico and Ottoman mosque was always preceded by it.

[30] A stylized palm leaf used as a decorative element, notably in Persian rugs and in classical moldings, reliefs, frescoes, and vase paintings.

[31] A herbaceous plant whose leaves were used as a motif in classical architecture, especially on Corinthian columns.

[32] Any carved or molded decoration that is shaped like a wreath or other arrangement of flowers, leaves, or fruit, hanging in a loop or curve. This horizontal decorations seems to span two points with a slight sag in the middle.

[33] A carved spiral form in classical architecture; often used in pairs as in the capitals of Ionic columns.

[34] Arabic word initially referring to the pulpit used in Medina by Muhammad, and later referring to the pulpit installed in each mosque to the right of the Mihrab for the reading of the Koran and prayers by the Imam .

[35] Afife Batur, Ortaköy Camii, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. VI, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.144.

[36] Afife Batur, Nusretiye Camii, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. VI, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.106-107.

[37] Çelik Gülersoy, Dolmabahçe – Çağlar Boyu İstanbul Görünümleri III, İstanbul Kitaplığı, İstanbul, 1984, p.19; Afife Batur, Dolmabahçe Camii, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. III, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.88.

[38] Tuğlacı, P., ibid, p.338.

[39] Batur, A., ibid, p.88.

[40] A structure in form of a canopy, sometimes supported by columns, and sometimes suspended from the roof or projecting from the wall; generally placed over an altar;

[41] Batur, A., ibid, p.88.

[42] Batur, A., ibid, p.88.

[43] Batur, A., ibid, p.88.

[44] Gülersoy, Ç., ibid, p.66.

[45] Triglyphs are vertical blocks, usually aligned over and between each column. They consist of two vertical grooves, bordered by two hemi- or half-glyphs.

[46] The cornice is the uppermost section of moldings along the top of a wall or just below a roof.

[47] Cymatium is a molding for a cornice; in profile it is partly concave and partly convex.

[48] Batur, A., ibid, p.168.

[49] Tuğlacı, P., ibid, p.172.

[50] Afife Batur, Balyan Ailesi, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. II, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.38.

[51] Afife Batur, Ortaköy Camii, Dünden Bugüne Beşiktaş, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1998, p.169.

[52] Batur, A., ibid, p.170.

[53] Tuğlacı, P., ibid, p.340.

[54] Small drop-like projections or cones carved under the triglyphs.

[55] Yıldız Demiriz, Geç Dönem Osmanlı Mimarisi, http://istanbul.edu.tr/Bolumler/guzelsanat/gecdonem.htm.

[56] Moldings are narrow, decorative strips of wood or plaster used around doors and windows and at the structural intersections of walls.

[57] Tuğlacı, P., ibid, p.233.

[58] Tahsin Öz, İstanbul Camileri, C.I, TTK, Ankara, 1962, p.149.

[59] Orhan Meriç, Aksaray Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Camii ve Külliyesi, Y.Lisans Tezi, İTÜ, İstanbul, 1997, p.205.

[60] Turgut Saner, XIX. Yüzyıl İstanbul Mimarlığında Oryantalizm, Pera Turizm ve Ticaret, İstanbul, 1998, p.138.

[61] Stalactite-or honeycomb-like units used as a decorative device in Islamic architecture.

[62] Saner, T., ibid, p.65.

[63] Afife Batur, Valide Camii, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, C. II, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1994, p.361.

[64] Batur, A., ibid, p.361.

[65] Saner, T., ibid, p.64.

[66] Doğan Kuban, İstanbul Bir Kent Tarihi, TET Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul, 1996, p.373-375.

[67] Saner, T., ibid, p.118.




Source: © Erciyes University 2006


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