08 December 2006

1271) The Language Remembrances Of The Gregorian Kiptchaks


Sevda Altınsoy

After the collapse of the Armenian state in the mids of the 11th centruy as a result of the oppression of the Byazntines a freat majority of the Armenians emgrated to Georgia, the South of Anatolia an Crimia. In the 13th and 14th centunies, Kefe, solhat and Sudak were major Armenian settlements.

Sudak is also the most important commercial centre of the Kıpcak state. Some of those armenians living in Crimea settled in western Ukria and Galiaya in response to the invitation of King Leos I. Armenians, later known as the Polonian Armenians, are the descendants of those people. The centre of the Ukranian Armenians had been the city of Kamenets-Podosk since 1496. an armenian, named Kusneryan who visited kamenets in 1883, said in an essay he wrote on his return that “These Armenians had abondoned their oun delicate and descreet language and ungortunately adopted that of people who plundered their conuntry.[2] Naturally, we don’t goree with him.

We’ve gound the first texts we came across related to Gregorian Kiptchaksin Çernovtski. The second was Luvov. We had already known the existance of those texts in the Luvov official state Achieves. Then we gound taht Kuvov Museum also had some of those texts. Having been permitteol to work on those text thanks to some friends, we started studying. The person who mode everyting easier for us was Anna Semenuk, who clairred to be a member of Raksolana family, She is a kind of a person who quit working as a distinguished doctor anel went on to devote herself to a study about Ukranians who died of satvation between 1932-1933. ın other words, she is a rea Ukranian nationalist.

The Gregonian Church in Çernovtski was built of red brick. Today. İt is used as a concert hall. This old church building has witnessed many tragic events including the suicide of a gregorian Priest. In the 18th century, the building was made of wood. After the suicide of the priest the cruhch was burnt down on grounds tah “People cn not worship here anylonger”, Who burnt down the the church remains a mystery. The rumour has it taht tihs Armenian Priest committed suicide as he couldnt stand the oppession from the Russion Tsars. After this tragic event, the Tsar had the building construcdted again and this time it was built of brick. But, ungortunately, from that time anwards people couldnt worship in the building. It is said tha besides the church itself, the texts in gregorian Kıpcak Turkish were also burnt. It was also recorded tha a wooden mosque built by Turks next to the church was burnt down as well.

Gregorianism is a name given to a religion. This religion was fermed after the Nicean creed. It is the national belief of the Armenians. Up to 1850’s, Gregoriansm was a society and during thes period many people from Turkish, Arabian, Persian and Hayk tribes took part in this society. The word Armenian meant someone living high up in the mountains, a mountineer. Following the years after 1850’s, this society changed into a political formation combining gregorianism and Hayk. [3] According to the latest studies, among the rebellious groups in Anatolia were Turkish nobels. We can give the differences between the antropologies of Karabağ an Armenia. Armenians as example. It also proves our claims that we often find an intensive Turkish proves our claims tha we often find an intensive. Turkish culture in the Armenian culture in this respect. Armenians became familiar with the Turkish culture with the help of Turkis who had adopted the Gregorian religion drectly. Some of these differences can be gound in stone Works and crafts, as figures used and the architectural style especially in “Aşuh/Aşık” tradition. [4] Another question is that, nomatter how intricate the cultural and commercial tides are, religion is a vital factor and the community in Deşt-i Kıpçak, ca never adopt the language of a society accused of being irreligious. Notaoly, in Poland and the countries around it if Kıpcak Turkish is stil spoken despiten the poeople benig far from the cultural heritage; there is no other explanation but one and that is, these people are Kıpcaks.

Kefe was a densely populated Gregorian settlement in Crimea. In the second half o the 15th cenury, the gregorian popolation was about 35-40 thousand. The second biggest settlement was Sudak. İn cities such as Karasubazar, Kezlev, Akmescit, İnkerman, and Surhat also lived gregorians.

There were Armenians[5] among the Christians sent away from Crimea in catherina II period and these people didn’t know much Hayk language. The language they used during worship was Turkish. 12.492 Gregorian women and men left Crimea. The majority of these people who ddin’t join the big migration were from the Gregorian religion and they were from the Gregorian religion and they were 228 people[6], mostly merchants, craftsmen and artists.

The jact that Turkish is the native language of Lebanon Armenians giv es us the same idea. These people are called “Galagavurs” (Kale Kafirleri) by Muslim Turks wich indicates that Anatolian Muslim Turks don’t accept these people since they’re not Muslims although they come from the same race.

According to A. Garkavets, Turkish speaking Armenians living in Ukraine are members of idolater Kıpçak community who became Christians in the mids of 11th century and changed their names. They adopted Gregorian Christianity and mixed with Armenians. For A. Garkavets, Urumians are from the idolater Kıpçaks. They became Christians in the mids of the 11th century, took greek names and admitted the citizenship and grotection of the Byzantine Empire. Another group, on teh other hand; allied with the Hazars and became jews. The rest of those Kıpcaks mixed with Crimean Tartars and became Muslims[7]. According to Kalafat, most of the gregorian Turks were of Oğuz ancestry. [8] Different sources come up with various ideas about how Gregorian Kıpcaks came to west Ukraine or Luvov. It is knoqn that in Anatolian Selçuk era, they came to cremea from Anatolia and from Anatolia they came to Luvov and settled in this region in the 13th century.[9] The first Gregorian Cuhurch was established in the 14th century. (1361) We also know that some of these people stil live in that region in centres in Luvov. There are Tartars in this region converted to Christinaity by force in the late 18th century.

Gregorians[10] sent away from cremea in the era of Caterina II, founded their first villages in Rostov, calling them Nahçivan-Don. Among these people were many artists and craftsmen and after 1885, they played a singificant role in the goundation of the Armenia we know today.

The region was entirely a centre of art and commerce. We can clearly see that in the case of a “Hattı Humayun” supposedly belogirf to Sultan İbrahim and is kept in the Luvov official State Arcieves. Luvov was a free trade centre in those times. No goods were distrubed without being broyoht to this city and could be sent to Ukraine and around. Gregorian merchants mode up the majority of the tradesmen in this city. In 1685, ten of the major 14 shops and 13 of the 17 middle-range shops in Luvov belonged to Gregorians. The reason for this was the priviledges given to the Gregorians.

Not all Gregorians were involved in trade activities. A big majority of them were engaged in arts. Accordigng to the tax records kept at the beginning of the 17 th century, 80 % of the gregonans were craftsmen. Gregonan were in the lead in butchery, wool and leather work, embroidery, painting, shoe making, jewellery, the marketing of petrol products, furs, clothes making, archery, producing beverages, paper and sword making. They were also interested in the supply of raw materials to paper fractories and the mint.

As they were fluent in Cremean Tartar Turkish which was similar to Kıpcak Turkish and other Turkish languages, the Gregonans did the job of interprters, councillors, under secretaries, and consuls. They were also notorious for espionage. [11]

Gregorian Church in Luvov is a main tourist attraction. These tourists are ingormed by guides who unfortunately give information about the supposedly Armenian Gencocide. In the entrance and garden fo the Gregorina Church in Luvov, there are many tomb stones and inscriptions, Many of them were used as flor-covering. This action is realised by taking the permission of the relatives of the deod people. The purpose of this action is to overcome ones desires. There are manuscripts written in the Armenian Alphabet and Kıpcak Turkish on the tombstones. We recorded them with video camera. The icon carved from a single tree is worth seeing.

There are only a few of Gregonan Kıpcak texts left in Lurov. The rest was somehow distributed to many parts of the wordl, many places including Luvov in Ukraıne, Kiev, Austria, Armenia, the Netherlands, Polond, Italy, Russia, Romania and France.

Dr. Aleksandr Garkavets also gave us very important information about Gregorian Kıpcaks fand Luvov which was a famous free region of trade between the 15th and 18th centuries, depending on the Luvov state Archieves. As we applied to the archieves centre and the museum keeping these texts, we managed to get the microfilms of the Gregorian Kıpcak Turkish texts which were said of the Gregorian Kıpcak Turkish texts which were said to have been destroyed in the fire in the II. Worldwar.

We have no knowledge of an Armenian colony or Armenian community between 16th and 17th centwies in kiev. What we know about Gregorians is that they weren’t independent and they hod a church between 16th and 17th centruy. What’s more, Armenians in Kiev spoke Kıpçak Turkish and at Gregorian courts people swore on oath and took an cath in this language. [12]

Apart from Kiev and Kamenetse, people, were scattered around cities such as Vladimir, Suçava, Serete, Balta, Baga, Belza, Bereyar, Baroka, Buçaç, Vara, Gorodenka, Kutav, Çernovtsi and stanislav. In Ukraine, gregorians were living in 70 different sites.

The first pherson to introduce gregorian Kıpcak Turkish texts was Agatargel Egim Krımskiy, an Ukranian who came from a family interested in art and literature. In his point of view, these people are Armenians. As Krımskiy suggest, Armenians fond in the west part of Ukraine, lived together with Latvian Tartars, Karay colonists and some Kumuks in the 14th centruy. Towards the end of the fifteenth century, other colonies joined this Armenian community after Ottomans took over Kefe. Afterwords, these armenians, like Latvian Tartars, Karays and Kumuks abondoned Turkish language and started speaking Poland, Russian and Ukranian.

Gregorian Kıpcaks called the language they speak as “Hıpçak Tili, Kıpçak Tili, the language of the Kıpcaks, Bizim til, Tatarça”. The words mentioned in the text “Turkish” or “Turkmen” has a humiliating meaning. As well as the effect of religion, the conditions of the period might have validity in the use of these words. When compared to the Ottomans, “Turkmen” or “Turkish” words were more or less used in the same meaning.

As regards the formation, Gregorian Kıpcak language, as they Express in their oun words, is Kıpçak Turkish. This language continued its development on the Creamean land. Concerning the structural features, Kıpcak Turkish is similian to Kara Turkish Trakay dialect, Kuman Turkish, Urum Turkish and Kırım Tatar Turkish Yalıboy dialect. [13]

Following Kırımsky, his student Timofeylvanoviç Grunin, studeid extensively Gregorian Kıpcak remnants and introduced the similanties between the Urum, Kırım-Tatar, Kırımçak Kraim Turkish and the gregorian Kıpcak language as a thesis. Grunin, published 298 manuscripts of the Kıpcak samples recorded between 1559 and 1567. Among tehese publications are the boks which were said to have been burnt during the second world war. The irony is that, he himself once claimed the boks had been destroyed in the fire. The first of those boks was published by him, too. According to Grunin, Armenians who had left the East and northern east of Anatolia, lived together with Kıpcaks in cremaea and Besarabya. There were also Kıpcaks who adopted gregorian religion. In the Sırak city of Armenia, now known as Aric village was previously called Kıpcak and in the 12th century Hıpçanvank Monastry wasbuilt. This building stil exists in our present time. [14]

In the light of the recent studies carned out, we don’t agree with Tuncer Gülensoy’s views in his Turkish Hand Book on the alphabet used by Turks. They weren’t Haykians who had later learned Kıpcak Turkish out were Kıpcak and Oguz groups who had later become Haykian. [15] What’s more, these masterpieces weren’t burnt duning the German retreat. Grunin also had this missing information. [16] As can be clearly seen from the list to be given, these pieces maintaireol their existence in different parts of the world. Another point is that, manuscripts of the Gregonan Kıpcak language remembrances were not 307. The number of these writings introdeced by Grunin was 298. Taking those missing parts into consideration, we can understand that the real number of these manusenpts is much bigger than what we know.

The use of 12 animal Turkish calender among gregorians and the validitj of some of the day names used before Islam sound interesting to us. During our stay in cremea, in the discussions we had with the olderly, there appureared to be varrious approaches. According to Yuri Palkanov, the chairman of Karay Boand of science and grandson of Khan Sureyya Şapşal, people can change everything, but they hardly exer change theri calendars. Even so, Rebi Devid Diliç, investigative writer from Kırımçak, in onder to prove they weren’t the Jews from Palestan, presented the calendar and names of the days as evidence.

Year of Sıçhan, Buga, Bars, Hoyan (rabbit), Balıh, Snake, Horse, Hay (Sheep), Monkey, Hen, Dog and Tonguz qere the years of the calender Gregorians used. The fact that their week included days named kiçiayna kün, Ayna kün, Şabat kün, Gregorians didn’t learn Kıpcak Türkish later but they had alreody known and spoken it for years.

Dr. Aleksandr Nikolayeviç Garkavets is another important gigure studied this subject. He lives in Almaata, Kazakhistan. Up to our present time, many boks have been published and among them are writings in the Kıpcak language, Armanian Kıpcak language, Armenian Kıpcak texts Armenian Kıpcak manuscripts and Turkish writings in Ukraine. [17] In our atest study with him, he refused the term “Gregorian Kıpcak” and admitted that he was afraid of diaspora. The sponsors in his publishings may home an effect on this.

Apart from the ones we’ve mentioned here, there has been many distirng vished and well knoqn scientists qorking on these texts. Some of these screntists are: V, A. Gordlevskiy, V.R. Grigoran, T.İ.Gurunin, Y.R.Daşkeviç, İ.A. Abdulin, R.V. Bartold, S.R. İzidinova, S. Ko loncan, N.K. Krivanos, A.Y. Kırımskiy, A.K. Kurişjanov, S.E. Malov, E.N. Necip, E. Petrosyan, A. N. Samayloviç, K. K. Yudahin, W. Bang, Necip Asım, Y. A Antoni, P. N. Akinian, F. Bischeff, O. Blav, J. Deny, V. Dirimba, A. Von Gabain, T. Kowalski, L. Ligeti, M. Malowist, T. Mankovski, J. Nemeth, W. Radloff, E. Tryjarski, A. Zajaczkowski.

Except for thi information given by Şükrü Akalın, we are the first to publish the short extracts taken from Gregorian Kıpcak Turkish texts and in which countries they were spread. [18] Monetheless, our study hasn’t been completed yet. Apart from this book, we are stil working on translating these texts in to the Latin alphabet and Turkiye Turkish together with our 23 students. Two of our final papers have been admitted to his bymposium. And plus, our book, “The language remembrances of the Gregorian Kıpcaks” is yet to come.

The doctorate thesis pepared by Nadejda Çırli at Çukurova Üniversity is the first doctrate thesis written on Gregorian Kıptchak Texts in Turkey. [19] Çirli calls this text not as Oregonan Kıpcak Turkish but Armeniam Kıpcak language which we think is not appropriate. Çirli completed his study on reading, original text, translation using Latin letters translation into Türkiye Turkish, grammar and language studies. This girst piece written in Turkish, is published outside Türkiye and Schütz along with Daşkeviç qrote the first words and besides Garkavets published some papers on this study. [20]

Mustafa Öner has got a research on Kıpcak[21] turkish. Recep toparlı, on the other hand, hed a dictionary and dext study on Egyptian Kıpcak Turkish with reference to Anatolian pant of view. [22] Nevzat Özkan, however, just gave a general look on the geographical geatures. [23]

There are two kinds of Armenian Alphabet known as western and Eastern style. Gregorian Kıpcak texts were written in the western style alphabet. Researchers like Triyarski, Daşkeviç and Schültz use the Eastern style which is Armenian, while Garkavets uses the westernstyle, that is to say the Kıptcbak way. [24] The differences between the two comes to the gore with the errors the Eastern style supporters. During our discussions with GArkavets vame learned that these errors are much more than the size of a book. The Armenian Alphabet in which gregorian Kıpcak texts were written is mode up of 31 consonants and 7 vowels and the letters are Joined from left to the right. The use of the Armenian Alphabet by Turks and in Turkish writings dates bact to the 14th century. As for Pamukçiyan, this continued till the beginning of the 20th century. [25]

In “Turkish Armenian Knoqledge of Law at the turn of 19th century”, which is kept in National Library of Paris, clauses of law belinging to Qestern Ukrania Gregorians were given as extracts.

“The Examples of Turkish-Armenian Language” was published in Austria, in 1912. In the studies carned out hll 1910’s, it’s clear that step Kumuks’language was taken into consideration and a comparative research was done, hower after those years we witnes different procedures in analysing this data. It is surprising that there are veriy few Works of literature among these writings. On the contary, Kıpcak Turkish texts inculude relligious matters, courth records (37), law boks, dictionaries, calenders, writings on philosophy, genetics sermons and wors of alchemy.

Garkavets collects Gregorian Kıpcak texst in Groups:

1.Historical record: There are 3 of them: 1.Kamanets events (Father Agop started in 1581-1621 and his brother Aksent reorganised the documents in 1650-1652) In this chronicle, there are records of the era when tense; 2.Venetsya Chronicle (The national library of Paris, Manuscritpts Section, published in 1896 by Alişan, some chapters were added to the original text by J.Deny in 1957) 3.Poland Region Chronicle (IT gives events of the tıme betwen 1530-1537.Luvov is told the event taking place in the Gregoran Church, written by G.Alişan, revised edition was published by Daskeviç and E.Triyarskiy)

2.Books of Law, register notebooks and signed proceedings of courts: These codes were designed to change Gregorans within their own laws. The first authority to approve and sustain these codes was Sigismund I. After him, many followed his example. The first book was prepared in Kıpcak language and Polish. The total number of the boks written in Gregorian Kıpcak was 40, 3 of whic were lost. 37 of them are still kept as microfilms or photocopies by Mananna Levitskovo’s heirs in Kiev, Vienne, Venetsya and Poland, The pages of law boks, registry notes and proceedings are mode than 18.000.

3.Linguistics and dictionaires: They consists of 2 Kıpcak language teaching book, 5 dictionaires and couple of independent fages. They were written between 1581-1613. Dictionaires: Universty of Luvov Library of Manuscripts, 106 pages, Vienne Armenian Mhitarist Congregation Library, 301 pages, “Armenian Graphics Art” in Erevan, prepared bay Garkavets.

4.Religious Literature: 1.Apostal Toveis book, 5 psaltır boks, 9 prayer books, a book about saints, 1 book of astrology, The history of Christianity including calenders notes, another calender, 18 annual calendars (based on 12 animal Turkish Calendar) and o book mode up of and march tunes written by an unknown author.

5.Registered at number 468 in the Library of Vienne Armenian Mhitarist Congragation (masterpieces section) Important sayings/quotations of eminent figures or intellectual writings on the unorthodokx saints legendary lives. An extensive study was mode on this book by J.Deni and E.Triyarski.

6.Works on natural Science: The translation of the following texts mentioned below has been going on.After the translation of these texts, well know more about Kıpcak language tradition and vocabulary.

COUNTRIES in whic the texts are kept and samples:


the national Libraray of Austria, Vienna:

-Armenian Kıpcak Dictionary, where it was written is inknown but bought from Moldavia. 106 pages.Tryjarski[26] and Barkavets worked on this dictionary.

-Armenian Mhitar Congragation, Vienna:

The numbers of registered documents are 84, 143, 311, 440, 441, 444, 446, 447, 452, 468, 479, 480, 481, 525, 536, 559. Garkavets, Triyarski[27], Daşkeviç[28] and Ya Daşyan[29] worked on the Dokument.


In the name of Matenadaran-Mesropa Maştots, The Institute of ancient manuscrits, Erivan:

-Registered Works =number 1232, 1763, 2267, 2403, 2493, 3521, 3522, 3883, 3985. Garkavets-Hursicylan[30], Ts’ts’ak anthology[31], Yegenyan[32], Triyarski[33], Korhmazyan[34], studied the texts.

There is a Turkish article written in Jerusalem in 1620 by Skandar but this article bares the specific features of Kıpcak Turkish.[35] There is also an Armenian Kıpcak dictionary.


-French National Library,Paris

Son of Zakari, Father Kaspar’s prayer book, written in 1636 in Luvov. First part is missing. Registered at 5 and Deny made a study on this book.[36]

-In Paris, French National Library, there are also other Works including a religious calender fort he years between 1654-1671 (number 170) (dated 1653, Garkavets and Deny) Constitution book (number 176) (dated 1610-1652, Alişan, Garkavets. Deny, Triyarskiy, Daşkeviç)


The Library of Leyden University, Leyden:

Chirli[37], Garkavets, Garkavets-Hurşidyan, Daşkeviç, Schutz[38], moole a study o this text, registered O.O.168.OO; B.U.. 878 G9.


St. Lazar Peninsula, Armenian Mhitar Congragation Verice

The numbers of refistry are: 11, 359, 446, 1126, 1270, 1700, 1750, 1788, 1817. (Studies by Garkavets, Sergisyan[39], Dubinska[40], Triyarski[41], Deny[42], Alişan[43], Schutz. [44]


The general Archieves of the ancient decrees, Warsaw.

- A marriage contract made in 1675.copies of the contract missing. Number of registry: BOZ XII 9/7; BOZ XII 9/6

- Zamoyska Family Residence Archieves, warsaw

(A study by Garkavets) [45]

- Tobiıas Bogdanoviç’s letter (early 17 th century), Warsaw

(A study by Garkavets) [46]

- Institute of History, Poland Acedemy of science, warsaw 26 sermens written in 1657, 101 pages. 2 sermens and 1 prayer of repentance, released by Tryjarski in 1977,[47] Registry no: 6 (Triyarski and Garkavets)

- The library of Ossolinskih National Institute, Brotslav(studied by Garkavetes and Levicki) Registry no: 1916/II and 1359/II.(Roszko and Braun[48] worked on 1359/II)

- National Museum Library, Çertırskih Section, Krakov

A prayer book written in Armenian calendar in 1575 in Luvov. The beginning and the last parts of the book are missing. Roszko-Braun worked on the piece. Registry number:2412. There is an other work, at number 3546/III, which is 260 pages, written in 1575 in Luvov by an unknoun author. It consists of poems written in Armenian and Kıptchak Turkish. It was praperad for Lazar’s son, stephan. Roszko-Braun[49], Garkavetes-Hurşidyan, Garkavets-Dubinska made researches on the book.

Yagelonskiy University Library: Krakov 500 years old. Armenian chronological historical calendar, written in Armenian and Kıptchak Turkish, in Luvov, 1592. 173 pages, Studied by Garkavets, Rozko, Levicki –Kohnova,[50] Tryjarski,

Z.Abragomoviç’s special collection: Krakov

A collection made up of 140 items, written betwen 1625-1630, in Luvov. 480 pages. Levicki, Kohnova[51] Daşkeviç, Daşkeviç-Tryjarski studied on the collection. [52]


Regional History Museum, Gerla.

- Ltemnumber 6(23). Chronological history records and hymns, written in 1638 in Kamenets-Poldolskiy. A study by Garkavets and Kolanciyan. [53]


State Museum (in the name of Saltıkova-Şedrina):Sankt-Peterburg.

- Chronological calendar written in Kıptchak Turkish in 1620. 610 peges :Abdullin (1971)[54] and Garvakets study. Item number 2 in the Armenian records section of the library.[55]

- Armenian Kıptchak Dictionary; St.Petersburg: 140 pages, written in 1646 in Luvov. Tryjarski and Garkavets made an extensive study on this dictionary. Numbered 8 in the Armenian manuscripts section of the library. There is also another work, a prayer book as number 636. Written in Armenian Ukrainan and Kıptchak languages in 1697 in St.Petersburg.306, pages. Astudy by Abdullin and Garkavets. [56]


The Ukrainan State Central History Archieves: Kiev

There are many documents belonging to the years 1572, 1573, 1575, 1577, 1579, 1624.Abdullin, Grigoryan, [57] Triyarski, Daşkeviç[58] and Garkavets searched these documents.

Hem numbers are as fallows: 228, 4320, 4321, 4322, 4326, 4327, 4329, 4383, 4390, 4392, 4393, 4394, 4397, 4402, 4405, 4406, 4407, 4409, 4410, 4412, 4413, 4414, 4415, 4416, 4417, 4418, 4419, 4428, 4432. [59]

The Ukranian state Central History Archieves : Luvov An aggreement signed in 1627, made up of 73 lines.

(A daşkeviç, Tryjarski, Garkavets study.) In this archieves there are 22 documents of part 9 and 52 we. Have twenty micngilms of them ın our private collection. [60]

- The Ukranian National sciences Academy:

Written in the Kıptchak language, in 1654. 119 lines.(A study by Daşkeviç and Garkavets) [61]

- Library of Disciplines, Luvov State University Manuscripts Section:

A 53 line document of will, written in kıptchak Turkish in 1669. (An extensive study by Daşkeviç Tryjarski and Garkavets) [62]

- the Luvov State History Museum

A letter written in Kıptchak Turkish, in 1609. Abdullin, Daşkeviç-Tryjarski and Garkavets worked on the letter. The microfilm of the taxt exists in our personal archieves.


Abdurrahman küçük

[1] Giresun Üniversitesi, Giresun.

[2] Talat Tekin, Ermeni Alfabesi ile Türkçe, Tarih ve Toplum Dergisi, 4 Nisan 1984, s. 246.

[3] Abdurrahman Küçük, Ermeni Kilisesi ve Türkler, Ankara 1997.

[4] Yaşar Kalafat, Farklı Dini İnançlara Mensubiyet İtibariyle Türk Halk İnançları Çalışmalarında Metod ve Teori, Türksoy, X, Eylül 2003, s. 29-30

[5] İvan Cuha, Odissea Mariupolskih Grekov, Vologda 1993, s. 155-157

[6] Cuha, a.g.e., s. 158

[7] Aleksandır Garkavets, Turkskiye Yazıki na Ukraine, Almaata 1988, s. 18-19

[8] Kalafat, a.g.m., s. 29

[9] Tuncer Gülensoy, Türkçe El Kitabı, Ankara 2000, s. 299

[10] Cuha, a.g.e., s. 158

[11] Garkavets, Kıpçakskoye Pismennoye Naslediye, I, Almatı 2002, s. 10.

[12] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 7

[13] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 12.

[14] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 7.

[15] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 299.

[16] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 6.

[17] Garkavets, a.g.e., Turkskiye Yazıki na Ukraine, Almatı 1996; Töre Bitigi Armiyano Kıpçakskiy Sudebnik 1519-1594, Almatı 2003; Armeyan-Kıpçak Pısalter 1575-1580, Almatı 2001.

[18] Altınkaynak, Gregoryan Kıpçakların Dil Yadigarları, Karadeniz Araştırmaları IV, Çorum 2005, s. 21-38

[19] Nadejda Chirli, Ermeni Kıpçakça Dualar Kitabı Algış Bitigi, Haarlem/Nederlands 2005.

[20] Ya. R. Daşkeviç, Armiyanskoye Knigapeçatniye na Ukraine v XVII v, İstoriko Filologiçeskiy Jurnal, IV, s. 115-130; E. Schütz, An Armeno Kıpchak Text From Lvov 1618, Acta Orientalia Hungaricae XV, 1-2, s. 291-330; A. N. Garkavets, Kıpçakskoye Pismennoye Naslediye I, Almatı 2002, s. 661-674

[21] Mustafa Öner, Bugünkü Kıpçak Türkçesi, Ankara 1998.

[22] Toparlı-Vural-Karaatlı, a.g.e.; R. Topralı, Kıpçak Türkçesi Sözlüğü, Erzurum 1993.

[23] Nevzat Özkan, Türk Dilinin Yurtları, Ankara [t.y.]

[24] Garkavets-Hurşudyan, Psalter, 2001, XXVI.

[25] Kevork Pamukçiyan, Ermeni Harfli Türkçe Metinler, İstanbul 2002, XI.

[26] E. Triyarski, Distionnaire armeno-kiptchak d’epres trois manuscrits des colletions viennoises, Warşova 1968-1972, s. 127-152

[27] Triyarski, The Story of Holy Mariane in the Kiptchak Language of the Polish Armenians, Jurnal of the Turkish Studies, XIII, Harvord University, s. 205-236

[28] Daşkeviç, Lvovskiye Armyano-Kıpçakskiye Dokumantı XVI-XVII vv, Kak İstoriçeskiy İstoçnik, İstoriko-Filologiçeskiy Jurnal, II, Akademiya Nauk. Arm, SSR 1977, s. 163-164

[29] Ya. Dashian, Catalog der Armenischen Handschriften in der Machitaristen-Bibliothek zu Wien, Viyana 1895.

[30] Garkavets-Eduard Hurşudyan, Armenian Qypchaq Psalter 1575/1580, Almatı 2001.

[31] Ts’ts’ak dzegrats Maştots’I anvan Matenadarani, O. C. Yegenyan-A. Zeytunyan – P. Antabyan, Tsutsak Cragrats’ Maştots’i anvan Matenadarani, I, Erivan 1965; II, 1970.; O. C. Yegenyan, Ob Adnom Armiyano-Kıpçakskom Grammetiçeskom Pasobii, Vaprosı Yazikoznaniya V, 1962.

[32] Yegenyan, a.g.m., V, 1962.

[33] E. A. Triyarski, Fragment of The Apochryphal Psalm 151 in its Armeno-Kipchak Version, Journal of Semitic Studies XXVIII, 1983, s. 297-302.

[34] E. M. Korhmazyan, Armyanskaya Miniatura Krıma (XVI-XVII vv) Erivan 1978.

[35] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 269.

[36] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 975.

[37] Nadejda Chirli, Ermeni Kıpçakça Dular Kitabı Algış Btigi, 2005 Haarlem/Nederlands.

[38] Eser üzerinde çalışanlar için bkz. Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 661.

[39] B. Sergisyan, Matenadaranin Mihinataraents’i Venedik, Venedik 1966.

[40] Z. Z. Dubinska, Badan Nad Psalterzami Ormianskimi w Jazuku Kipczackim, Prezaglad Orientalistyczany II, 1961.

[41] Triyarski, Der Zweite Brief ds Paulus an die Korinther in Armeno-Kiptschakischer Version und Seine Sprache, Altaica Collecta, Wiesbaden 1976, s. 267-344.

[42] J. Deny- E. Triyarski La Litterature Armeno-Kiptchak, Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta, Wiesbaden 1964.

[43] G.K. Alişan, Taregirk Hayatos Lehastaniyev Rumenioy Havastçeay Yaveluatsovk, Venedik 1986.

[44] E. Schültz, Armeno Kiptschakische Ehekontrakte und Testamente, Acta Orientalia Hungaricae, XXIV, 1971, III, s. 265-300

[45] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 675-676

[46] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 675

[47] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 676

[48] K. Roszko-J. Braun, Katalog Rekopisow Orientalnych ze Zbiorov Polskich: Katalog Rekopisow Orientalnych ze Zbiorov Ormianskikichi Gruzinskich, Warshava 1958.

[49] Roszko-Braun, a.g.e.

[50] M. Levicki – R. Kohnowa, La Version Turkue-tiptchak du “Code des Lois des Armaniens Polonais” d’apres le ms. No 1916 de la Biblioteque Ossolineum, Roscznik Orientalistyczny, XXI, 1957, 153-300

[51] Levicki – Kohnova, a.g.m.

[52] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 865

[53] S. Kolonciyan, Kratkiy Katalog Armiyanskih Rukopisey Goroda Gerla, Vestnik Matenadarana 1969, IX, s. 433-485

[54] İ.A. Abdullin, Pamyatnaya Zapiska’ Agopa na Armiyano-Kıpçakskom Yazıke (1620), Sovetskaya Türkologiya, III, s. 118-129

[55] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 867

[56] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 869

[57] V.R. Grigoryan, Ob Aktovıh Knigah Armiyanskogo Suda g. Kamanets – Podolska (XVI-XVII vv), Vastoçniye İstoçniki Sentralnoy Evropı I, Moskova 1964, s. 276-296

[58] Daşkeviç, Administirativni Sudovi Finansovi Knigi na Ukraini XIII-XVIIIİstoricni Cerala ta ih Vikoristannaya IV, Kiev 1969, s. 129-171

[59] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 872

[60] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 958

[61] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 971

[62] Garkavets, a.g.e., s. 972

Source: © Erciyes University 2006


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