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29 May 2009

2858) Turkish-Armenian Relationships In The Turkish Health System

Prof Dr. Münir ATALAR
Gaziosmanpaşa University The Faculty of Science and Letters History Department / Tokat

Res. Assist. Sibel KAVAKLI
Gaziosmanpaşa University Social Sciences Institute / Tokat


With the establishment of the modern Turkish Republic Parliament on April 23rd, 1920, a new era started. Soon after, the Ministry of Health and Welfare was established in May 1920. With the establishment of this ministry, an independent branch of government started to function and pay attention to public health and well-being.1 . .

The structure of medical and related services in the late Ottoman period had remained virtually unchanged and undeveloped since the Ottoman Empire had been continually engaged in wars since 1911. Therefore, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, which was established in 1920, gave special consideration to the improvement of public services, like health and education in Turkey.2 In addition, health problems,

1 Gürkan Sert, II. Milli Tıp Kongresi`nde (1927) Doktor Vefik Hüsnü (Bulat)`ın Sunduğu Türkiye Trahom Coğrafyası İsimli Bildirinin Türkiye Tıp Tarihi Açısından Değerlendirilmesi, 38th International Medical History, 1-6 September, 2002, İstanbul, Turkey, Summary Book, p. 233
2 Osman Gümüş, 1920`lerin Türkiyesi`nde Halk Sağlığı ve Sorunları, 38th International Medical History, 1-6 September, 2002, İstanbul, Turkey, Summary Book, p.231



especially contagious diseases, were common in the early years of Turkish Republic due to a long period of war. Therefore, the challenge of contagious diseases formed the biggest part of work to be done in the health field.3

The first Turkish National Congress of Medicine on September 1, 1925 was followed by a number of congresses meeting in 1927, 1929, 1931, and 19354 In the first National Congress of Medicine, malaria and tuberculosis, in the 2nd National Congress trachoma and tuberculosis, and in the 3rd National Congress, syphilis and scarlet fever were the main subjects of study and research.5 The outcome of the congresses in 1930s remained predominantly national in effect. The congresses resembled those of history and language which shaped the patterns of Turkish educational and cultural systems of that time. In the newly established Turkey after 1923, the themes of the national congresses of medicine had great value in improving the efficiency of the Turkish health system.6

Based on the data of “The Sanitary and Social Geography of Turkey” prepared in the 1920s, public health problems of Turkey between 1920 and 1930 are important to examine. This period, which corresponds with the late Ottoman times and early years of Republic, is interesting in regard to seeing the heritage received from the Ottoman times and comprehending the stages of development from that time up to the present.

According to the above mentioned series and other resources of that time, health conditions of Turkish people can be summarized in the following way: People were extremely poor regarding literacy, schools, and training due to the education system of the previous years and the wars. Therefore, they lived a life of ignorance and lack of awareness. They had false beliefs about many of things, including health, and, therefore, modern medicine was unappreciated. Either the cities didn`t have modern

3 Sert, agm., p. 233
4 Cafer Güler, 1927-35 Arası Dönemde Toplanan Milli Tıp Kongrelerinin Genç Türkiye Cumhuriyetinin Sağlık Politikasına Etkisi, 38th International Medical History, 1-6 September, 2002, İstanbul, Turkey, Summary Book, p.232
5 Sert, agm., p.233
6 Güler, agm., p.232


facilities, such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, doctors, nurses, chemists’ and drugs, or these facilities were very few.

Health care and disease control received little attention in Turkey at that time. Bad working conditions and unhealthy food supplies threatened public health. In addition, polluted water and marshes in and around urban areas, the lack of municipal services and sewer systems, coupled with environmental pollution and bad habits of cleanliness gave impetus to an increase in the number of epidemic diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, syphilis, smallpox, diphtheria, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, and trachoma.7

Health Geography is a subject in the field of social geography which explores, on a synthesis basis, the geographical distribution of diseases resulting from nature-human interaction in the world, their reasons, the amount of population that is affected, and ongoing health services. As is known, Turkey was constantly engaged in wars since 1911. Therefore, the country was devastated and exhausted in all respects. In 1920, the Ministry of Health within the Turkish government (Turkish Grand National Assembly) achieved a great deal of beneficial services in this period of difficulty as a result of a study, “The Sanitary and Social Geography of Turkey.” This study possessed the qualities to direct effectively the health policy of our country. Although many developments were accomplished in the medical field during 1938-1960, this period didn`t reach the success of the 1923-1937 period.8 From this point of view, we will take up the condition of health centers in Turkey in 19289, and then we will bring up the issue of Turkish-Armenian relationships in the fields of medicine.

7 Gümüş, agm., p.231
8 Mesut Yldırım, Coğrafi Açıdan Cumhuriyet Dönemi Sağlık Politikası ve Halk Sağlığı, 38th International Medical History, 1-6 September, 2002, İstanbul, Turkey, p.229
9 We specially thank to Mevlüt and his son Ersin Zülfikaroğlu for their valuable contribution of map.


TURKISH-ARMENIAN RELATIONSHIPS IN THE FIELD OF MEDICINE

In our study, we focused on the map of Turkey belonging to the General Directorate of Social Services (The Ministry of Health and Social Services), which was drawn by a person named Rüştü in 1928 and reproduced by the Hilal Printing Press The reason for our concern about this map is that at the bottom of the map we saw the following written expression: “It is a map that shows all the health and social institutions attached to general and private budgets and municipalities; the hospitals of individuals, companies, societies, and foreigners; boundaries and shores, health centers and quarantine stations10, mobile and fixed incubators11, and steam boxes, which were used for dry-cleaning of clothes and dresses.12”

On this map, the places of the health centers spread throughout the country are marked with special symbols, legends and numbers. The health centers of Istanbul and Izmir, probably because their numbers were more, are placed at the bottom right of the map. The meanings of the special symbols on the map are as follows: Public hospitals, hospitals of jaundice diseases, asylums, chemical production centers13, company hospitals, Sanatoriums, Institutions for the deaf, dumb and blind, birth and child care centers without beds, optical diseases and care centers, orphanages14, syphilis care and cure centers, school of health clerks, public out-patient clinics, hostels, Greek hospitals, Jewish hospitals, Catholic Armenian and Catholic hospitals, American hospitals, Aus-10 Ali Haydar Bayat, Osmanlı Devleti`nde Hekimbaşılık Kurumu ve Hekimbaşılar, Published by Atatürk Culture Center, Ankara 1999, p.162. Though known as quarantine stations, sterilization stations even sterilized letters in order to prevent the public from viruses. Therefore, Turks were an example to the world in this respect. What European do today was applied by the Ottomans a few centuries ago.

11 Sterilization Device: It is used to sterilize medical tools.
12 Steam Boxes: They were used for dry-cleaning of clothes and dresses.
13 Chemical Production Station: Drug production center, lab. Perhaps it also produced vaccines. First established in İstanbul then in Ankara (Murat Aksu, Tıp Tarihi Açısından Türkiye`de Verem Tarihi, Yayınlanmamış Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Deontoloji Anabilim Dalı, Ankara 2005).
14 Orphanage: This was for homeless children between 0-7.


tralian hospitals, Iranian hospitals, Italian hospitals, English hospitals, Bulgarian hospitals, Malaria Care Centers, Private hospitals, municipality hospitals, Rest homes, Public Health Centers, Venereal Disease hospitals, Private hospitals, Foreign hospitals, Municipality Clinics, Rabies Care Centers15, Health Museums, Optical Disease hospitals, Sterilization Centers16, Malaria Care Institutions, Steam boxes, Private Clinics, Kabile Hostels, fixed Sterilization Devices, mobile Sterilization Devices, First Class Coast Health Centers, Second Class Coast Health Centers, Coast Health Administration, Coast Health Guardianship, and French hospitals. There is also a comparative graphic on the map showing the number of beds in the hospitals with respect to the type of diseases. The health centers are divided into 6 groups under the title “Ifade.”

Table 1 presents the health centers and the number of beds.

For the distribution of health centers in Turkey, the codes and symbols were analyzed and numbers were indicated. Table 2 presents the number of health centers, the number of beds, and those without beds. However, it can be seen that the number of beds in health centers presented in Table 1 do not match the numbers presented in Table 2.

The numbers presented generally match17 considering this map belongs to 1928, and a document (no: 490-01/ 1463-1-1) 18 from the State Archives. This document shows the number of patients with various diseases19 and from different age groups20. This proves that State Archives are credible and the map has reliable information. On the right of this document, the total number of beds of different hospitals is shown.

15 Rabres Cure Center: Rables was cured here.

16 Sterilization Center: Poor people were sterilized in this center. Mardin and Bitlis have one.
17 The location and the difference in bed numbers that don`t match are as follows:Aydın (45), Çanakkale (20), Diyarbakır (55), Giresun (20), Isparta (10), Kastamonu (10), Kayseri (50), Samsun (10), Tekirdağ (25).
18 We specially thank Dr. Murat AKSU from GOP University Medical Faculty for the contribution of this document.
19 Some of these diseases are as followers: Typhoid fever, measles, smallpox, flu, Asian cholera, venereal diseases, birth diseases, skin diseases, etc. And other undiagnosed diseases.
20 These age groups are:0-1; 1-5; 5-15; 15-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50; 50-60;and above 60.


According to this, private hospitals had 3270 beds and municipality hospitals had 904 beds. The total number of beds was 4174.

Table 1. Health centers and the number of beds
Health Centers The Number Of Beds
Public Hospitals
Asylums 1130
Public hospitals 1000
Public outpatient clinics 770
Hospitals of Jaundice 160
Malaria Care and Cure Centers 25
Birth and Child Care Centers 20
Optical Disease Hospital 20
Optical Diseases Care Centers 15
Total 3140
Private Hospitals
Private hospitals 2270
Private outpatient clinics 260
Total 2530
Municipality Hospitals
Municipality Hospitals, Rest Homes 1875
Municipality outgoing patient clinics 75
Total 1950
Religious Community Hospitals
Greek Hospitals 800
Catholic Armenian hospitals 120
Catholic hospitals 60
Total 980
Private or Company Hospitals
Private Hospitals 540
Company Hospitals 50
Total 590
Foreign Hospitals
French Hospitals 330
American Hospitals 240
Italian Hospitals 115
Austrian Hospitals 90
Bulgarian Hospitals 65
English Hospitals 50
Iranian Hospitals 40
Total 930

Table 2. The number of health centers, the number of those with and without beds, and the number of beds.
Health Centers Number Those With Beds The Number Of Beds Those Without Beds

Steam boxes 259 249 335 10
The branch of Fight with Malaria 24 3 3 21
Private Outpatient Clinics 60 16 240 44
Sterilization Centers 10 2 2 8
Coast Health Guardianship 18 2 2 16
Rabies Care Centers 5 3 126 2
Kabile Hostels 1 1 50 -
Municipality Clinics 12 4 30 8
Fixed Sterilization Devices 22 19 49 3
Venereal Disease Hospital 9 8 290 1
Institution of Fight with Malaria 10 2 2 8
Second Class Quarantine Stations 5 1 1 4
Hospitals of Jaundice Diseases 2 2 150 -
Austrian Hospitals 1 1 90 -
Muslim Hospitals 1 1 200 -
Private Hospitals 36 35 574 1
Health Museums 2 - - 2
First class quarantine stations 2 - - 2
Malaria Cure and Care Centers 7 3 3 4
Chemical Production Stations 3 - - 3
First Class Coast Health Centers 4 - - 4
Asylum 3 3 1125 -
Center of deaf, dumb and blind 1 1 60 -
Mobile incubator 101 96 153 5
Second Class Coast Health Centers 5 2 2 3
Birth and Child Care Centers 2 2 30 -
American Hospitals 4 4 255 -
English Hospitals 1 1 45 -
Iranian Hospitals 1 1 31 -
Public Health Center 4 1 1 3
Coast Health Administration 12 4 4 8
Municipality Hospitals 9 7 621 2
French Hospitals 4 4 345 -
Rest Homes 4 4 1115 -
Company Hospitals 2 - - 2


Health Centers Number Those With Beds The Number Of Beds Those Without Beds
Malaria Cure Center without beds 17 2 2 -
Optical Disease Cure Centers 10 10 10 -
School of Health Clerks 1 1 100 -
Catholic Hospitals 1 1 50 -
Sanatoriums 1 1 50 -
Institution of Fight with syphilis 5 3 3 2
Public Clinics 113 23 23 90
Italian Hospitals 2 2 117 -
Orphanage 1 1 50 -
Greek Hospitals 1 1 805 -
Center for fight with Malaria 1 - - 1
Optical Diseases Hospital 1 1 20 -
Public Hospitals 8 5 520 3
Bulgarian Hospitals 1 1 52 -
Private Hospitals 68 60 2985 8
Catholic Armenian Hospitals 1 1 122 -
Jewish Hospitals 2 2 138 -
Hostels 1 1 160 -
General Total 881 598 11041 283

ARMENIAN HOSPITALS AND THEIR INCOME SOURCES

Beginning in the 15th century, the Ottoman State ruled non-Muslims under its authority by organizing them convenient to the nation system21. Non-Muslims opened a hospital, which was named the Greek Fishery Hospital22, in Istanbul soon after the conquest. It also let the Armenian people establish their own hospitals and keep them running under the leadership of their own religious leaders as long as they obeyed the law23.

21 For further information on nation system refer to İlber Ortaylı, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu`nda Millet, Tanzimat`tan Cumhuriyet`e Türkiye Ansiklopedisi, IV, İstanbul 1985, p.996-1002; Cevdet Küçük, Osmanlılarda Millet Sistemi ve Tanzimat, Tanzimat`tan Cumhuriyet`e Türkiye Ansiklopedisi, IV,p.1007-1024.
22 Nuran Yıldırım, Balıklı Rum Hastahanesi, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, II, İstanbul 1994, p.25.
23 Stanford Shaw, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu`nda Azınlıklar sorunu, Tanzimat`tan Cumhuriyet`e Türkiye Ansiklopedisi, IV, p.1003.


In the second half of the 18th century, the number of hospitals increased. Some of the hospitals were Narlıkapı Armenian Hospital24 and Şişli Bulgarian Hospital25. During this period, the Ottoman State had nearly 25 hospitals including military hospitals26, such as:

. Narlıkapı Armenian Hospital: Established for Armenian patients in 1751 by Patrik Kapanlı George. It was restored in 1794.27

. Beyoğlu Armenian Hospital: It was permitted in April 183628. It is claimed that this hospital began serving patients before 184329.
. Taksim Surp Agop Vaqf Hospital and Rest Home: It began serving patients in 185630. It had 100 beds, a doctor, a nurse, two clerks and 13 servants in the Republic period31.
. Yedikule Armenian Hospital: It is also called Surp Pırgiç Armenian Hospital. It was established in 1832-33. It started serving patients in 183432. Kazzaz Artin Bezciyan established it33. The architects of the hospital are Garabed Balyan34 and his brother-in- law Ohannes Amira

24 P.G.İnciyan, XVIII. Asırda İstanbul, Trc. Hrand D. Andresyan, İstanbul 1956, p.15.
25 Bedi N. Şehsuvaroğlu, Türk Tıp Tarihi, Bursa 1984, p.149-150.
26 A.Süheyl Ünver, Osmanlı Tababeti ve Tanzimat Hakkında Yeni Notlar, İstanbul 1940, p.19;Orhan Bolak, Hastahanelerimiz, İstanbul 1950, p.40; Anadolu Ermeni Hastahaneleri, Surp Agop Hastahanesi, Misyoner Hastahaneleri, İzmit, Bursa, İzmir, Amasya, Tokat, Sivas, Merzifon, Maraş, Harput, Urfa, Antep, Mardin) refer to Arsen Yarman, Osmanlı Sağlık Hizmetlerinde Ermeniler ve Surp Pırgiç Ermeni Hastanesi Tarihi, İstanbul 2001, p.373-424. This book involves information about Armenian minority and their contributiens to medicine. It mainly involves Armenian Medical History.
27 İnciyan, age., p.15.
28 BOA., Cevdet Sıhhıye, nr. 802.
29 BOA.,Cevdet Sıhhıye, nr. 1336.
30 Şehsuvaroğlu, age., p.149.
31 İstanbul İl Yıllığı 1967, İstanbul 1969.
32 Kevork Pamukciyan, Yedikule Ermeni Hastahanesi, Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, VII, İstanbul 1994, p. 460.
33 Pars Tuğlacı, Osmanlı Mimarlığında Batılılaşma Dönemi ve Balyan Ailesi, İstanbul 1981, p.169.
34 Refer to Garabed Balyan Pars Tuğlacı, age., İstanbul 1981, p. 51-171.


Serveryan35. This hospital has been administered by an assembly elected by the public since 193436. European and Armenian head doctors worked in the hospital. In 1865, Sadrazam Ali Pasha contributed 500 gold coins to the hospital when it was used as military barracks during the 1st World War37. A journal named Surp Pırgiç has been published since 1950. The hospital still serves patients with 280 beds and 35 doctors38.

Table 3 presents the location of non-Muslim hospitals and the number of beds as identified on the map.

Table 3. The type of hospitals, the location of hospitals and the number of beds.

Hospitals Location Number Of Beds
French hospitals
Istanbul
Istanbul 310
Istanbul
Izmir 35
American hospitals
Istanbul 100
Gaziantep 100
Adana 35
Kayseri 20
Jewish hospitals
Istanbul 108
Izmir 30
Italian hospitals
Istanbul 67
Izmir 30
Greek hospitals Istanbul 805
Catholic hospitals Istanbul 50
Catholic Armenian hospitals Istanbul 122
Austrian hospitals Istanbul 90
Bulgarian hospitals Istanbul 52
English hospitals Istanbul 45
Iranian hospitals Istanbul 31
35 Tuğlacı, age., p.169.
36 Pamukciyan, agm., p.460; Yarman, age., p.445-717.
37 Tuğlacı, age., p.170.
38 Pamukçiyan, agm., p.460.


The income sources of the Armenian Hospitals are identified in the “Special Directive of Local Contributions of Surp Argiç Armenian Hospital Vaqf ”. Income comes from churches and various social activities39.

Some of the examples are: On 16 Şaban 1312 (Feb. 12, 1895) a ball was organized on behalf of Or-Ahayim Hospital40. Rich non-Muslims also contributed to hospitals. Jewish trade communities had special helping organizations41. A candle manufacturing house was built to provide the Yedikule Armenian hospital with income42. The Ottoman State helped both hospitals and churches as well. It also reserved meat for Greek, Armenian and Catholic hospitals. For example, it reserved meat for the Jewish Hospitals from March 24, 184343 and continued until the 1st World War44. In 1893, Abdülhamit II gave meat and bread to the Yedikule Armenian Hospital45. The Greek Patriarchate was given 75,000 kuruş on May 3, 189446. The Armenian Patriarchate was also given 400 Turkish Lira47. Jewish People also got a contribution on April 13, 1895 due to the Hamursuz Festival48. Sadrazam Ali Pasha contributed 500 gold coins for the restoration of the Yedikule Armenian Hospital in 186549.

ARMENIAN DOCTORS

From the 18th century, Turkish and Armenian young doctors started working together for the modernization of the country. Dr. Bogos Sasyan (1744-1814) was one of the important names in the field of medicine. He was born in Istanbul and his parents were from Sivas. He studied medicine in Rome and served in the Ottoman Palace. Other doctors also came from this family. Another important name was Navy Associ-39 Yedikule Surp Pırgiç Ermeni Hastahanesi Vakfı Mahalli Yardım Kollarına Ait Özel Talimat, İstanbul 1975, p.10.

40 BOA., Yıldız Tasnifi Mütenevvi Maruzat Evrakı, nr. 114/111.
41 İnciyan, XVIII. Asırda İstanbul, p.18
42 Tuğlacı, age., p.149
43 BOA., Cevdet Sıhhıyye, nr. 1336
44 Pamukçiyan, agm., p.460
45 BOA., Yıldız Tasnifi Sadaret Hususi Maruzat Evrakı, nr. 266/38
46 BOA., Yıldız Tasnifi Mütenevvi Maruzat Evrakı, nr. 94/105.
47 BOA., Yıldız Tasnifi Mütenevvi Maruzat Evrakı, nr. 61/75.
48 BOA., Yıldız Tasnifi Mütenevvi Maruzat Evrakı, nr. 118/86.
49 Tuğlacı, age., p.169.



ate Doctor Sarkis Garabedyan (1795-1869). There were 28 famous Armenian doctors in Ottoman times. They also worked as teachers in the Military Medical Academy and in Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane, the Military Medical Academy during Ottoman Period50.

Armenian doctors also worked in various state departments as doctors or officials51. Some of those doctors were as follows: Dr. Bogos Zohrabyan (1803-1883), Dr. Hagop Bey Davutyan (1813-1878), Dr. Kapsar Sinapyan (1814-1872), Dr. Serovpe Vicenyan (1815-1897), Dr. Antranik Pasa Gircikyan (1819-1894), Dr. Nahabet Rusinyan (1819-1876), Dr.Hovsep Sismanyan (1822-1888), Dr. Kapriel Sevyan (1822-1900), Dr.Stepan Aslanyan (1822-1902), Dr.Parunak Krtikyan (Feruhan) (1824-1869), Dr. Hovsep Nurican (1827-1898), Dr. Andon Pasa Nafilyan (1831-1912), Dr. Hagop Bey Handanyan (1834-1899), Dr. Mikayel Horasanciyan (1835-1903), Dr. Dikran Pestimalciyan (1840-1894), Dr. Vahan Pasa Manuelyan (1841-1902), Dr. Havhannes Bey Tabipyan (1845-1894), Dr. Civan By Ananyan (1848-?), and Dr. Dikran Bey Acemyan (1852-1913).

At least 16 of 30 Armenian doctors worked as teachers in Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane and in the Military Medical Academy in the 19th century52.

The most outstanding Armenian doctors from the Ottoman times until now are as follows: Dr. Hayg Baronik Madteosyan, Dr. Khintir Khintiryan, Dr. Vahram Torkomyan, Dr. Yervant Bey Ozer, Dr. Bagdasar Manuelyan, Dr. Arto Mezburyan, Dr. Zakar Tarver, Dr. Hrant Pestemalciyan, Dr.Andre Vahram, Dr. Karabet Paşayan53, Prof. Dr. Vensan

50 www.bolsohays.com; in his book Arsen Yarman states the number of Armenian doctors as 270.(Yarman, age., p.775-779.
51 The number of Armenians in high posts in the 19th and 20th century are as follows:21 pashas, 22 ministers, 33 deputies, 7 ambassadors, 11 consuls, 11 academicians, 8 doctor pashas and 41 officials. (Karabet Arman, Türk-Ermeni İlişkileri,Tercüman Gazetesi,4 Nisan 1977).
52 The following lines were extracted from Mehmet Altun, Tahlilhaneden İlaç Sanayine Bir Asırlık Birlktelik, İbrahim Ethem Ulagay İlaç Sanayi, Türk A.Ş. 100 Yaşında, chapter Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane –Lessons and Trainers. Thought all the teacher at this scool were soldier, French was taught by three civil trainers.
53 2nd Period. Independent Deputy of Sivas.


Sayahi, Prof. Dr. Aram Sukyasyan, Prof. Dr.Hagop Gotogyan, Prof. Dr. Meri Urgancioğlu, Prof. Dr. Nisan Nisan, Doç. Dr. Arsen Zarfcı, Doç. Dr. Vahe Aliksanyan, Doç Dr. Vart Sigaher, and Doç. Dr. Penyamin Karabet Varvar54.

Non-Muslims hospitals and clinics have increased in the Republic Period (1923-present). There are 12 in Istanbul and a further 25 beds in a Jewish hospital55. The followings are clinics and hospitals in Istanbul: Balat Jewish Hospitals (8100 beds), Balıklı Greek Hospital56 (650 beds), Beyoğlu Greek Community Clinic, Bulgarian Hospital (50 beds), Armenian Esenlik Clinic, Armenian Taksim Hospital (20 beds), Feriköy Armenian Clinic, Avengelistra Greek Clinic, Kumkapı Armenian Clinic, Orthodox Greek Clinic, Surp Agop Hospital (30 beds), and Yedikule Armenian Hospital57 (300 beds). These hospitals are still serving patients.

Non-Muslims are seen to have played an active role in the field of health in the Ottoman State. They provided health services both to the state as doctors and to their communities by establishing hospitals. The Ottoman State let non-Muslims build and restore hospitals and even helped them. Non-Muslims reserved their hospitals for the state`s service when required. (Some of the research not referred directly or indirectly in our study is given in the footnote58.)

54 www.bolsohays.com
55 Feridun Frik, Cumhuriyet Devri Sağlık Hareketleri(1923-1963) 40 Yıl, İstanbul 1963, p.67
56 For further information about Republic Period refer to İstanbul Balıklı Rum Hastahanesi İç Hizmet ve Vazifeler Talimatnamesi, İstanbul 1937
57 For further information about the condition of hospitals in Republic Period refer to Frik, age., p.62-64; Şehsuvaroğlu, İstanbul`da 500 Yıllık Sağlık Hayatımız, İstanbul 1953,p.134 vd.; İstanbul İl Yıllığı 1973, p. 434-435

58 Tarih Boyunca Türklerin Ermeni Toplumu İle İlişkileri Sempozyumu, Erzurum 8-12 Ekim 1984;Aykut Kazancıgil, Tıp Fakültesi Tarihçesi(Mir`at-ı Mekteb-i Tıbbiye), İstanbul 1991; Yusuf Oğuzoğlu, Osmanlı Şehirlerinde Sağlık Hizmetleri, IV. Türk Tıp Tarihi Kongresi 18-20 Eylül 1996; Erdem Aydın, Cumhuriyet Döneminde Sağlık Örgütlenmesi, Yeni Tıp Tarihi Araştırmaları, V, İstanbul 1999, p.141-172; Hikmet Özdemir, Salgın Hastalıklardan Ölümler(1914-1918), Ankara 2005,p.77-113:Karantinadan Savaş Ekonomisine; Esin Kahya, Ayşegül D. Erdemir,Bilimin Işığında Osmanlıdan Cumhuriyete Tıp ve Sağlık Kurumları,



Ankara 2000,p.251:Karantina;Süleyman Yeşilyurt,Ermeni,Yahudi,Rum Asıllı Milletvekilleri, Ankara 2005;Nejat Göyünç, Türkler ve Ermeniler,Written by:Kemal Çiçek, Ankara 2005.[ This book receives special importance since it is the last work of Prof. Dr. Nejat Göyünç, who died on 1 July, 2001 and whose impartiality had always been indisputable. In addition, the book is one of the most valuable works studying cultural interaction issues between Turks and Armenians in a classified way. It is difficult to find these classifications compiled as a whole in other studies. The fourth chapter in the book is wholly reserved for this classification as in the following way:A) Lisan Alanında Türk-Ermeni Alış-Verişi, Etkileşim (p.117), B)

Türk Edebiyatının Ermeni Edebiyatı Üzerindeki Tesirleri (p.120) 1. Şair Aşug`ların (aşık) Eserleri, 2. edebi Eserler, 3. Ermenilerin Yaptıkları Çeviriler, 4. Gazete ve Süreli Yayınlar, 5. Mezar Taşları C) Musiki Alanında Türk-Ermeni İlişkileri (p.125), D) Sahne Sanatları Alanındaki İlişkiler, Tesirler (p.130), E)Mimarlık Alanındaki İlişkiler (p.131), F) Avrupa`ya Türk Kültürü Taşıyıcısı Olarak Ermeniler: Ermeni tüccarlarının XIX. yüzyılda İzmir`de İran mallarında, özellikle ipekli ticaretinde bir tekel oluşturdukları, Erzurum-Tokat-Sivas-Ankara üzerinden gelen kervanları denetledikleri, başlıca rakiplerinin de Türk tacirler olduğu bilinmektedir. Kültürler ticaret yolu ile veya seyahatler sonucu birbiriyle kaynaşmaktadır. Türk kahvesinin Viyana`ya Ermeniler tarafından tanıtılması da ticaret yolu ile kültür alışverişinin tipik bir örneğidir. (p.132)]

I congratulate the assembly of editors on their adding this classification and even the health issues to the range of symposium`s field of interest. We are also happy that our paper with title Turkish-Armenian Relations in the Health System is the only study of the symposium (EVSAS-1) in the medical field.

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