09 September 2006

993) On The Assassination Of Van Mayor Kapamaciyan By The Tashnak Committee

After the political atmosphere that was formed following the declaration of the second constitution, mayoralty of Van was given to an Armenian from the Loyal People, called Bedros Kapamacıyan, who was a delegate of Van board of directors, in mid-1909. Although the city population consisted of Muslim majority, Kapamacıyan was delegated through the kindness of everybody without being subject to any discrimination, therefore, he received the votes of the Muslims as well. Because two out of 10 delegates of board of directors were elected from among the loyal people as a result of the elections. Although we do not have much information about the mayor who was much appreciated because of his works, it is commonly known that he was an outstanding member of a respected family dealing with drapery trade. . .

Although he pleased a large mass during his management, he did not facilitate the aspirations of the Armenian Revolutionary Tashnak Committee, which was quite influential in Van and had different expectations. Kapamacıyan attempted to serve honestly for the peace and prosperity of both communities living in Van by always acting in favor of the Ottoman State against the Tashnak and Hınchak committees, whose future and present wills for the Armenians were not quite clear. While Mayor Kapamacıyan was working with heart and soul for the peace of people and the future of the city, the Armenian Patriarch initiated some plans and provocation in Van and its surrounding through cooperation with the Tashnak committee in order to keep the Armenian cause active before the European states.

In line with these plans, a series of fires broke out in Van in April 1912 and the houses of some Armenians were also burnt down in these fires. The Patriarch requested the mayor to report these fires and provocation to the European embassies, namely, to inform that the Muslims were instantly ready to annihilate the properties and lives of the Armenians and the Muslims committed such incidents. Mayor Kapamacıyan sent a report that this was not the actual issue, the fires were initiated by the Armenian Tashnak committees. He also went to Van Governor's Office and stated his loyalty and fidelity to the Ottoman State. The Patriarchy respectively sent out a delegation to Van immediately and tried to calm the Mayor down and conceal the incidents because, whereas Kapamacıyan had many friends, companions, kin and relatives, such attitude of him might have been construed to mean that the committee reached the point of termination in Van.

Survival of the Mayor, who was impairing the conducts of the Committee working with great effort for many years with Van as their center, was an unbearable state for the committee and a resolution for execution was taken against the Mayor. The revolutionary gangs who built their theories on Armenian - Turk conflict previously committed assassinations against Armenian notables who supported the Ottoman state and annihilated their dominance over the people, thus aiming to spread terror and eliminate the opposition to form against them.

Attempts to Prevent Incidents

As a result of the developments in the Ottoman geography towards the end of 19th century, it started to be apparent that peace would be interrupted and disturbances would occur. A short time before the declaration of second constitution, Van governor Ali Rıza Pasha, who was trying to prevent the separatist acts of revolutionary Tashnak Armenians without causing harm to the people, assigned Armenian Ohannes Ferit Boyacıyan as the deputy governor and his brother Armarak Boyacıyan as Gevaş district governor, to break the influence of brigands. Gevaş is at about thirty five kilometers distance to Van and Akdamar island, which is an important religious center for the Armenians, is at the coast of this town. After these assignments, Tashnak Armenian committee, who made separatist propaganda among the Armenians and frequently complained about that to the European states, would not have any pretext before European states. Armarak, while strictly preventing the Armenian brigands from utilizing Akdamar island as a base and causing difficulty against them, also was almost eliminating their influence on the people. Thus, the policy of Ali Rıza Pasha started to give its yields. Upon that, the gangs killed Armarak and removed an important obstacle before them. Upon the murder of his brother, Ohannes Ferid expressed that he could not stay in Van any more and by taking the permission of Ali Pasha, he requested to be assigned as the deputy governor to Elazığ.

Against the sensitivity of the situation, Ali Pasha made the necessary warnings to the Sublime Port for the assignment of Armenian Mikail as deputy governor of Van, in order to increase the loyalty of obedient people to the government and to upset the expectations of the gangs. The Sublime Port deemed such warnings appropriate and assigned Mikail as the deputy governor of Van. However, Mikail requested to be excused from this mission as he knew that he could not serve as required because he was disturbed by this incomprehensible attitude of Tashnak Armenians in Van. Then, former district governor Leon was assigned and it was attempted to please the Armenians in Van. Besides, favors were given to the Armenian notables living in the Ottoman territory. By this way, the issues that could be asserted as pretexts by the gangs were settled. Despite all these attempts of goodwill, Armenian committees strengthened their relations with Russian Armenians, carried their studies to underground and continued them more secretly, rather than giving an end to them. Nothing could stop the Armenian committee members then.

Kapamacıyan is Murdered

Van Mayor Bedros Kapamacıyan would be punished for standing against Armenian gangs and not obeying their orders. Van Mayor Kapamacıyan, who was frequently threatened, left his house in the evening together with crowded family members to participate as a guest to the naming ceremony of Marcidciyan, one of his relatives, and got on the sledge waiting in front of his door, unaware of the fact that black cross was printed on his name. At that time, a Tashnak group organized around the house started a salvo towards the crowd. The Mayor, who was caught without any preparation and protection, fell dead with two bullets that hit to his head. It is quite thought-provoking that no measure or protection was taken by the state although it was apparent that an assassination would be committed against Bedros Kapamacıyan, who was murdered at the age of 65 on 10 December 1912.

As the mayor's house was at Bağlar district, the closest police station was at a distance of ten minutes. Therefore, the murderers escaped with the help of darkness before the gendarme arrived at the scene. Bağlar district was a parish with yards and gardens where the Armenians lived in majority and the location where the Tashnak committee was strongest. Therefore, it was easy for the murderers to escape and hide. Police station commander transferred sufficient number of police and gendarme to the scene and took a series of measures to prevent any impetuosity.
The commander carried out an extensive examination and collected all evidences at the scene in order not to overlook anything. Any small fault could lead to a great disorder in Van. As a city where Armenian revolutionary organizations attached importance, Van was the scene of Armenian rebellion in serious sense in the past.

Murderers are Arrested

When the witnesses were calmed down, their testimonies were started to be taken urgently. Information on the appearance and selves of the murderers were becoming clear. Particularly from the testimony of Mayor's son, it was revealed that Karakin and his friend could have committed this murder. As the murderers were almost revealed, a possible disorder between the Muslim people and the Armenians was prevented. Rapid operations were carried out, Karakin was arrested and his unidentified friend succeeded to escape. Coachman Potur, who was involved in the incident with his coach and was sought before for the offense of bringing arms to Van, and the persons called Saddler Osep, jeweler Karakin and Shaf, who escaped to Karagündüz village after the incident, was one of the notable members of Tashnak committee and planned the murder of Kapamacıyan, were arrested following intense pursuits.

Karakin's friend, who disappeared after the incident, was later arrested and imprisoned. Although such rapid arrestment of perpetrators was not an ordinary event for Van, the personality of Kapamacıyan and the sensitivity of the incident led to this development.
Viramyan, one of the writers of Azadamart newspaper published by the members of Tashak committee, Aram Manukyan, inspector of Armenian schools and Van representative of Tashnak committee and some of the notable Tashnak committee members were decided to be arrested as encouragers for the murder of Mayor Kapamacıyan.

Since the notable members of Tashnak committee used to complain from the governorship to Istanbul and European embassies on every occasion, they thought that this arrest warrant issued about them was related with this. They were holding frequent meetings for this in the Tashnak committee club and assessing the situation. As extensive incidents occurred in Van previously and a few years before, the Armenian gangs murdered Van governor Ali Rıza Pasha, who thrust upon them too much, no investigation could even be made against the Armenians in case of any small police incident, not to mention that the committee members could not be arrested. Therefore, while fear and weariness was becoming dominant over the people, committee members gained more self-confidence. For these reasons, the arrestments of Aram and Viramyan, who organized and directed the murder of Mayor, was delayed to a suitable time. Whereas no noteworthy result other than the arrestment of one or two persons was obtained under Van circumstances although both Armenians and Muslims frequently asked the governorship about the developments on the murder of Kapamacıyan, the incident was transferred to Istanbul. The people could have become daunted as no development was achieved about the committee that laid behind the incident, although one or two persons who committed the murder were arrested.

Viramyan and His Defense

As stated above, as no noteworthy result other than the arrestment of one or two persons was obtained under Van circumstances although both Armenians and Muslims frequently asked the governorship about the developments on the murder of Kapamacıyan, the incident was transferred to Istanbul. Viramyan Papazyan, who could not be elected as a deputy in 1912 elections, started to write in Azadamart newspaper. As news that Viramyan was also related with the murder of the Mayor together with Aram Manukyan and a warrant was sent to him about this incident, he sent a petition to the Ministry of Interior.

"To the Ministry of Interior

Upon my arrival at Van following three months of my absence, I have seen our province and Hizan town of Bitlis in a great crisis. While there is no serious attempt to finalize many unjust conducts, full liberty is given to the murderers and bandits and the farmers are disturbed by the arrival of spring. Because they have no doubt that murders, injuries and plunders will follow each other. Van Governor İzzet Pasha disregards the forced arming and preparation for war of Kurdish peasants by Kurdish chiefs, who are known as bandits and murderers, and carries out a slow and continuous prosecution against the notable members of Armenians defending themselves and of the Tashnak committee.
Guiltless and innocent peasants and Kolost of Karkan, Sahak of Mindan, Şirin of Karagündüz and some Armenians are imprisoned. Many of these flee because of fear. Kapamacıyan was killed on 10th December; my departure from Van was 19 days before that. Despite this fact, I received a warrant from the public prosecutor as a suspect in this incident and I learned that a warrant was sent to Aram, the colleague of Rafael, itinerant director of Akdamar Katholikos school, also as a suspect in the same incident in order to annihilate him.
As I knew the purposes of Mr. İzzet and his consultants and that judicial officers enjoyed keeping people in prison, I did not surrender my life to them. Although I am not unable against such vicious slanders, I hereby state that I do not want to be the victim of their ambitions. If Mr. İzzet and his men continue such conducts against Armenians, it is certain that those who are honest and who fear will flee, since murderers, usurpers and thieves will become dominant.

Requesting from the state to attach attention to these problems threatening our province, where the interests of Armenian nation confirm their inseparable loyalty to the Ottoman land, and to take serial measures while there is still time, I am waiting for your reply with the hope that the fault made in Rumelia will not be repeated in Anatolia." Former Van Deputy Viramyan.
It is observed that this request of Viremyan, which appears innocent at first sight, was taken into consideration by the Ministry of Interior. In the ciphered message sent to Van province by the general intelligence office of the Ministry of Interior, it was informed that Viramyan left Van before the murder and complained from the hostile conducts against Armenians living in Van, and it was requested that these incidents be clarified and finalized. Besides, it was recommended by considering the sensitivity of the situation to avoid violent acts that would cause anxiety among Armenians.

As a notable member of Tashnak committee, Viramyan's non-involvement in this murder can not be considered. The petition he wrote appears as a completely professional petition written for the history. In fact, the Balkan incidents that he particularly mentioned in this letter can be interpreted as a covert threatening. Besides, Viramyan could not be reelected as a deputy in 1912 elections; perhaps, this fact should be considered as a reason lying beneath the murder of Kapamacıyan.


Rapid persecution of the murderer of Kapamacıyan, who was very much adored by Armenians, and the arrestment of murderers, although not duly penalized, pleased the people, however, the fact that the murderers were Armenians also caused a deep sorrow among the Armenians. Necessary measures and care were taken to avoid disorder in the funeral of Kapamacıyan. In the speeches delivered in the funeral that started early in the morning with the attendance of a great crowd, the virtues, kindness and good morals of Kapamacıyan were mentioned. From foreign mission chiefs, English, Russian and French consuls also attended the funeral.
On the other hand, it is meaningful that neither any military member nor any member of Tashnak committee attended the funeral. Tashnak committee took the opportunity to clearly state to its companions that they murdered the mayor and to intimidate their enemies by means of this attitude.

The secret police organization working in Van was assigned to observe the sentiments, dialogs and attitudes of the people attending the funeral. Furthermore, the secret police was charged to prevent the impetuosity and provocation that could occur during the funeral. According to the determinations of the secret police, people told each other during the funeral at the Armenian cemetery at Bağlar district that it was obvious that Tashnak committee caused this murder to be committed and the government should act on this matter as soon as possible and they talked about the services of Kapamacıyan for his country. On the other hand, the Armenians were expressing their hatred and condemning the committee with as low voice as possible, as they were bewaring of the committee. They also told that the committee would soon lose its influence on the Armenians and a great anger would rise among the Armenians. The funeral lasted till evening and Kapamacıyan was buried in the family cemetery close to evening. The minimum conditions of living together, which Kapamacıyan endeavored to maintain perhaps at the price of his life, were rapidly disturbed and the trend in Van was irreversibly upset.

Revolutionary Tashnak Armenians could murder their own people without hesitation in order to achieve their ambitions. The systematized attempts of the committee members, who ventured all acts for establishing a suitable medium for revolution, gave their yields with the help of Russians and they temporarily occupied Van, and when the Russians retreated in October 1917 upon the Bolshevik revolution, Van was regained by the Turks. However, when the Muslim people, who left their city with numerous difficulties as a result of incredible murders and pressure of the Armenian Tashnak gang, returned there, they found both the city and the order completely upset. Their Armenian neighbors and friends were no more living in Van. The grandchildren of Kirkors, Arabacıyans, Terzibaşıyans, Avadises, Boyacıyans and hundreds of other Armenian families that can not be listed here are telling from generation to generation the dream of living together with Muslims in the city of Van that they listened from their grandfathers and grandmothers and thus satisfy their longings.


*- Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Education, Department of History, VAN

(1) Teotik Salnamesi, Istanbul 1911, p. 253; for the historical development of Turkish municipality, see; İlber Ortaylı, Tanzimattan Cumhuriyete Yerel Yönetim Geleneği, Istanbul 1985, p. 9; Mehmet Ali Gökaçtı, Dünyada ve Türkiye'de Belediyecilik, Istanbul 1996; İlhan Tekeli, Türkiye'de Belediyeciliğin Gelişimi, Ankara 1982.
(2) BOA DH MUİ, nr. 23-2/23-1
(3) Kapamacıyan was granted a favor on 2 February 1908. BOA İrade Taltifat, 1325. Za/111.
(4) Teotik Salnamesi, Istanbul 1911, p. 253; Y. Çark, Türk Devleti Hizmetinde Ermeniler, Istanbul 1953, p. 175; M. Sadi Koçaş, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Türk Ermeni İlişkileri, Istanbul 1990, p. 124.
(5) Taşnaksutyun organization was established as the alliance of Armenian revolutionary societies in 1890 in Tiflis, taking the separatist gangs in the Balkans as an example, and started its activities by soon opening branches in Istanbul, Erzurum and Van. L. Nalbantyan, The Armenian Revolutionary Movement: The Development of Armenian Political Parties Through The Nineteenth Century, Los Angeles 1963, p. 442; Firuz Kazemzadeh, Russia and Britain in Persia 1864-1914, a Study in Imperialism, London 1968, p. 527; Nejat Göyünç, Osmanlı İdaresinde Ermeniler, Istanbul 1983, p. 65; Mim Kemal Öke, Ermeni Meselesi, Istanbul 1986, p. 95; Cevdet Küçük, Ermeni Meselesinin Ortaya Çıkışı, Istanbul 1984, p. 100; M. Sadi Koçaş, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Türk Ermeni İlişkileri, Istanbul 1990, p. 153; for the political aspect of the committee, see Anahide Ter Minassian, ""1976-1923 Döneminde Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda sosyalist hareketin doğuşunda ve gelişmesinde Ermeni topluluğun rolü", Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda Sosyalizm ve Milliyetçilik, compiled by M. Tunçay, Erich Jan Zürcher, Istanbul 1995, pp. 163-238.
(6) When Khrimian Hairik of Van was assigned as Istanbul patriarch in 1873, he aimed to carry the Armenian issue to Istanbul from the country and from there to European embassies. As the plans and sabotages starting in this way rapidly spread to Anatolia, Van was mostly the subject of such incidents. See Yves Ternos, Ermeni Tabusu, Istanbul 1993, p. 58 quoted from Frederic Macler, Autour de L'Armenie, Paris 1917, p.183; also for the activities of Patriarch Khrimian, see, Esat Uras, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi, Ankara 1996; Kamuran Gürün, Ermeni Dosyası, Ankara 1988; Erdal İlter, Ermeni Kilisesi ve Terör, Ankara 1999.
(7) BOA DH SYS 109/2-1.
(8) BOA DH SYS 109/2-1.
(9) BOA DH MUİ 55-1/54 (Minutes of 5th consultation meeting on Van revolutionary society dated 18-22 March 1909. Although Anahide Ter Minassian states that this meeting was held by the Hınchak committee (Anahide Ter Minassian, "1876-1923 Döneminde Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda sosyalist hareketin doğuşunda ve gelişmesinde Ermeni topluluğun rolü", Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda Sosyalizm ve Milliyetçilik, compiled by M. Tunçay, Erich Jan Zürcher, Istanbul 1995, p. 179), this is the revolutionary meeting of Tashnak organization, since the expression "Daşnaksutyun" is referred to in the meeting minutes.)
(10) BOA DH SYS 109/2-3 (Such decisions are very frequently observed in revolutionary organizations and the process of execution was initiated by pressing a black cross on the name in the Armenian terror organizations.)
(11) Ermeni Komitelerinin Amal ve Hareketi İhtilaliyesi, Ankara 1983, p. 250; While the Armenians were carrying out their activities in Anatolia on one hand, they were murdering coreligionist Armenians in Istanbul who did not respect them. Lawyer Haçik, Gedikpaşa church archpriest Dacad Vartabet, merchant Karagözyan, candle-maker Onnik, Apik Uncuyan, police officer Markar, Clerical Board member Mampre Vartabed and Hacı Dikran Mıgırdıc Tütüncüyan are only some of the Armenians murdered by the Armenian brigands. Altan Deliorman, Türklere Karşı Ermeni Komitecileri, Istanbul 1975, p. 31.
(12) Y. Çark, age, p. 168.
(13) Faiz Demiroğlu, Van'da Ermeni Mezalimi, Ankara 1995, p. 54; Teotik Salnamesi, Istanbul 1911, p. 250; Y. Çark, age, p. 168.
(14) As a result of these attempts of Ali Pasha, the social order tried to be upset in Van started to return to good old days. However, the gangs murdered Ali Pasha, who prevented their activities, in Batum after succeeding in their struggle to draw him away. Hasan Oktay, "Valiler Eskiden de Hedefti", *Tarih ve Medeniyet, Istanbul 1999, volume 62, pp. 60-63.
(15) BOA İrade-i Dahiliyye, 2685/55, 27/Şevval/1325.
(16) BOA İrade-i Dahiliyye, 2685/55, 27/Şevval/1325.
(17) BOA İrade-i Dahiliyye, 1596/35, 16/Recep/1326.
(18) BOA İrade-i Dahiliyye, 2118/72, 22/Şaban/1326.
(19) BOA İrade Taltifat, it is seen that favors were granted to hundreds of Armenians and one of these was granted to Kapamacıyan. BOA İrade Taltifat, 1325. Za/111.
(20) BOA DH SYS 109/2-2.
(21) Anahide Ter Minassian, "Ermeni Kaynaklarına Göre Yüzyıl Başında Van", Modernleşme Sürecinde Osmanlı Kentleri, Istanbul 1999, p. 118.
(22) Anahide Ter Minassian, age, p. 118; Bağlar parish was an area of 7 km length and 3 km width with yards and gardens. The houses were surrounded by thick and high walls and secret passages were easily made between houses and gardens through irrigation canals left from Urartus, connecting the houses. This region was later used as a fortress during Van rebellion and formed the point of resistance. See M. Kalman, Batı-Ermenistan (Kürt İlişkileri) ve Jenosid, Istanbul 1994, p. 116; La Defense Heroigue de Van (Anonyme), Geneva 1916; Yves Ternos, age, p. 268. For those told by Venezuela citizen Nogales Mendez assigned in the Turkish forces during the Armenian rebellion in Van, see; Kaymakam Hakkı, Hilal Altında Dört Yıl ve Buna Ait Bir Cevap, Istanbul 1931; Mehmet Necati Kutlu, Türkiye'de Bir Gezgin Şövalye Nogales Mendez, Istanbul 2000.
(23) BOA DH SYS 109/2-2.
(24) Ergünöz Akçora, Van ve Çevresinde Ermeni İsyanları, 1986-1916, Istanbul 1994.
(25) The son of the mayor was also sympathizing the Tashnak committee. Therefore, it is very likely that he knew the persons sent by the committee, and furthermore, despite all the secret operation of the committee, the son informed against the committee by deciphering this assassination committed against his father. It was even told by persons who were at young ages at the time of the incident in interviews made years later with them that the mayor was killed by his son; however, this is only the result of interference of myths when the event was told throughout years by the people who were deeply affected by the terror of the event. The truth is as told above. "They did not let the Armenians who did not serve them live. For example, there was an Armenian mayor here. His name was, if I am not mistaken, Kafanaciyan, and they had him killed by his son as he did not support them." Ergünöz Akçora, "Yaşayanların Diliyle Van ve Çevresinde Ermeni Mezalimi", Yakın Tarihimizde Van Uluslararası Sempozyumu, Van 1990, p. 151. "They made the mayor's son drink, sent him to his father and made him kill his father", Hüseyin Çelik, Görenlerin Gözüyle Van'da Ermeni Mezalimi, Van 1996, p. 70.
(26) BOA DH SYS 109/2-2.
(27) BOA DH SYS 109/2-3.
(28) BOA DH SYS 109/2-11.
(29) Aram Manukyan perpetrated a series of acts in Van as the head of Van Revolutionary Armenian committee. He was arrested with the offense of encouraging the murder of Van governor Ali Pasha, who was murdered in Batum by Alev Başyan, but he was considered to be a political convict and released upon the declaration of 2nd Constitution just when he would be executed. During the occupation of Van by the Russians during World War I, he murdered many Van residents while leading Armenian rebels and he was later assigned as Russia's governor in Van. Ermeni Komitelerinin Amal ve Hareketi İhtilaliyesi, Ankara 1983. Aram Manukyan retreated together with the Russians after Van was regained by Turks, he was assigned in the foundation of present Armenian republic and served as the minister of the interior in this republic until his death in 1919. Yves Ternon, age, p. 274.
(30) BOA DH SYS 109/2-15, 16.
(31) Hasan Oktay, "Valiler Eskiden de Hedefti", Tarih ve Medeniyet, Istanbul 1999, volume 62, pp. 60-63.
(32) BOA DH SYS 109/2 (The release of persons who were awarded capital punishment because of their political offenses against the personality of the state after the declaration of 2nd Constitution both discouraged the police forces and encouraged the brigands.)
(33) BOA DH SYS 109/2-15. The fact that Cabir Pasha, Commander of Van Eleventh Army Corps, sent a telegram to Istanbul stating that there was no good in arresting the said persons at that time and waited for a suitable time encouraged the members of Armenian revolutionary Tashnaks developing in Van and excited the incident.
(34) BOA DH SYS 109/2-15, 16.
(35) BOA DH SYS 109/2-12-13-14.
(36) BOA DH SYS 109/2-10/1.
(37) About the presentation of information so as to direct the history as they like by a certain ideological sector, see, Tamer Akçam, Türk Ulusal Kimliği ve Ermeni Sorunu, Istanbul 1994, p. 220.
(38) Whereas there was public opinion that persons involved in such events could not be duly penalized before, it was common view that those involved in Kapamacıyan incident could not be duly penalized, either. This opinion is true for even officials assigned in Van. BOA DH SYS 109/2-11.
(39) BOA DH SYS 109/2-4.
(40) BOA DH SYS 109/2-7a.
(41) BOA DH SYS 109/2-6.
(42) BOA DH SYS 109/2-8.
(43) BOA DH SYS 109/2-7b.
(44) For the torment, torture and cruelty applied on the Muslim people in Van by Tashnak and Hınchak armenians, see, Arşiv Belgelerine Göre Kafkaslar'da ve Anadolu'da Ermeni Mezalimi, I-IV, Ankara 1995; Faiz Demiroğlu, Van'da Ermeni Mezalimi, Ankara 1995; Ergünöz Akçora, Van ve Çevresinde Ermeni İsyanları, 1896-1916, Istanbul 1994; Ergünöz Akçora, "Yaşayanların Diliyle Van ve Çevresinde Ermeni Mezalimi", Yakın Tarihimizde Van Uluslararası Sempozyumu, Van 1990; Hüseyin çelik, Görenlerin Gözüyle Van'da Ermeni Mezalimi, Van 1996; Kaymakam Hakkı, Hilal Altında Dört Yıl ve Buna Ait Bir Cevap, Istanbul 1931; for the narration of Van incidents through Armenian perspective, see, M. Kalman, Batı-Ermenistan (Kürt İlişkileri) ve Jenosid, Istanbul 1994, p. 116; La Defense Heroigue de Van (Anonyme), Geneva 1916; Yves Ternos, Ermeni Tabusu, Istanbul 1993; Tamer Akçam, Türk Ulusal Kimliği ve Ermeni Sorunu, Istanbul 1994.

* (Dr. Hasan Oktay)
*- Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Education, Department of History, VAN


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