06 January 2007

1346) Diaspora Armenians Who Are Friends Of Turks

Assoc. Prof Ayten SEZER ARIĞ
Hacettepe University The Institute of Atatürk’s Principles and Revolution History / Ankara


The Ottoman Empire was a state composed of people with different ethnic origins and religions. Previously, these divisions of the State were organized according to religion and sect as millet. This system was transformed into a system that depended on ethnic origin as a result of the influence of the movements of nationality, equality and liberty after the 1789 . .

French Revolution. Christian minorities who preserved their language, religion, and culture in the millet system were firstly affected by these movements. As a result of the rebellions in the Balkans, with the support of Western countries, the Ottoman State started to lose its territory1. The Ottoman Armenians, who were loyal to the State and friends with Turks at the end of the 19th century, also participated in this separatist movement. Rival countries like Britain and Russia incited the Ottoman Armenians after the 1877-78 Ottoman-Russian war in order to claim Ottoman territory. After the war, the Ottoman Empire signed the Ayestefanos Agreement with the Russians in 1878 and then the Berlin

1 1821’de Mora Yarımadasında başlayan Rum isyanı sonucu 1829’da Yunanistan bağımsızlığını kazanmıştır. Bu isyan diğer unsurlara da yayılmıştır.

Treaty with the intervention of Britain. According to these agreements, Ayestefenos (art. 16) and Berlin (art. 61), the Ottomans agreed to enact reforms for Armenians in their territory. As a result, the Armenian issue became an international issue 2. Ottoman Armenians, especially those who had gone abroad for education and were influenced by missionary activities, commenced actions against the Ottomans in order to gain territory. For this purpose, Armenians formed revolutionary organizations, such as Hınchak and Tashnak, and started to rebel in different Ottoman cities like Van, Erzurum, Adana, and Maraş.

Some Armenians who joined the enemy army and killed innocent people in the latter part of the military front during The World War I were obliged to migrate in 1915. Diaspora Armenians who emigrated and settled in various part of the world and who have been struggling with Turkey since 1915, defined the events that occurred in 1915 as “genocide”. They declare the day of April of 24th as a day of genocide through political organizations, associations, newspapers, and radio and television broadcasts. Every year on April 24th they publicize their accusations against Turkey and reiterate their demand for the return of some cities as well as compensation for their losses.

These reactions have been transformed into acts of terrorism since the 1970s to attract the attention of Western countries. In 1973, an Armenian, Mıgdıç Yanıkyan, age 77, killed the consul general of Los Angeles, Mehmed Baydar and his vice-consul Bahadır Demir. After this first homicide in 1973, there were 50 more homicides between then and 1980.3.

2 Cevdet Küçük, Osmanlı Diplomasisinde Ermeni Meselesinin Ortaya Çıkışı, 1878-1897, İstanbul 1984.
3 Nejat Göyünç, Türkler ve Ermeniler, Yayına Hazırlayan:Kemal Çiçek, Yeni Türkiye yayını, Ankara 2005, s.138; Bilal Şimşir, Şehit Diplomatlarımız, 2 Kitap, Ankara 2000; Ermeni meselesi ile ilgili kaynakça için şu eserlere bakılabilir. Esat Uras, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi, 2.baskı, İstanbul 1987. Türkkaya, Ataöv, Ermeni Sorunu:Bibliyografya, Ankara 1981; Recep Karakaya, Kaynakçalı Ermeni Meselesi Kronolojisi (1878-1923), İstanbul 2001; Erdal İlter, Türk Ermeni İlişkileri Bibliyografyası, Bibliyography of Turco-Armenian Relations, 3.baskı, Ankara 2004.

In the world, there are three densely populated Armenian regions. Armenians live in Soviet Armenia, in Turkey as the citizens of the Republic of Turkey, and in America, France, and Canada as Diaspora Armenians. In Göka’s opinion the supporters of the “genocide” claim are primarily Diaspora Armenians. One of the major factors to consider in this case is the Armenian crisis of identity. It has been suggested that Diaspora Armenians often unify around the genocide claim because it helps them to form a sort of national identity 4. However, it must be noted that there are exceptions to this generalization, some Diaspora Armenians do not align themselves with the larger diaspora population.

In this study, it is tried to evaluate the positive approchments of some Armenians and Armenian groups living outside Turkey in other words diaspora Armenians according to Archives of Security General Directorate.


Turks and Armenians have lived together, influenced and trusted each other in the past. There are so many examples of those Turkish-Armenian friendships in the past. As one of the typical friendship examples within Ottoman Empire, an old Armenian Minister Hallacyan’s words are worth to be taken into consideration: “When a Turk left his house for a long time while on pilgrimage, he used to leave his key with his Armenian neigbour. So did the Armenian for Jerusalem. I know well my grandfather read the Bible in your alphabet. His greatest swear words were: ‘The Qur’an damn me!’ Both sides used to attend the others’ funerals. As Sultan Mahmud said, the Armenians were the loyal people (millet-i sadıka)”5. Similar views, such as the friendship between Turks and Armenians being so strong that they even entrusted each other with their houses and families, were recorded in the late Ottoman memories of Kazım Karabekir and Cemal Pasha 6. Some Armenians pointed out that

4 Erol Göka, Topluluklar ve Zihniyetleri, Ankara 2004, s.232, 239.
5 Kazım Karabekir, 1917-20 Arasında Erzincan’dan Erivan’a Ermeni Mezalimi, Hazırlayan: Ömer Hakan Özalp, Emre yayınları, İstanbul 2000, Kitabın arka kapağından alınmıştır.
6 Kazım Karabekir, Ermeni Dosyası, İstanbul 1994, s.12-13; Cemal Paşa, Hatıralar, İstanbul 1977, s.404.

the welfare of the Armenians in both the Ottoman State and the Turkish Republic, as well as the neccessity of being in harmony with Turkey, was important. They also disapproved of the activities by Hınchak, Tashnak, and Ramgavar Parties and felt more loyalty to Turks and Turkey.

Some Armenians who lived in Syria which was under French occupation, during The World War II had organized against some Armenian terrorist organizations. An intelligence report from Syria7 indicates that the Liberated Armenians’ Party was formed in this region by a few Armenians. Some of the thoughts of this party members on Turkey and Armenian groups are also stated in the report. The Liberated Armenians thought that Tashnak, Hınchak, and the Ramgavar groups were not successful.

Tashnaks who claimed that they would found Greater Armenia by using tactics of murder, assasination, threat and deceit could not succeed; neither could Erivan nor Kilikya, not even the Hoybun operation despite their alliance with the Kurds. Their men, prepared to take a stand in Hatay, did not get any support from the French or from the Turks. Therefore they were forced to emigrate. In 1936, the plan of the Tashnaks, who allied with the patriot Arabs and ignored the French, was not carried out. The Hınchaks were not successful either. The Armenians, as international refugees chasing big dreams, could not take hold anywhere. It is also stated in the report that the Liberated Armenians had asserted that Greater Armenia could not be founded by these means. In their opinion, today’s Turkey having limited, clear and defined territory was the reason. It had no piece of territory it would concede to others. It had become young again and made powerful by an enormous revolution. Forming an Armenia from the lands of Turkey was nonsense. Even the victors of The World War I were not able to disintegrate Turkey. Thus, for them (Liberated Armenians), it is was a day dream. They believed it was necessary to come to an understanding with the Turks, recognize the regime of the Turkish Republic and be free Armenian-Turks. They also argued that by returning back to Turkey, they would enjoy all the same rights

7 Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi (Bundan böyle EGM Arşivi olarak yazılacaktır), Dosya No:12531-2, 29.8.1940 tarih ve 2023 numaralı Suriye’den alınan istihbarat raporu.

as Turks and be saved from “roughing it” in foreign countries. Dentist Artin Çamcıyan and one of the leaders of Hınchak said:

We are not starved or unemployed; unlikely we are not complaining about or displeased with the French, but were disliked and harmed by the Arabs. Our goal is to serve for the prospective felicity of our nation. And this felicity depends on our nation’s living together with the Turks. Our language, sentiment, objective, and homeland (country) should be the same with theirs. 20 years of disappointment is enough, what have been our benefits by being againist the Turks? It is not possible for us to coalesce with any nations but the Turks. We even say that either the origin of Turks is Armenian or Armenian’s is Turkish... We believe that Turkey will comprehend us soon. According to documentary narratives, if Atatürk had survived, he would have opened Turkey’s doors to the Armenians. In this respect, our request to İsmet İnönü is to give the same right to us.

In the report mentioned above, it is stated that the the Liberated Armenian Party was not legitimately recognized or formed. It is believed to have had around 200 members in Aleppo, most of who were from Gaziantep, Kilis and Maraş. Members of the party: Dentist Artin Çamcıyan, Merchant Ropen Yağsızyan, Minas Aslanyan, and Yakup Şitilyan were from Antep; Corc Kuyumcuyan and Minas Arakyan were from Maraş; Serkis Berberyan, Kamil Seferyan, and Corc Seferyan were from Kilis. Their activities were in two districts of Aleppo. The activity in Davudiye, one of the new Armenian towns in the west of Aleppo, was more intense. Hınchak and Tashnak Armenians used to live in Davudiye. The Liberal Party was formed in this town due to the fact that Hınchak and Tashnak Armenians had not got along well.

In the article “Turks and Armenians,” published in the newspaper Haber on April 4, 1965 and written by Vala Nureddin,8 a person called Matmazel Bagdasaryan said: “How about the atrocities that my uncles did to Turkish peasants? It was a civil war during The World War I. Prussia was the provocator of imperialism and those occurences. This events gave birth to the disaster of the Turks and some pure Armenians.”

8 Bu makale, 5 Nisan 1965’te Ermenice çıkan Marmara’da aynen yayınlanmıştır.

The words of Yervant Aslanyan could be an another example of Armenians’ point of view for Turkish people. In an article published in the newspaper Arşav on April 9, 1965, it was claimed that the Armenians living in Lebanon and other foreign countries were planning demonstrations with the support of Archbishop Makarios and Spyros Kyprianou the Greeks leaders againist Turkey for the reason of 50th Commemorative Ceremony remembering the events of 1915. Yervant Aslanyan commented concerning this claim that Makarios and Kipriyanu have no authority to represent Armenians.

Their grandfathers attempted to destroy the Armenian race under the cover of Christianity in the past. Today, they again attempt to destroy our Turkish brothers in Cyprus. Throughout history Turkish and Armenian citizens have lived together trying to develop their homeland in brotherhood.9

It is well known that Armenians working againist Turkey were allying with Greek Cypriots, or in other words, Greek Cypriots were using the Armenian issue againist the Turks. This is illustrated in a letter dated May 9 1968 sent to the Foreign Ministry by the Turkish Republic Embassy in Lefkoşe (Nicosia) stating that some Armenians living in Cyprus could not associate with Turks under pressure from the Greek Cypriots. In the letter, it draws attention to the Armenian activities against the Turks in two ways:

1. The first one is connected with international Armenian activities. It is stated that as in other countries, though smaller in number, there are supporters of the Armenian matter in Cyprus. It is also stated that the leaders of the Armenian society, having left-wing tendencies and have in the past been involved in some Soviet activities in that region as related in the memories of Plilby of the English Intelligence Agency.

2. The Armenians devoted their future to Greek Cypriots. However, historically it is well-known that Armenians didn’t like the Greek Cypriots but felt closer to the Turks. Before the events of 1915, the bulk of Armenians lived in Turkish provinces and their commercial contacts were with

9 EGM Arşivi, Dosya No:12531-2/11, 16 Nisan 1965 tarih ve 234/398 sayılı MAH’ın İçişleri Bakanlığına yazısı.

Turks in those provinces. After 1915, they changed their sides in favor of Greek Cypriots. “If we stayed, Greek Cypriots would treat us exactly as they did the Turks” say Armenians. In spite of this, they continued, as in the past, with their anti-Turkey activities, which the Greek Cypriots demanded of them. The Armenian leader, in an interview, said:

You cannot imagine the pressure of Greek Cypriots on us. If we do not obey them, we will materially suffer. If Greek Cypriots ask for 10, we only fulfill 2. We have no strength to resist. Although we have kinship with the Turks, as it is, the Greek Cypriots are dominant on the island, and in our future we have limited possibilities to resist.

Under those circumstances, the Armenians obeyed the demands of Greek Cypriots and kept up activities against Turkey, whether they liked it or not, due to the material benefits. It is true though that the Armenians did not always think that their siding with the Greek Cypriots was to their benefit. They felt more akin to Turks with regards to culture and tradition, and they found it more profitable to work in commerce in Turkish provinces than the equally experienced Greek provinces.

As a result, under the given conditions, Armenians in Cyprus had no chance but to obey the Greeks’ demands for opposition to Turkey. Some Armenians who were interviewed saw a different future. They stated that Turkish society (in Cyprus) was backed by Turkey and believed that in the future the circumstances would change in favor of Turks having a say on the island. They encouraged the Armenians to adjust their attitudes and acknowledge the temporary conditions and the chance to ally with the Turks in the future.

In the media, there was news reporting that there were Armenians living abroad with positive opinions about Turkey facing threats by proterror Armenians. One of those people, a famous jeweller named Vahe Tosunyan, who did not oppose the Turks, was sent a nameless letter saying: “You are going to die like a dog”10.

Jan Vahe Tosunyan born in 1907 in Istanbul was a diamond shaper and got a medal of honor for his work on Turkish-Armenian friendship.

10 “Paris’te Türk Dostu Ermeniler Ölümle Tehdit Ediliyor”, Günaydın, İlave, 20.6.1974.

He went to Paris in 1925 for a professional education and then to Africa to look for diamonds. His thoughts on Turkey:

... I am the property of Turkey. I was born there. Can you imagine not loving your homeland? However, I have become Christian by the pastor’s praying and you have been Muslim by the imam’s. Am I guilty? Is it an obligation to be a member of the same religion?

Doesn’t this country belong to all of us? Religion and people are different than each other. Religion and people should not be confused with each other. I tried to help every Turk who came to France.

He added that he was threatened by some Armenians because of his description of himself and some of the Armenians as Turks due to the fact that their names were Turkish originated.11

Egikiyan, head of the Iranian Kaunomi Newspaper, thanked the undersecretary of the Turkish Embassy in Tehran in an interview on behalf of Turkish-Armenians in Tehran for Turkey’s good will towards Armenians and continued:

I am from Sivas. I left Turkey for education when I was 19 years old. I came back during the constitutional monarchy. Now we have no homeland. The fault is obvious. Armenians were the most loyal subjects (tebaa) to Turks in the Ottoman State. Unfortunately we were stupidly and viciously made an instrument for the games of colonial countries. So we faced these events. Most Armenians outside of Turkey now truly understand this case. The rest should see the declaration of Russia about Kars and Ardahan to see the truth. Mr. Allen, the American Ambassador of Tehran, invited me to the embassy and asked me this question before his travel to Ankara: Would Armenians immigrate to this country if an Armenian autonomy was estabilished under Turkey’s patronage? Or won’t they come because of fear of the Turks? I replied that there should not be any doubt about Turkey and we are not afraid of Turks so Iranian Armenians would voluntarily immigrate to this supposed country. There are 3 million Armenians in Russia but only 800 thousand left in the so called autonomous Armenia. We have understood Turkey’s value while we were away from it. Turks have shown their maturity

11 Mine G.Kırıkkanat, “Din İle Milleti Karıştırmayın”, Tosunyan ile söyleşi, Milliyet, 23 Şubat 1998.

by helping Greeks who aimed to destroy Turks, even after wining the war againist them. On the other hand, there are some vile Armenians who work against the Turks. But it are surely not above 15 %. Our main enemy is Russia. They drove us to the front lines during the ‘93 War and got us killed by promising an autonomous Armenia and then they took over with their cruel despotism. Russians complained about me to Tehran because of my explanations of these truths. I barely saved my life. But I am not giving up writing the truth and warning my nation.12

There was a discussion on Turkish-Armenian relationships in Paris by the Armenian Kilikya Society. A quote dated December 5 1948 was taken during discussions from the Arevmudk newspaper which is a publication of the Kilikya Society. It stated that:

We cannot interfere with Armenia’s affairs as Armenians who are outside of the country. Because they depend on Russia... Armenians in Turkey are nearly 100 thousand. Half of them are in İstanbul and the rest are in Anatolia. We have to take care of them. We cannot interfere with Turkey’s internal affairs. We should give up swearing Turkey as the outsider to Armenians. Countries in which we live are in harmony with Turkey because of their own interests.13

It shows that both countries have to be friends on behalf of their own interests and should not pay any attention to colonist countries. Some Armenians in Russia tried to run away to Syria during The World War II. because of starvation, extreme poverty, and pressure from native Armenians. According to information from Kars, an exhausted Armenian convoy took shelter in a border town, refusing to go back saying that they would prefer to die rather than return to Russia. But Turkish officials sent them back to Russia, explaining the rules and laws related to emigration14.

12 EGM.Arşivi, Dosya No: 12531-2/9, Tahran Büyükelçiliği Müsteşarı Firuzan Selçuk’un Tahran Büyükelçisi’ne 05.03.1948 tarihli mektubu.
13 EGM Arşivi, Dosya No:12531-2, 26.1.1949 tarih ve 25040 sayılı MAH’ın İçişleri Bakanlığı’na yazısı.
14 “Kendi Düşen Ağlamaz! Rusya’dan Kaçan Ermeniler”, Son Saat, 18 Ocak 1947.

Armenians who oppose Turkey have built many genocide memorials in the countries where they live. Armenians claimed a right to compensation from Turkey while opening a revenge memorial in Beirut. Leaders of the Tashnak, which organizes 5 million Armenians throughout the world, stated that: “Armenians who live in Turkey are living in wealth and there is no pressure (except language pressure) upon them. On the other hand, the other Armenians will keep on struggling without their help”15.

There are from 60 to 80 thousands Armenians in Aleppo according to Nureddin Karakoylu, who is the Aleppo head council of Turkey. These numbers used to be actually higher than current but many of the Armenians had immigrated to Russian Armenia after The World War II. The Tashnaks’ perception of the Turkish Revolution is different and more positive than that of Ittihad and Terakki Party which was the leading party of the Ottoman Government during the last 10 years of the state. In this respect, Tashnaks considered Ataturk as “the savior of slave people” and respect him. They speak Turkish, eat Turkish food, and listen to Turkish music. The Armenians have been champions of Turkish culture in Aleppo. While Turkish colonies are generally apt to speak Arabic, the Armenians in Aleppo kept the Turkish language strong. They were familiar with Turkish traditions, and did not get along well with their Arab neighbors. They listened to radio from Istanbul, Ankara and Çukurova. These impressions offered in the 1960s are much the same as those in the 2000s.

A journalist states after interviewing some Armenians who immigrated to Lebanon from Anatolia in 1915 do not hate Turkey. Contrary to most of the Diaspora, they think that the past should be left to the historians. These Armenians have transferred Anatolian culture and Turkish language to new generations in Beirut16. One of those interviewed was 105-year-old Yeghisapet Kesabyan, who was one of the last eyewitnesses

15 “Türk Ermenilerin Durumlarının Gayet İyi Olduğunu Bildirmesine Rağmen Taşnak Ermenileri Tahrike Uğraşıyor”, M.Birand Beyrut’tan yazmış. Milliyet, 27.4.1970
16 Haşim Söylemez, “Tehcir Sırasında Saldırılara Karşı Bizi Türk Askerleri Korudu”, Zaman, 04.05.2005.

of the deportation (tehcir). He was only 15 years old when he departed from Hatay to Lebanon through Syria in 1915. After making clear that they suffered much while journeying, he said that “We walked for days.

Troops were with us. They were protecting us from external attacks; but they were sometimes beating us when we could not walk. It was a tough journey.” Kesabyan and his relatives had come from the Anjar Region in the Bekaa valley. He returned to Hatay Samandag after a year and married there. He then went back to Lebanon. He taught Turkish to his great-grandson. Kesabyan said that he missed Turkey very much and requested his daughter and grandchildren to take him to Hatay for a trip. The journalist stated that some quarters’ names in Borj Hammoud in the south part of Beirut were Maras, Antep, and Adana, names of cities in Turkey. “New Maras” wasn’t any different than Kahramanmaras’ quarters with its narrow streets, spice shops, and children in the streets. Ornaments, blue beads with Turkish writing “Maşallah” and “Allah Korusun”, dried mulberries and grape molasses were also sold in the streets. He reported that Turkish TV channels were watched, food and clothes from Turkey were sold, and Armenian tradesmen in the streets were in commercial contact with Turkey.

Mano Lenbelian, seller of dried food and ornaments from Turkey, was also interviewed. He said that he taught the Turkish language, which he had learnt from his grandfather, to his children. He also said that he isn’t interested in “genocide” and “deportation” and stated: “I have no problem with Turkey. Peace and dialogue should be put into practice. These mistakes should be left in the past and also in the hands of historians. The situation hurts people. I get along well with Turks. We have no problem. They should not create any problems...” Another of the interviewed, Levon Restokyan, an Armenian son from New Maras in Beirut, had immigrated to Lebanon in 1915. He cooked lahmacun as good as an Urfaer (a resident of Urfa) and spoke clear Turkish. Restokyan stated that he would not take money from Turks who came from outside and said that “money is not important when Turkish friendship is the subject”.

He stayed in contact with Turkey and taught his children Turkish.

In short, these examples illustrate that there are some Armenians who have good feelings about Turkey and Turkish and prefer to leave the past to the historians.

Peace and friendship between Turks and Armenians, after living together harmoniously for many years, have deteriorated for various reasons in last part of the 19th century. There was interference from Western countries and rebellions in different places supported by revolutionary organizations rooted abroad. Suppression of these rebellions by the Ottoman State was seen as a massacre and friendship between the two worsened. Armenians who had held high posts in the goverment and been known as loyal subjects to the state, cooperated with ill-intentioned Western countries by planning the establishment of a new State and betraying the Ottomans during The World War I. The Ottoman response to this treachery and the resulting 1915 deportation would come to be labeled as “genocide” by many Armenians. However, there are also many Armenians, who immigrated to various places around the world, who wish to keep a mutual friendship and good relationships with Turkey via cultural exchange, acknowledgement of shared language and history as well as the practice of common values. This hopeful attitude seems quite realistic if there is a unified effort to prevent deception by colonialists.

ATAöV, Türkkaya, Ermeni Sorunu:Bibliyografya, Ankara 1981.
BİRAND, M “Türk Ermenilerin Durumlarının Gayet İyi Olduğunu Bildirmesine Rağmen
CEMAL Paşa, Hatıralar, İstanbul 1977.
EGM Arşivi, 12531 Sayılı Ermeni Faaliyetleri ile ilgili dosyalar.
GöKA, Erol, Topluluklar ve Zihniyetleri, Ankara 2004.
GöYÜNÇ Nejat, Türkler ve Ermeniler, Yayına Hazırlayan:Kemal Çiçek, Yeni Türkiye yayını, Ankara 2005.
İLTER, Erdal, Türk Ermeni İlişkileri Bibliyografyası, Bibliyography of Turco-Armenian Relations, 3.baskı Ankara 2004.
KARABEKİR, Kazım, 1917-20 Arasında Erzincan’dan Erivan’a Ermeni Mezalimi, Hazırlayan: ömer Hakan özalp, Emre Yayınları, İstanbul 2000, Kitabın arka kapağından alınmıştır.
KARABEKİR, Kazım, Ermeni Dosyası, İstanbul 1994.
KARAKAYA, Recep, Kaynakçalı Ermeni Meselesi Kronolojisi (1878-1923), İstanbul 2001.
“KENDİ DÜŞEN AĞLAMAZ! Rusya’dan Kaçan Ermeniler”, Son Saat, 18 Ocak 1947.
KIRIKKANAT, Mine G. “Din İle Milleti Karıştırmayın”, Tosunyan ile Söyleşi, Milliyet, 23 Şubat 1998.
KÜÇÜK, Cevdet, Osmanlı Diplomasisinde Ermeni Meselesinin Ortaya Çıkışı, 1878-1897, İstanbul 1984.
VALA Nurettin, “Türkler ve Ermeniler”, Haber Gazetesi, 4.4.1965.
SöYLEMEZ Haşim, “Tehcir Sırasında Saldırılara Karşı Bizi Türk Askerleri Korudu”, Zaman, 04.05.2005.
ŞİMŞİR, Bilal, Şehit Diplomatlarımız, 2 Kitap, Ankara 2000.
URAS, Esat, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi, 2.baskı, İstanbul 1987.

Source: © Erciyes University 2006


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