21 July 2010

3115) Free E-Book: Two War Years In Constantinople, Sketches Of German And Young Turkish Ethics And Politics By Dr. Harry Stuermer

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Dr. Harry Stuermer
Late Correspondent Of The Kölnische Zeitung In Constantinople (1915-16)
Translated From The German E. Allen And The Author Dr. Harry Stuermer
New York George H. Doran Company J. C. & A. L. Fawcett, Inc. Publishers

Made in U.S.A. ISBN 0-941567-15-X

Harry Stuermer (Sturmer) — a German journalist — was the correspondent of Kölnische Zeitung newspaper in Constantinople during the war years of 1915–16. . .

His book Two War Years in Constantinople was published in 1917 after he had left Turkey and contained information about the genocide of Armenians in Ottoman Empire. Stuermer harshly criticized Turkish authorities as well as German policy towards its Turkish allies. The original German version of the book was published in neutral Switzerland. The German Foreign Office even bought the translation rights trying to block the Stuermer’s text from spreading, however the they did not manage to buy out the English translation rights promptly enough, and the English version was published soon after the German one.

In 2004 revised critical edition of the book was published by Dr. Hilmar Kaiser.

DECLARATION
The undersigned hereby declares on his sworn word of honour that in writing this volume he has been in no way inspired by outside influence, and that he has never had any dealings whatsoever, material or otherwise, either before or during the war, with any Government, organisation, propaganda, or personality hostile to Germany or Turkey or even of a neutral character. His conscience alone has urged him to write and publish his impressions, and he hopes that by so doing he may perform a service towards the cause of truth and civilisation.

Moreover, he can give formal assurance that he has expressly avoided making the acquaintance of any person resident in Switzerland until his manuscript should have been sent to press.

Furthermore, he has been actuated by no personal motives in thus giving public expression to no personal grievance, either material or moral, against any person whatsoever. Geneva,

June 1917.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

At the outbreak of war in Germany—The German "world-politicians" (Weltpolitiker) —German and English mentality—The "place in the sun"—England's declaration of war—German methods in Belgium and Alsace-Lorraine —Prussian arrogance —Militaristic journalism

CHAPTER II
To Constantinople—Pro-Turkish considerations—The dilemma of a Gallipoli correspondent—Under German military control

CHAPTER III
The great Armenian persecutions—The system of Talaat and Enver—A denunciation of Germany as a cowardly and conscienceless accomplice

CHAPTER IV
The tide of war—Enver's offensive for the "liberation of the Caucasus"—The Dardanelles Campaign; the fate of Constantinople twice hangs in the balance —Nervous tension in international Pera—Bulgaria's attitude—Turkish rancour against her former enemy—German illusions of a separate peace with Russia—King Ferdinand's time-serving—Lack of munitions in the Dardanelles—A mysterious death: a political murder?—The evacuation of Gallipoli—The Turkish version of victory—Constantinople unreleased—Kut-el-Amara—Propaganda foe the "Holy War"—A prisoner of repute—Loyalty of Anglo-Indian officers—Turkish communiques and their worth—The fall of Erzerum—Official lies—The treatment of prisoners— Political speculation with prisoners of war—Treatment of enemy subjects —Stagnation and lassitude in the summer of 1916—The Greeks in Turkey—Dread of Greek massacres—Rumania's entry—Terrible disappointment— The three phases of the war for Turkey

CHAPTER V
The economic situation—Exaggerated Entente hopes—Hunger and suffering among the civil population—The system of requisitioning and the semi-official monopolists —Profiteering on the part of the Government clique—Frivolity and cynicism—The "Djemiet"—The delegates of the German Zentrulinkaufagesellschaft (Central Purchases Commission)—A hard battle between German and Turkish intrigue —Reform of the coinage—Paper money and its depreciation—The hoarding of bullion—The Russian rouble the best investment


CHAPTER VI
German propaganda and ethics—The unsuccessful "Holy War" and the German Government—"The Holy War" a crime against civilisation, a chimera, a farce— Underhand dealings—The German Embassy the dupe of adventurers—The morality of German Press representatives— A trusty servant of the German Embassy—Fine official distinctions of morality—The German conception of the rights of individuals

CHAPTER VII
Young Turkish nationalism—-One-sided abolition of capitulations—Anti-foreign efforts at emancipation—Abolition of foreign languages—German simplicity—The Turkification of commercial life—Unmistakable intellectual improvement as a result of the war—Trade policy and customs tariff—National production—The founding of new businesses in Turkey—Germany supplanted—German starvation —-Capitulations or full European control?—The colonisation and forcible Turkification of Anatolia—"The properties of people who have been despatched elsewhere" —The "Mohadjirs"-—Greek persecutions just before the Great War—The "discovery" of Anatolia, the nucleus of the Ottoman Empire—Turkey finds herself at last—-Anatolian dirt and decay—The "Greater Turkey" and the purely Turkish Turkey—Cleavage or concentration?


CHAPTER VIII
Religion and race—The Islam policy of Abdul-Hamid and of the Young Turks— Turanism and Pan-Islamism as political principles—Turanism and the Quadruple Alliance— Greed and race-fanaticism—Religions traditions and modern reforms —Reform in the law—A modem Sheikh-ul-Islam—Reform and nationalisation—The Armenian and Greek Patriarchates—The failure of Pan-Islamism— The alienation of the Arans—Djemal Pasha's "hangman's policy" in Syria—Djemal as a "Pro-French" —Djemal and Enver— Djemal and Germany—His true character— The attempts against the Suez Canal—Djemal's murderous work nears completion-—The great Arabian and Syrian Separatist movement—The defection of the Emir of Mecca and the great Arabian catastrophe

CHAPTER IX
Anti-war and pro-Entente feelings among the Turks—Turkish pessimism about the war—How would Abdul-Hamid have acted?—A war of prevention against Russia —Russia and a neutral Turkey—The agreement about the Dardanelles —A peaceful solution scorned—Alleged criminal intentions on the part of the Entente; the example of Greece and Salonika—To be or not to be?—German influence— Turkey stakes on the wrong card—The results

CHAPTER X
The outlook for the future—The consequences of trusting Germany—The Entente's death sentence on Turkey— The social necessity for this deliverance—Anatolia, the new Turkey after the war; forecasts about the Turkish race—The Turkish element in the lost territory—Russia and Constantinople; international guarantees—Germany, at peace, benefits too—Farewell to the German "World Politicians"—German interests in a victorious and in a defeated Turkey—The German-Turkish treaty—A paradise on earth—The Russian commercial impulse—The new Armenia Western Anatolia, the old Greek centre of civilisation—Great Arabia and Syria—The reconciliation of Germany

Appendix
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