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04 February 2007
The bigoted American and Western press naturally depicted "The Armenian Question" almost entirely from the perspective of Armenian propaganda. But even with some of these articles, the inconsistencies of the massacre tales slipped through; sometimes the newspapers even released accounts of the Armenians' belligerence (frequently couched in terms such as "self-defense," but in reality exposing the lie that there was no Armenian rebellion).
This page will feature some of these accounts, as well as others of interest, taking place during the late 1800s.
Many thanks to Gokalp.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1) War Considered Imminent
2) Armenian Troubles
3) Hissed by the Audience
4) Armenian Uprising
5) Most Diabolical
6) Americans in Armenia
7) Is the Sultan Obstinate?
8) Outrages in Armenia
9) Armenians in Revolt
10) The Armenian Tangle
11) It was Despair
12) Wily Turks Claim Armenians are Responsible for Disorders
13) Snubs Great Britain
14) Ready to Submit
15) Terrell Confirms the Massacres
16) 600 Armenians Arrested
17) Armenians To Be Executed
18) Villages Burned
19) Armenian Outrages
20) Constantinople Riots
21) Armenian Rioters in Constantinople Shed Much Blood
22) To Try Turkish Rioters
23) Turkish Banks Reopened
24) French Ambassador Warns Sultan / Armenian Immigration
25) Threats of the Armenians
26) Armenian Banker May Lose Head / Alliance vs. Turkey
27) Armenian Revolutionists
28) Crafty Greece Only Waiting for the Right Moment
29) Germans Aiding Turks
30) Armed Movement Against the Sultan
31) Armenian Revolutionists Defend Recent Bomb-Throwing
32) Sentenced to Death
33) The Turk No Religious Persecutor
War Considered Imminent
Daily Kennebee Journal?, April , 1878
War Considered Imminent
Ignatieff’s View of His Mission to Vienna
Gortachakoff Preparing a Reply to England
A CONGRESS NOT PROBABLE.
An Army Preparing to March Against British India.
The Russian Defiance Toward England.
THE STRENGTH OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY.
ST. PETERSBURG, April .In an interview with Gen Ignatieff yesterday, he stated he was satisfied with the result of his mission to Vienna, inasmuch as it enables Russia to see more clearly what is necessary to be done.
Gortachakoff is engaged preparing a diplomatic note in reply to Salisbury s circular, which will have a two fold object. It will satisfy Andrassy and will conclude an ultimatum for England. This reply is expected from hour to hour, and much curiosity is manifested to ascertain its actual contents. It is expected it will precipitate a genuine crisis, and force England to declare distinctly what she wants.
Gen. Ignatieff is less hopeful than ever of Congress meeting, and even if it should meet it will not settle anything satisfactorily. Considering everything. Ignatieff thinks Congress would only lead to war.
There are conflicting interests at stake in this Eastern question, which can only be settled by war, and no Congress could reconcile them.
Gortachakoff appeared to have made up his mind for war, and in fact to prefer it as a means of arriving at a definite solution of the difference. He is therefore shaping his diplomacy with a view to that end, and events will be influenced in such way as to precipitate a struggle, under circumstances most favorable to Russia. Everything here points to war, and the public mind is fully prepared for it.
Tchernaieff has been appointed to the command of a special corps of eclaireurs destined to penetrate rapidly to the heart of Central Asia, in countries where the Russian armies have already been on several expeditions. This special corps will be composed of Cossacks und horse artillery, and be augmented on the march by such recruits as the general commander may see fit to take.
Armenian volunteers for such work as the column would have to undertake, are to be found among the tribes of Central Asia, and their general will have no difficulty in enlisting their services.
General Tchernaieff is an old campaigner in Central Asia, and will act with the greatest celerity of movement. He will adopt the tactics followed by Gourko after the passage of the Danube. As he is familiar with the ground and has great experience in dealing with the Asiatics, it is considered here that no better selection could have been made. It is not known what the strength of his command will be, but it is asserted the greatest care has been taken in selecting men and subordinate chiefs.
There is now no doubt that the objective point of his expedition is British India.
So certain do the authorities at St. Petersburg feel of a war with England, that preparations have been thus early begun, so that no time may be lost after hostilities commence.
LONDON, April 5. A St. Petersburg despatch says the Journal De St. Petersburg, official organ of the government, has adopted a defiant and war- like tone in its article to-day respecting Salisbury's circular.
Officials of the English admiralty have gone to Belfast to superintend the equipment of numerous private steamers, to be used as cruisers in case of war.
The military situation ia beginning to attract attention. The Servian occupation of Bulgaria as far as Plevna, is believed to be intended to cover the Russian line of communication and relieve the Russian troops, who will be concentrated south of the Balkans.
The Russian troops lately at Sofia and north of Adrianople, are moving toward tbe south-east, perhaps to strengthen the army of Grand Duke Nicholas, or it may be the intention to abandon the lines of land communications and rely almost exclusively for the conveyance of reserves and supplies on the marine transports over the Black Sea, in consequence of the attacks of the Roumanians.
From the latter point of view it is very natural to infer the Russians will do everything possible to keep the British fleet out of the Black Sea, though it is not believed here that even occupation of the northern shore of the Bosphorus by tbe Russians would prevent Admiral Hornby from forcing a passage.
On the peninsuIa of Gallipoli, or the neighboring mainland, in front of the position of Bulair, are probably about 50,000 Russians, while at Salonica and on the lines of communication there may be scattered some 50,000 more.
The war office at St. Petersburg is stated to be dissatisfied with the condition of the muster rolls, and is making strenuous exertions to hurry up the reserves. All regiments stationed in the capital were three days ago inspected by the Emperor, probably previous to their departure to the front. Some Russian divisions are now on the road to Buyukdere, and 30,000 troops are collected within easy striking distance. Between these and Buyukdere are some Turkish brigades, which could probably hold the place till assistance arrived, if energetically employed and loyally commanded, in co operation with the [British], but they must in time be overwhelmed, for the Russians, even allowing for all deductions, should still muster at least 75,000 combatants in front of Constantinople.
Reno Evening Gazette, August 12, 1890; the same article was in The Galveston Daily News, August 13, 1890, entitled ARMENIAN TROUBLES. The ending line was: "The governor of Erzeroum has ordered the expulsion of fifty Armenians suspected of having promoted the recent disturbances."
TROUBLE IN TURKEY IN ASIA
The Turks Alarmed.
(By Cable and Associated Press)
CONSTANTINOPLE, Aug. 12.— Further conflicts have occurred between the Turks and Armenians in Alashgerd district. It is reported that a band of young Russo-Armenian volunteers, mounted and well armed, have appeared at Erzeroum and are recruiting adherents fast. The report caused a panic among the Turkish authorities.
Hissed by the Audience
Sandusky Register, Feb. 22, 1895
Hissed by the Audience.
CHICAGO, Feb. 21.— Gen. Lew Wallace was openly hissed several times in Central music hall tonight during his lecture on "Turkey and the Turks." A large number of Armenians were in the audience, expecting Gen. Wallace would allude to the Armenian atrocities. He did so. Gen. Wallace praised the personal peculiarities of the Turks as a people, and asked the people of America to suspend judgment in the stories of the massacre by the Turks and Kurds until the report of the international commission is received. He also praised the Armenians as brave and peaceful people. Later in the evening he spoke several times in praise of the Turks and every time hisses came from the audience.
Holdwater: Did you also feel the need to double-check the date, to see whether the year was not 1995? Incredible.
The Delphos Daily Herald, May 30, 1895
Turkey Endeavoring to Prevent It if Possible.
THE REVOLUTIONISTS CUT OFF.
Communication Stopped Between the Leaders in Persia and Their Agents in Armenia — Caravans Seized by Turkish Officials. The lives of the Christian People Are in Greater Peril Now Than Ever.
DJULFA, Russia, May 80.— Copyrighted, 1895,by the Associated Press.—The special correspondent of the Associated Press who is investigating the situation in Armenia has furnished the following correspondence:
"The Turkish government is taking prompt measures to prevent the uprising of the Armenian revolutionists next month. All roads leading from Persia to Van have been closed by order of the Turkish government, the intention being to shut off communication between the revolutionary leaders in Persia and their agents in Armenia. The last caravan that tried to get through to Van was seized by Turkish officials.
The seizure of the caravan to Van has caused no end of consternation to the Armenian revolutionists in Persia, as this action seriously interferes with some of their important arrangements. However, they assure me that other roads through tho mountains will be found and that the work will go steadily forward.
"Within the past week the Turkish consul at Sautch-Balak, in Persia, tried to cross over into Turkey with an armed escort of 12 men, but he was turned back by the Kurds, who held possession of all the roads. At the same time the Turkish officials in the towns near the border were chased out of the country by the Kurds. They took refuge in Ravenduz, where they are now. The Kurds have warned them not to return. The Armenians hope that the Kurds and Turks will get into a fight and exterminate each other.
"A reasonable explanation for this activity of the Kurds may be found in a letter from Sheik Abdel-Kadr, recently written to his brother in the mountains of Kuristan.[sic] Abdel Kadr announces that the sultan had appointed him to command the Hamidieh regiment of a regular Kurdish cavalry, together with a force of regular Turkish troops, and that there was to be a great war, during which he and his troops were to capture the Russian city of Kars.
"Many well informed persons in western Persia believe that Asia Minor is on the verge of a great religious war which the Sultan of Turkey is fostering in order to retain his prestige among the Mohammedans, many of whom have been for some time grumbling at him for his lukewarmness in the cause of their religion, and threatening to deprive him ot his caliphate.
"As eight months have passed since the Sassoun and Moosh massacres and nothing has been done in consequence by the Turkish government, the moslems [sic] of Persia are beginning to believe that nothing will be done, and that Europe's protests count for nothing. As a result the Persians are beginning to talk... of having a massacre of Christians on their account. I have been frankly told in Persia that if nothing else is done to punish the Turks for the Sassoun affair, the zealous moslems [sic] of Persia will seek to win the favor of their god by scourging and driving out the Christians. Were it not for the strong hand of the Persian government and the good will and protection of the shah, the Christian population would be murdered within a week.
"My information is to the effect that Bitlis is on the brink of a massacre and that trouble may be looked for at any moment. This news, from a different source, is of the same character as the news which I received last week announcing that the Christians at Van were within an inch of a massacre.
"The situation in Armenia has grown no better for the presence of the commission of inquiry; as a matter of fact, it has grown worse, and the Christian population in eastern Turkey is at the present moment in greater peril than it was the week before the Sassoun massacre. Not only that, but the peril to Christian people has spread eastward into Persia. Near Onronmia, a few days ago, the village of Baloolan was attacked by 400 Kurds, and several men were killed.
"The village of Balooulan is now deserted by all its inhabitants except a few armed men, who are guarding the empty houses. Another attack is looked for daily, as the Kurds have sent word that they mean to remove Baloolan from the face of nature in revenge for the death of one of their men. There is no doubt whatever that they will carry out their threat."'
Holdwater: The uncommon article demonstrating the Kurds were at odds with the Turks, instead of acting as a tag team and making life hell on earth for Armenians.
Newark Daily Advocate, July 15, 1895
The Massacre of the Armenians at Sassoun by Kurds
WHAT THE ARMENIANS NOW WANT
Is Reform Which Has as Its Fundamental Principle the Giving to European Powers Absolute Control of That Unfortunate Country — Five Hundred Young Armenians Swear to Sacrifice Themselves to Attract the Attention of England to the Desperateness of the Situation, Which Was Never In a More Critical Condition.
From the Special Correspondent of the Associated Press.
VAN, Armenia, May 24.—The Sassonn massacre, it would appear, was one of the most carefully planned outrages in history. The evidence of this is circumstantial only, but it is alleged to be none the less conclusive.
During the months of June, July and August preceding the Sassoun massacre the Kurdish chiefs in the country surrounding the Sassoun region, and particularly the districts in the southward and southwestward, were apparently unusually busy in gathering up the scattered warriors of their tribes for an invasion of the Sassoun region.
In July and August enormous quantities of petroleum were shipped from Erzeroum to Moush. This petroleum came originally from Russia to Erzeroum, and so great was the quantity brought over the mountain roads that it was a subject of remark to very many persons. For a time it looked as though nothing went over the roads between Erzeroum and Moush but petroleum. It is a fact that Moush does not use a great quantity of petroleum herself, nor do her merchants sell much of it to the surrounding country. In the villages candles of sheep fat oil are used for lights.
No longer a Mystery.
The mystery was a mystery no longer after the Sassoun massacre, for that petroleum was used to burn the houses of the Sassoun villages and to cremate the bodies of the wretched villagers who fell victims to the awful butchery. ln burning the houses the petroleum was thrown upon the woodwork in generous quantities and set on fire, with the result that everything that could burn went up in smoke. In cremating the dead the bodies were, in many cases, placed between layers of wood and built up into a sort of funeral pile. The entire mass was then saturated with petroleum and set on fire. It is charged that living men were cremated in the same way. But this was a merciful way of putting the unfortunate creatures death in comparison with the torturing inflicted upon many others.
The Massing of Troops
near the Sassoun region, and particularly at Moush, was carried on for some time before the beginning of the massacre in order that everything might be in readiness, according to the program said to have been carefully made out at Constantinople. Several weeks after the Sassoun massacre it is claimed orders were sent from the palace at Constantinople for a massacre of the inhabitants of Modikan, a district lying to the south and southeast of Sassoun, but when it was seen that an investigation of the massacre at Sassoun was inevitable the order, it is said, was recalled and Modikan was not molested except in the ordinary course of the persecution general in all parts of Armenia.
Willing to Be Sacrificed.
In the city of Van, at this moment, there are 500 young men sworn to give themselves as a sacrifice to Turkish butchery in the hope that the attention of England may be more strongly called to the desperate situation of their people.
The Armenians can not accept any scheme of reform which does not have for its fundamental principles the absolute control of the European powers. Unless Europe controls the reforms there will be a massacre of 20,000 Christians in the city of Van within three months. The Armenians themselves will bring this about rather than be cast adrift by their fellow Christians of the west.
Can Not Be Told.
There is no language quite adequate to a description of the real condition of Armenia at present. Men are beaten robbed and murdered, and women are ravished by Kurds and Turkish soldiers Woe and want and despair and death stalk abroad in this beautiful laud that was once a part of the garden of Eden. The inhabitants of Van are living on the brink of a massacre from day to day.
By the transfer from Van to Constantinople of the advance guard of the Armenian revolutionary movement, captured in the village of Tchiboukla on May 19, the Turkish government has taken a decisive step toward quieting public excitement in the eastern part of the empire.
The governor of Van, Bahri Pasha, has, during the week, added several interesting facts to the alleged confession of Harry Williams, the leader of the captured band. According to the governor, Williams has confessed that the revolutionary party, which sent him to begin the revolution, has 3,000 rifles in Trieste, Austria, which will be shipped lo Armenia for the use of the patriots at the earliest opportunity.
Not a British Subject.
An interesting incident of Williams' confession, as made public by Bahri, is the fact that he is not a British subject at all, but is a native of the Caucuses region of Russia, and, strangely enough, of the very district in which Bahri himself was born.
Leaving out of consideration entirely the second revolutionary band across the Persia border it is an undeniable facf that the Armenian situation was [LINE CUT SHORT]
Our correspondent yesterday met the representative of a fourth revolutionary party which has agents in Russia, England and America. Their headquarters seem to be in America, where a party newspaper is published and revolutionary funds collected. This agent is a Russian-Armenian and he holds strong views on the situation. The fourth revolutionary party has no guns in Armenia, nor does the agent say that h has any arms hidden in the mountains. The party's principles, however, are of the most radical and advanced sort.
Holdwater: Is not the petroleum poppycock the biggest load of sh...aving cream in the annals of Armenian inventiveness? At least the journalist was responsible enough to include the sort of disclaimer, "The evidence of this is circumstantial only, but it is alleged to be none the less conclusive. " (A more realistic look at Sasun.) Also, don't you love the obligatory "Final Solution" claim, that the massacres were committed "according to the program said to have been carefully made out at Constantinople"? The Armenians don't lose a trick, secure in the knowledge that journalists would publish whatever they would say.
What is much more believable are the "most diabolical" plans of the Armenian terrorists, from planning to import massive quantities of arms into the Ottoman Empire, to the propaganda machinery already established in the USA. (The ending line is steeped in truth, "The party's principles, however, are of the most radical and advanced sort.") And they had far from hit their stride, regarding their evil work, this being only 1895.
ADDENDUM, 1-07: Insight on "Harry Williams," from The Armenian Rebellion at Van, McCarthy, 2006, p. 62:
In 1887, Ottoman forces captured fourteen men carrying revolutionary propaganda as they crossed the Iranian border — one was a Russian subject, twelve were Ottoman subjects, and one had a British passport under the name of "Harry Williams."  "Williams" turned out to be a Hunchak party regular, Haroutun Ohandjian, who had lived in London and obtained a passport using false credentials. .
: FO 195/1887, Hallward Telegram to Currie, July 25, 1887. : FO 424/183, Home Office to Foreign Office, London, July 6, 1895. Scotland Yard found that, while in London, Ohandjian had been living with Avedis Nazarbekian, the editor of the Hunchak newspaper, Huntchak.
Americans in Armenia
The Syracuse Standard, Aug.16,1895
Americans in Armenia
Washington, Aug. 15.— The state department has received a report from Minister Terrell at Constantinople stating that a naturalized American citizen who was a student at the American college at Marsovan, Armenia, had been arrested by the Turkish officials for alleged complicity in the murder of an Armenian Christian. The minister stated that he had instructed Mr. Jewell, the United Slates consul there, to demand the release of Ihe prisoner, whose name was not given. If he had been imprisoned on mere suspicion or because his acquirement of American citizenshlp was construed as an offense, Mr. Terrell said In his dispatch that the present Marsovan troubles arose from notices sent  persons there that they would be killed unless they co-operated with the Armenian revolutionists. Two of these were President Tracy and Prof. Riggs of Marsovan college, both Americans. Two of the  have been assassinated. At Mr. Terrell's request a Turkish guard was furnished the Americans.
Holdwater: It's one thing for the morally bankrupt Dashnaks and Hunchaks to have targeted fellow Armenians to do their bidding, otherwise they would be killed. But it's almost sacrilegious for them to have used such evil tactics on the Armenians' greatest friends, the missionaries.
Is the Sultan Obstinate?
NY Times, Aug. 25, 1895
IS THE SULTAN OBSTINATE?
The refusal of the Sultan to accept general European superintendence of the reforms In Asiatic Turkey may be obstinacy or merely another move on the chessboard of Eastern European politics. His assertion that it will endanger the integrity and independence of his empire Is plausible and has even more than a shadow of truth. The difficulty is that refusal is more dangerous than acceptance. The longer actual reform Is delayed, the more difficult it becomes. From every part of the empire comes news of increasing desperation among the people. In the region of Moosh there Is already famine; on the plains of Erzeroum the harvest is good, but the farmers dare not gather it for fear of the Kurds; In Northern Mesopotamia the Christians are fleeing from their villages, and even the Kurdish nomads have to ask for Government protection in going to their mountain pasturages; In Central Asia Minor the Armenian revolutionists are again creating disturbances, having murdered two prominent Armenians for no other reason than a desire to create a disturbance and attract the notice of foreign powers* and Bulgarian brigands have attacked one of the few remaining Turkish towns in the province of Adrianople. Everywhere, from Albania to Bagdad, uncertainty, anxiety, and distress have resulted in such tension that there is constant apprehension lest the people of all classes in sheer desperation arise en masse and strike at anything within reach, even though the only and the immediate result be their own destruction. In such circumstances to talk about the integrity and independence of the empire is the sheerest folly, unless there be some unseen influence at work upon which the Sublime Porte relies in the pursuance of a policy of constantly putting off any decision of any kind. That there is some such influence at work is undoubtedly true. It may be Russia who Is not quite ready to see the means on which she has so often relied to quiet home troubles set aside. It may be that Austria, with her eye on the Aegean, feels that the time is not yet ripe for her plans. It may be that France Is waiting to see how the Madagascar experiment Is going to develop before she commits herself to a plan which would mean the firmer establishment of England's hold on Egypt. It may be none of these, but simply the Turk's invariable reliance on Kismet, the chance that something may turn up to put off the evil day. The scarcely veiled threat In the Queen's speech, following so soon Mr. Gladstone's fearful arraignment of Turkish falsehood and treachery, and the very plain talk of Lord Salisbury on the reassembling of Parliament ought to mean something. At no previous time in the history of Turkey has the internal condition been as bad as It is to-day, and at no time has the consensus of the civilized world been so strong that the Sultan must either improve or be put out of Europe, if not out of his throne. The quicker he sees this and acts accordingly, the better it will be for him. He will find that the policy of trusting to the selfish interests of the European powers to neutralize each other and protect himself has its limitations, and will soon be a policy of self-destruction.
Outrages in Armenia
Marion Daily Star, Sept.10, 1895
OUTRAGES IN ARMENIA
Towns Sacked and the Inhabitants Foully Treated
LONDON, Sept 10 —A dispatch to The Daily News from Kars Armenia says that the entire district of [Kem?iks] is surrounded by Turkish troops dispatched by Zekki Pasha under the plea of arresting Armenian revolutionaries. The villages of Carni Tortan Horopont and Marign are reported to have been completely sacked and the population, ingregating 5000 people, were foully treated. The men were tortured and the women and children were ravished. The excitement and alarm are universal.
Authentic information from [Monach] is to the effect that an anti Christian society of Turkish officials has been formed there and at Bitha with the avowed intention to slaughter the Christians in the event of the acceptance by the porte of the scheme of reforms presented by the powers. It is declared that Consul Hampson is to be the first victim.
Armenians in Revolt
Centralia Enterprise and Tribune, Nov. 2, 1895
ARMENIANS IN REVOLT.
Twenty-six Thousand In the Zeitoun Mountains Defy the Sultan
Constantinople, Oct. 30.— The most alarming news yet received from Armenia was made public here today. It is said that the situation is so grave that in the Zeitoun mountains and in that district there are 26,000 Armenians In revolt against the rule of the Sultan. The Turkish government, in view of the gravity of this outbreak, has decided to call out the army reserves.
Washington, D. C., Oct. 30 — United States Minister Terrell has cabled to the state department a practical confirmation of the press reports of the recent Armenian massacres. He has given formal warning to the Porte, by direction of Secretary Olney, that Turkey will be held responsible for the safety and security of all American missionaries in that country.
The Armenian Tangle
The Daily Transcript, November 4, 1895
THE ARMENIAN TANGLE
Much-Talked-of Reform Has Failed to Materialize as Yet.
Turkey's Move In the Matter Came Too Late.
Disturbances In Various Parts of the Empire Have In No Wise Abated.
LONDON, Nov. 4.— A dispatch from Constantinople says that the sultan has summoned Tewflk Pasha from Berlin to discuss the Armenian question.
The papers this morning are full of Turkish troubles, and have columns of special correspondence from Constantinople. The Daily News (Liberal) in an editorial complains of the want of agreement among the powers as encouraging the sultan to withhold the imperial order enforcing the Armenian reforms. It is most regrettable, The Daily News considers, that Sir Philip Currie (the British ambassador to Turkey) should have left Constantinople at such a critical time.
The Chronicle (Liberal) argues that the question only really concerns England and Russia, who can do virtually as they like if they will only agree. The Chronicle suggests the constituting of Constantinople as a free city, with 50 miles of borderland on both sides of the streets.
The Times says editorially: Turkish news is of a grave and disquieting character. Like other things Turkish, the Armenian commission of control comes too late. The porte seems to hope that the summoning of the reserves will restore order, but at best the process of restoration is likely to be a rough one. The editorial then proceeds to argue that the Armenians, by their revolutionary tactics, have forfeited the sympathy of the English government, who has already, in their interest, gone as near provoking a disastrous disagreement with the European powers as would be permissible to a prudent nation.
Therefore, concludes The Times, we are disinclined to risk reopening the whole Eastern question for their sake.
Far From Settlement.
Official telegrams received here state that several persons were killed and wounded at Direbirkar on Friday during some riots from an Armenian attack upon the mosques.
Some Zeitoun Armenians attacked Lieutenant Hassan Agha, who, with his wife and children, were traveling through Marash, and killed the whole family and rifled the bodies of the victims.
The American missionaries in Bitlis have again complained to United States Minister Terrell that they are in imminent danger. Mr. Terrell and Michael Herbert, the British charge d'affaires, have, therefore, again made a demand upon the porte to insure the protection of the Americans.
The report which has been published of Turkish attacks upon the Bulanik, Kharput, Sivas, Urfa and elsewhere are not fully confirmed, but both the grand vizier and the Armenian patriarch have sent telegrams enjoining upon the people to put forth efforts to calm the excitement.
It is rumored that the Turks are still pillaging the Armenian shops in Erzroom, where the riots are found to have been more serious than was at first reported. It is now said that 200 corpses have already been counted.
The Armenian population of Anatolia are sending delegates to petition M. Nelidoff, the Russian ambassador, to request Russia to temporarily occupy the Armenian provinces.
It was Despair
The Lowell Daily Sun, Nov. 8, 1895
IT WAS DESPAIR
That Caused Armenians to Rise Against Turks.
THE USUAL TALE FROM THE SUBLIME PORTE.
Shifting the Blame From the Government.
LONDON, Nov. 8.— The Daily News' Constantinople correspondent, whose sympathies lean toward the Armenian side, admits that the Moslem attacks have aroused such a spirit of opposition and despair among the Armenians that instead of allowing themselves to be killed quietly, as at Trebizond and Akhissar, the Armenians themselves commenced the attack at Zytoun, Erzroom and elsewhere, besides making ill-advised and mischievous demonstrations In Constantinople.
It will take years, this correspondent continues, to revive confidence and trade and commerce lost through the present condition of anarchy, due to the deplorable weakness and inaction of the government.
As an instance of this, the correspondent cites the fact, that A. W. Terrell, United States minister, has been trying for two months to obtain permission for United States Consul Poche, at Aleppo, to see an American citizen of Armenian origin who has been sent to prison there for life.
It is pointed out that Minister Terrell has secured orders from the two grand viziers to the local authorities at Aleppo to grant this permission, which had either been rescinded before the consul had an opportunity to act upon it, or has been disobeyed by the local governor, the desired result being evaded rather than refused.
Is Minister Terrell's Influence Waning?
This is the more remarkable, The Daily News' correspondent observes, because Mr. Terrell has considerable personal influence at the porte. Yet, now, after demanding the dismissal of the vali at Aleppo, or that the porte itself should assume responsibility for refusal, he has only succeeded In getting an order for the prisoner to be brought here.
Kiamil Pasha, the retiring grand vizier has been appointed vali of Aleppo, to succeed the official who has held that place during Mr. Terrell's efforts to secure an interview with the prisoner.
The only hopeful sign in tho outlook according to the opinion of The Daily News correspondent, is the report that the troops at Erzroom, under Shakir Pasha. high commissioner to enforce the Armenian reforms, have attacked a Moslem mob, which had formed with a purpose of doing mischief to tho Armenians. If this is confirmed, the correspondent thinks, it will show that Turkey desires that the massacres shall cease.
A cipher letter, received from Erzincan, headquarters of the notorious Zekki Pasha, commander of the troops at the time of the Sassoun massacres, states that 2000 Armenians have been killed during the late disturbances.
A Vienna dispatch to The Daily News from Its correspondent there, says that he hears that unless there is an amelioration in the condition of affairs, Russia will occupy Armenia simultaneously with the holding of the European conference.
Said Pasha'a Modesty.
The Constantinople correspondent of The Standard sends an interview with Said Pasha, in which he says he could not claim that the Turkish administration was snow-white, but it was certainly not as black as it was painted. The ministers, he said, were working hard to carry out the scheme of reforms, and counted upon England's generosity not to increase the difficulties by encouraging the revolutionary Armenians, who, instead of being grateful for the concessions that have been made, were in open revolt throughout Asia.
A dispatch to The Standard from Vienna says that it is believed that the changes in the Turkish ministry are intended to appease Mohammedan disaffection, and are not a demonstration against England, although Kiamil Pasha, the out-going grand vizier, was the most pro-English of the pashas.
The new ministry was officially announced yesterday afternoon as follows: Said Pasha, minister of the council; Abdurrahman Pasha, minister of justice; Muduh Pasha, minister of the interior; Gareid Pasha, minister of worship; Zudhi Pasha, minister of education; Mahmud Djelalledin Pasha, minister of commerce and works; Sabri Pasha, minister of finance: Aarifl Pasha, minister without portfolio.
Neither Halil Rifat Pasha's name as grand, vizier, nor the name of the Sheik-Ul-Islam, is included in the official list.
As Might Be Expected.
The following telegram from the sublime porte, under Nov. 6 date, has been sent to Washington:
All news concerning plots, threatening letters and supposed dissatisfaction in the ranks of the army and navy is intentionally propagated by well-known newspaper correspondents affiliated with the Armenian committee to alarm public opinion. As for the oft-repeated assertion of the intended extermination of the Armenians, it is too absurd to be contradicted. The efforts of the Imperial government tend, on the contrary, to quell the revolt of the Armenians and to resist their criminal and bloody agitation.
The Armenian agitation at Diarbekir was on the point of subsiding when the Armenians began again their attacks upon the Mussulmans by throwing bombs at them, and by firing at the Muezzins at the very time when the latter were calling the faithful to prayers. During the affray, 50 Mussulmans and 90 Armenians were killed and wounded.
Armenian rioters attacked the patrols at Sivrik, killing a few Mussulmans, and setting fire to the bazaar. Two hundred Armenian revolutionists, having at their head Kevrok, chief of the parish of Ferus (Marsh), attacked the village of Tchoukour Hissar, and killed 12 Mussulmans. Some ot the agitators were arrested, including part of the Armenian brigands who captured Hadji Hassau Oglou Husni.
All news published as to the occurrence of trouble at Adana, Tarsus and [Mcrsiue] is absolutely without foundation.
Holdwater: The West would not give the Turks a fair shake. When the Ottoman government tried to explain what was really happening, they could count on being met with disbelief and sarcasm. After all, Armenians and missionaries wouldn't lie.
Wily Turks Claim Armenians Responsible for Disorders
The News (Maryland), Nov. 8, 1895
NEW TURKISH MINISTRY
The Sultan Reorganizes His Corps of Advisers.
"THOSE TURBULENT ARMENIANS."
A Telegram from the Porte to the Powers in Which the Wily Turks Claim That the Armenians are Responsible for all Recent Disorders.
CONSTANTINOPLE, Nov.8 — A new Turkish ministry has been formed, as follows: Hali Rifat Pasha, grand vizier; Said Pasha, president of the council of state; Tewfik Pasha, minster of foreign affairs; Hassan Pasha, minister of marine; Riza Pasha, minister of war; Metuduh Pasha, minister of the interior; Abdur Raimar Pasha, minister of justice; Sabri Pasha, minister of France; Arid Pasha, minister without portfolio.
Kiamil Pasha, the retiring grand vizier, has been appointed vali of Aleppo.
Riza Pasha was minister of war in the last cabinet; Hassan Pasha was minister of marine in the last ministry; Hali Rifat Pasha is the e-minister of the Interior, and Tewfik Pasha has just, come here from Berlin, where he was Turkish ambassador to Germany. Finally, Said Pasha was minister of foreign affairs in the late cabinet and previously grand vizier.
Hali Rifat Pasha, the new grand vizier of Turkey, has the reputation of being an able administrator. He has held numerous high posts and is a man of broad views, judged from a Turkish standpoint.
The new grand vizier Is expected to have a moderating influence between the Mussulmans and the Christians, but it Is not thought that he will be able to do anything of a remarkable nature at the present serious juncture of affairs In the Turkish empire.
It is believed that the changes in the Turkish ministry are intended to appease Mahomedan disaffection, and are not a demonstration against England, although Kiamil Pasha, the outgoing grand vizier, was the most pro-English of the pashas.
In an interview Said Pasha said he could not claim that the Turkish administration was not snow white, but it was certainly not as black as it was painted. The ministers, he said, were working hard to carry out the scheme of reforms, and counted upon England's generosity not to increase the difficulties by encouraging the revolutionary Armenians. who, instead of being grateful for the concessions that had been made, were in open revolt throughout Asia.
The sublime porte has sent the following telegram to the powers:
"All news concerning plots, threatening letters and a supposed dissatisfaction in the ranks of the army and navy is intentionally propagated by well known newspaper correspondents, affiliated with the Armenian committee, to alarm public opinion. As for the often repeated assertion of the intended extermination of the Armenians, it is too absurd to be contradicted. The efforts of the imperial government, on the contrary, to quell the revolt of the Armenians and to resist their criminal and bloody agitation.
"The Armenian agitation at Diarbekir was on the point of subsiding when the Armenians begun again their attacks upon the Mussulmans by throwing bombs at them, and by firing at the muezzins when the latter were calling the faithful to prayers. During the affray fifty Mussulmans and ninety Armenians were killed and wounded.
"Armenian rioters attacked the patrols at Sivrik, killing a few Mussulmans and setting fire to the bazaar. Two hundred Armenian revolutionists, having at their head Kevrok, chief of the parish of Ferus (Marash), attacked the village of Tchoukour Hissar and killed twelve Mussulmans. Some of the agitators were arrested, including part of the Armenian brigands who captured Hadji Hassan Oglous Husni.
"All news published as to the occurrence of trouble at Adana, Tarsus and Mersine, is absolutely without foundation."
Armenians Have Acted Hastily.
LONDON, Nov.8.-The Daily News Constantinople correspondent, whose sympathies lean toward the Armenian side, admits that the Moslem attacks have aroused such a spirit of opposition and despair among the Armenians that instead of allowing themselves to be killed quietly, as at Trebizond and Akhissar, the Armenians themselves commenced the attack at Zeiton, Erzeroum and elsewhere, besides making ill advised and mischievous demonstrations in Constantinople. "It will take years," this correspondent continues, "to revive confidence and trade and commerce lost through the present condition of anarchy due to the deplorable weakness and inaction of the government."
The Sultan Looking to His Own Safety.
LONDON, Nov. 8.-The Berlin correspondent of The Times says of Tewfik Pasha, tbe new Turkish minister of foreign affairs: "While here Tewfik displayed no qualities fitting him to be a good foreign minister. He has won the sultan's confidence by the timely detection of palace plots, and he is likely to be a docile palace Instrument. It looks, therefore, as if the sultan were thinking more of his own safety than of the gravity of the political situation."
Snubs Great Britain
The Decatur Review (Illinois), Nov. 10, 1895, P. 6
SNUBS GREAT BRITAIN
TURKEY CARES NOTHING FOR THE ISLAND EMPIRE.
Decoration of Bahri Pasha Is Looked Upon as an Approval of Armenian Outrages — More Christians Arrested Without Just Cause.
Constantinople, Nov. 9.— The Official Gazette announces that Bahri Pasha, who was dismissed from his official position in pursuance of the representations of the British ambassador. Sir Philip Currie, owing to his ill-treatment of Armenians, has been decorated with the grand cordon of the Osmanieh Order, "as a reward for bis good services." This step upon the part of the sultan is considered most significant. It is not only an open and distinct mark of approval of the ill-treatment of Armenians, but it is a deliberate snub to Great Britain, particularly as, in addition to the decoration bestowed upon Bahri Pasha, the Official Gazette publishes a long list of the names of Turkish officials in Armenia who have been decorated by the sultan for their "good services." In fact, it almost seems as if the sultan is openly defying the powers.
It is understood that the Vali of Aleppo, who is to be succeeded by the ex-grand vizier, Kiamil Pasha, was dismissed in consequence of the representations of the United States minister to Turkey. Alexander W. Terrell, because the vali refused to permit the United States consular agent at Aleppo to visit a naturalized American citizen, Guendjiam. of Armenian origin, who had been imprisoned for life. Mr. Terrell obtained permission from the grand viziers for the consular agent to visit Guendjiam, but the vali persisted in his refusal to permit the prisoner to be seen. The eventual result was that Mr. Terrell made the strongest representations to the porte.
Over one hundred Armenians have been arrested at Stamboul, and all the inquiries made as to the cause of their imprisonment have failed to obtain a satisfactory answer.
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TO KILL ALL CHRISTIANS.
Massacre to Begin as Soon as Europeans Occupy the Turkish Empire.
Worcester. Mass., Nov.9.-The Huntchagists here, who are the leading Armenian revolutionists in America, have received advices from Harpoot that plans have been perfected by Raouf Pasha, the military commandant for the massacre of every Christian in Harpoot and the villages of Moulta-Kany and [Hoghe].
The Turks and Kurds have been armed by the commandant, who will give the signal for the slaughter to begin as soon as Europeans make a move to occupy the country. It has caused great excitement among local Armenians and a mass-meeting is to be called and an attempt made to arouse public sympathy in the United States.
Holdwater: Great Britain was acting abominably toward the Ottoman Turks in the post Gladstone era, and this reporter expected the "island empire" to be treated with reverence.
Ready to Submit
Oakland Tribune, November 20, 1895, front page
READY TO SUBMIT.
Turkey Is Showing the White Feather to the Powers.
THE WARSHIPS SCARED THEM.
Promises That the Reforms Will Bs Promptly Made.
THE MASSACRES MUST STOP.
Christianity Will Not Allow Mohammedanism to Triumph.
By Associated Press to the Tribune. BERLIN, Nov. 21 — Nothing further has been received from Sofia, Bulgaria, in any way tending to confirm the dispatch from Constantinople that the Sultan of Turkey had been poisoned.
It is believed there is no foundation for the report. CONSTANTINOPLE, Nov. 20?. — A dispatch from Tiflis, in Russian trans-Caucasia, says the Armenian Catholics have received a reply to the communication recently sent to the Russian Ambassador here [?. de Nehdoff], as follows:
"The Armenians of Constantinople are now reassured. They are threatened with no danger.
"In the provinces, however, there are regrettable conflicts, which in most cases were caused by Armenians instigated by their revolutionary committees.
"The result is a terrible revenge on the part of the Turks In the shape of horrible massacres of Christians.
"The Sultan has mentioned the scheme for reforms submitted by the three great powers and preparations are now proceeding to carry them out.
"To this end it is necessary that the leaders of the people should dissuade the latter to desist from revolutionary attempts, abandon the hope of foreign intervention, put a stop to all disturbances and co-operate in the re-establishment of universal peace in improving the situation and in the introduction of a new order of things."
A CHANGE OF HEART
As intimated In these dispatches, in the last few days, the attitude of the Porte or of the Sultan, has undergone a decided change since other fleets began to join the British fleet In a naval demonstration at Salonica Bay.
There is no doubt the pressure brought to bear upon the Sultan has been strong enough to make him take personal charge of the work of reform In Armenia, and it is hoped there will be no further bloodshed except in the case of putting down the insurrections which have broken out against Turkish rule in different parts of Asia Minor.
It is hoped the Armenian clergy will be able to induce their co-religionists to lay down arms, especially as the sentiment of the whole of Europe Is now in favor of the Sultan, whose evident desire to meet the views of the powers Is thoroughly appreciated and has undoubtedly tided over the most difficult crisis In the east.
There Is no longer any talk of the armed intervention of the powers in the Turkish empire, and if any display of force is necessary upon the part of Europe it might be in the direction of supporting the authority of the Sultan, as Great Britain, Russia and France are extremely desirous that order shall be promptly restored throughout Asia Minor.
A MISSIONARY BEATEN.
LONDON, Nov. 20. — A dispatch from Constantinople to the Globe this afternoon confirms the report of the ill-treatment to which a Canadian missionary, Rev. Mr. Martin has been subjected by the Turks. He was beaten and afterwards imprisoned sixteen hours near Hadjin, Province of Adana.
RUSTEM PASHA IS DEAD.
Rustem Pasha, Turkish ambassador to London, died this morning.
He was an Italian by birth, and before entering the service of the Turkish government bore the title of Count Malini.
He distinguished himself as governor of Lebanon, where he put an end to corruption and prompted a healthy reform in all departments of the government.
A LETTER PROM CONSTANTINOPLE.
BOSTON, Nov. 20.-A letter received In this city by a reliable correspondent in Constantinople contains the following on the situation there:
The Turks are more sensible than before, as they realize the action of the Armenians is not against themselves, but against a system of government which all detest.
There Is a remarkable change from the feeling of three weeks ago, when any Turk seemed to long to kill any Armenian.
At the same time the palace party is diligently circulating stories of Armenian outrages in the lowest classes to keep up the feeling of anger against them.
The Turkish patriotic party is openly declaring that the Sultan is the cause of all the troubles that afflict the country.
The Minister of Marine has been threatened by the Moslem patriotic committee and is carefully guarded by troops in his palace.
In the region of Baghchejig and Adabazer, the efforts of the military commander of Nicomedia to turn the Mohammedan population into violence against the Christian villages have produced great terror.
In Aintab the people have been brought to desperation by the ferocity with which taxes are being collected.
The Governor-General of Aleppo is a rascal whose disregard of the treaties as to the rights of Americans led Minister Terrel to demand his removal. Relief to the whole mass of people will come if this scoundrel can be overthrown.
Bloodshed must follow if the Armenians are to be goaded on into open rebellion in that region.
The Trebizond massacre seems to have been even more terrible than was at first reported.
The Turkish loss was possibly two men killed in Armenians defending their own lives. The Armenian loss is now carried up to 2,000 In the city and villages.
A PROPHETIC ADVENTIST.
ELWOOD, Ind., Nov. 20 — In an interview concerning the Adventist belief regarding the present Turkish troubles and their relation to prophecy, Elder W. H. Ebert, of Frankton, Ind,, one of the leading exponents of that belief, said:
"We Seventh-day Adventists believe the present Turkish crisis foreshadows the end of the world, the destruction of its kingdoms and the second coming of Jesus Christ.
"We base our belief upon the fulfillment of prophecy, and see in it the present movements of the nations, the gathering together of the nations to fight the last great battle of the centuries — the battle of the Armageddon.
"The Ottoman power, or Mohammedan power, Is the one meant in the ninth chapter of revelations, to. which was to be given a power to torment men five months, or  years In prophetic time, when It was to gain supremacy and be given power to kill men  years and 15 days.
"The Ottoman empire fulfills all these conditions, for it was founded by Othman July 27th, 1290, and for  years tormented men when it became supreme until August [14th, 1840].
When the  years and 15 days ended, it killed the third part of men, as prophecied, when its power was dried up to prepare the way of the Kings of the Lost, which was fulfilled when France, Russia, Prussia and England forced their ultimatum on the Mohammedan power August [11th, 1840.] Thus was fulfilled the first part of the vision of the sixth [Vial.]
"The three unclean spirits wen then loosed and went forth to deceive the nation, and they are spiritualism, nihilism and infidelity, and they are doing their work well.
"They are gathering the nations together for the great battle of Armaggedon.
"The King of the South-possibly the English power-after overrunning Egypt Sudan and Turkey. will encamp in the glorious Holy Mountain in the Holy Land, and the nations will be compelled to bring their mighty armies and munitions of war against this power and will encamp in the plains of Armaggedon.
"The nations are now moving toward that battlefield, and all their terrible implements of modern warfare will be there when the seventh vial is poured, when the battle of Armageddon, which is described in symbols in [Rev., G?hap, 17-21], will result. The great cities of the nations will be that tented [hld] and it will be divided into three parts-- the Roman power, the Mohammedan power and the other powers represented.
"The hall spoken of means cannon balls, the earth on the explosion of the batteries, and the lake of fire and brimstone will be the battlefield itself. It will be a battle of annihilation and the kingdoms of the world will go down to rise no more.
The United States will probably not be represented in this battle, but will be among the remnant left to be destroyed afterward. When this battle occurs, as it shortly must, its climax will be the second coming of Christ,
"The end of all things is even now at the door, and the nations cannot long strangle ihc Turkish complications, as the unrest of nations Is urging them on to bring about these things, for fear of which nations are trembling. The time is near; watch."
Holdwater: Wonder who the source might have been behind "The Turkish loss was possibly two men killed in Armenians defending their own lives. The Armenian loss is now carried up to 2,000 In the city and villages."
And isn't it amazing that the opinion of a hateful religious fanatic was sought? Perhaps not so surprising, given one of the sub-headlines, which pretty much summed these matters up: " Christianity Will Not Allow Mohammedanism to Triumph. "
Terrell Confirms the Massacres
Fort Wayne Weekly Gazette, Dec. 05, 1895
Minister Terrell Has Reports on the Massacres in Turkey.
CONSTANTINOPLE, November 29.— United States Minister Terrell has received details confirming the reported massacre of Christians and the destruction of American mission property at Marash on November 18. It is now established beyond doubt that the school of science attached to the American mission and other buildings were pillaged and set on fire, and that two other buildings belonging to Americans were ransacked. Mr. Terrell's advices also confirm the statement that no protection was afforded the Americans or their property. In spite of the promises of the porte, until eight hours before the rioting. The American missionaries telegraphing under date of Tuesday last, November 26, from Marash, say they are all safe under the protection of Turkish authorities. An estimate is being made of the damage done and the Turkish officials say they are doing everything possible to recover the property looted from American buildings.
But the Turk Claims All Is Lovely.
WASHINGTON, November 29.— The Turkish legation received from the sublime porte the following telegram under to-day's date: The Armenian revolutionists of Keban disregarding the advice of the local authorities, and having fired on the soldiers, the latter had to answer back. Then the rioters, after setting fire to their houses, escaped to [Ferns] and Zeitoon. With the exception of this incident, tranquility prevails at the province of Aleppo. On the 15th instant the Armenians of Erzerum seeing that some officials of Regie were arresting some smugglers, closed their shops and during the panic that followed five Armenians were killed and six wounded. No disorders whatever took place on the 24th and 25th instants to many of the provinces. An Armenian of Marash set fire to his house, situated in the Mussulman part of the city, in order to start a fire. The authorities of Diarik and Yildizli, have found and restored to their owners the greater part of the stolen articles and cattle.
Holdwater: Once again, the dripping sarcasm, and the determined disbelief greeting whatever the Turks said.
600 Armenians Arrested
Manitoba Morning Free Press, June 16, 1896
600 ARMENIANS ARRESTED.
Constantinople, June 5.— It is stated on reliable authority that 600 Armenians have been arrested in this city since June 9. A majority of the prisoners are from Rodosto. The members of the Armenian revolutionary committee, who, on Monday last, assassinated an Armenian spy in this city and who was shot and killed by the patrol while trying to escape, was a native of Rodosto. Two hundred of the prisoners were shipped to Anatolia. The government is using the occasion of the assassination to expel possible agitators.
Armenians To Be Executed
The Weekly Gazette And Stockman, Nov. 7, 1895
Armenians To Be Executed.
By Cable and Associated Press.
CONSTANTINOPLE, October 31. — A sensation has been caused by the report, generally believed to be correct, that three Armenian notabilities of Trebizond, including prominent ecclesiastics, are to be executed on the ground tbat they were responsible for the recent rioting there. The Armenians report about 800 Armenians killed during the fighting at Bitlis with the Turks. The loss to the latter was trifling.
Advices from Moosh say leading Armenians have been conferring with representatives of the Turks regarding a means to prevent an outbreak in their borders similar to those in different parts of Armenia, which resulted in so much bloodshed.
It is added that the Turks have stipulated that the American missionaries distributing relief to the suffering people of Sassoun withdraw in three days; otherwise the Turkish nobility fear their massacre, such as just occurred at Bitlis.
But here another complication arises. The Kurds of Sassoun are only held in check by the missionaries and threaten the plunder of the Armenians on the departure of the missionaries. The mere presence of Turkish troops is far from being a sufficient guarantee against a repetition of the bloodshed which recently occurred in other parts of Armenia, and nothing but the most energetic action, it is asserted, can avert serious disturbances.
The Armenian Patriarch has appealed to the different embassies here to intervene in time to prevent another massacre. The Turkish officials, in reply, again assert that the "Hinticht," the Armenian secret society, provoked all the riots.
CONSTANTINOPLE, Nov. 1.— Advices from Marsovan, Asia Minor, show that the trouble anticipated by United States Ambassador Terrill [sic] in his recent report, has culminated in an attempt to burn the American college there. It is added that it would have been in cinders unless it had been discovered. The agitation against the Americans at Marsovan began a year ago, when some pupils of the American college were expelled because their fathers were suspected of being implicated in the Armenian movement. This caused suspicion to fall upon five professors, two of whom are Americans.
Terrill notified the authorities at Washington that Garabed, a naturalized American citizen, had been assassinated at Marsovan, close to a church door, when going to attend religious service.
Garabed was one of the students previously sent away from college at the request of the Turkish authorities, on the ground that he was connected with the Armenian revolutionists. He was the chief man of the Protestant committee at Marsovan and chairman of the council of thirty held responsible for the peace of that city. Garabed, however, is said to have been murdered by revolutionists because he had given the government information regarding their plans.
At the same time Terrill notified the State Department at Washington that the revolutionists had marked professors at Marsovan for slaughter long before the Sassoun atrocities were committed.
President Tracey and Professor Riggs of Marsovan College were especially disliked by the revolutionists, and their lives threatened for having consented to the expulsion of the Armenian students suspected of being in sympathy with the revolutionary movement. Eventually a Turkish guard was furnished the college at the request of Terrill, and all danger seemed to be passed, especially as the United States authorities previously compelled the Turkish government to pay indemnity for the destruction of school buildings at Marsovan.
The Marion Daily Star, Nov. 16, 1895 (Also in same-dated Newark Daily Advocate)
And Many Persons Reported Killed.
BURDEN OF OFFICIAL REPORTS.
According to Turkish Dispatches Armenians Are Charged With All Manner of Lawlessness — Palace of the Governor Attacked — Revolutionists Preparings For an Aggressive Campaign.
CONSTANTINOPLE. Nov. 16.— Official dispatches received here contain additional accounts of Armenian lawlessness. It is reported that the Armenians have attacked the villages of Forsakh, Bitchli and Behransis. near Zeitoun, firing 57 houses in all. They also burned the village of Kurbel and one Mohammetan was burned alive. Eighteen Mussulmans of both sexes were killed and 15 wounded by the rioters at Tchoukour Hissar. The town of Tchoukour Hissar was totally destroyed. Several Mussulman villages have been attacked in the Azirlon and Tchokmerzemenk districts. The sultan has sent fresh peremtory [sic] instructions to the valis of different districts where the disorders have occured [sic], as well as to the military commanders, telling them that they must promptly restore order by the just and equitable treatment of both Christians and Mohammetans.
Bloody Conflicts Reported.
WASHINGTON, Nov. 10.-The Turkish legation at Washington has received the following communication from the sublime porte:
"The Armenian revolutionists of Sivas after taking out of their shops all the merchandise attacked the Mussulmans, they fired from the windows of their houses and wounded severely one soldier. A pistol shot broke the window of the rooms occupied by the governor general. They also attacked the village of Mardjilik, killed many Mussulmans and committed many offenses against law and order. The authorities of Arabgnir discovered 40 bombs which the Armenian agitators had buried in order to blow up public buildings, such as the barracks, the palace of the governor, the military storehouse and the like. The fire that broke out in the city originated from bombs prepared for that purpose. The Turkish population of Arabguir being attacked by 1,500 rioters, perfectly armed and equipped, telegraphed to the imperial government for protection. The provincial authorities neglected absolutely nothing to preserve peace.
"The Armenian revolutionists of Erzindjan fired upon the Mussulmans and attacked the palace of the governor, the military station and other buildings. They were repulsed, however, by the military.
"The Armenian revolutionists of Arabguir, having attacked the Mussulman quarter of Kuejinar, a bloody conflict occurred between Mussulmans and Armenians. Another conflict took place near the Saroy (Van) between Armenian brigands and gendarmes. The brigands fled to the village of Bogazkean, but they were dispersed. Many gendarmes were killed aud wounded
"The agitators, Kircer and Kevork, of the village of Kemer (Sivas) who fired shots, and in whose houses ammunition and cartridges were discovered, have been arrested.
"More than 5,000 Armenian revolutionists are at Tchoukmerzen (Adana) and it is reported they are preparing for active aggressions."
Holdwater: Strangely, the accounts by the Ottoman government were treated seriously this go-round. Perhaps some honorable journalists were beginning to get the skinny on the immoral Armenians. Word was filtering in by this time not only through U.S. officials, but even a few missionaries themselves. See following report.
Middletown Daily Argus, Aug.16,1895
Cruel Treatment of American Citizens in Marsovan.
OUR MINISTER ACTS PROMPTLY.
Demands the Release of Americans Unjustly Accused and Prompt Trial of Those Who Are Revolutionists — The Latter Threans Objectionable Persons.
WASHINGTON, Aug. 16.— The department of state has just received from Minister Terrell a report which throws some light on the report telegraphed from Constantinople a few days ago, saying that American citizens had been injured at Marsovan. From Minister Terrell's report it appears that on July 1 an Armenian named Garabed was assassinated at Marsovan, close to the church door, as he was going to attend early service. He was the chief man of the Protestant community and chairman of the council of thirty, who are responsible for the peace of the city. It was alleged that he had given the government information in regard to the revolutionists.
Consul Jewett. in reporting this case July 13 to Consul General Short, at Constantinople, says that numerous Armenians were arrested, as it was said there was little doubt Garabed was murdered by them. Among those arrested was a naturalized American citizen, who had been a student at the American college at Marsovan, but who. as Mr. Jewett was informed, had been dropped from the roll some months ago.
Minister Terrell was promptly informed concerning the assassination and the imprisonments which followed it, and took immediate steps to insure fair treatment of the naturalized citizens, and called upon Mr. Jewett for any trustworthy information he might have regarding the danger to the missionary teachers at Marsovan from Armenian revolutionists. He informed Mr. Jewett that though Turkey has a right to expel undesirable classes of people from her territory, she has no right to treat the acquired American citizenship of any of them as an offense, and to imprison them for that cause, nor to imprison them on mere suspicion. He instructed him in such cases promptly to demand their release, and that if any of them are arrested while engaged in armed resistance to the government to demand a fair trial.
Mr. Terrell's report of the troubles at Marsovan is based upon a verbal statement of Mr. Dwight, a leading American missionary at Constantinople, and is as follows:
"More than a year ago sixteen persons at Marsovan received written notices that they would be killed unless they co-operated with the Armenian revolutionists. President Tracy and Professor Briggs [Riggs?], of Marsovan college, were two of these. They had incurred the ill will of the revolutionists by refusing to receive in the college the sons of certain men suspected of being revolutionists. Garabed. who was assassinated, was another of the sixteen, who received notice, and Mr. Dwight has been informed that still another has been assassinated. A Turkish guard was furnished at the request of Mr. Terril [sic; Terrell] to protect the American families from the assassins. Mr. Dwight considers that guard sufficient to protect the missionaries at the college, and Mr. Terrell has not applied for an additional force.
"The local governor informed the Armenians, after the killing, that he intended to arrest all suspected persons and imprison them until they revealed the names of the guilty ones; that their object was to provoke Turkish vengeance in order to secure the sympathy and intervention of Christian Europe, but that they would not succeed, as he had caused to be preached in the mosques for months that such was their object, and that any Turk who killed a Christian would be the worst enemy of Islam."
Mr. Terrell adds that the revolutionists of Mursovan had organized, and marked the American professors long before the Sassoun atrocities.
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Also on same front page:
Irishmen Want War with England.
PITTSBURG. Aug. 16.— Five thousand Irishmen, representing the United Irish societies of western Pennsylvania. met at Phoenix Park last night and passed resolutions advocating physical force in Ireland's cause. Mayor Bernard McKenna, of Pittsburg, presided. Dr. Paul M. Sheddy introduced the resolutions. They advocated the formation of a secret service corps in the form of organized revolutionists. The convention called for Sept. 24. in Chicago, was condemned on the ground that it was only intended to advance the political interests of its originators.
Holdwater: It appears the Irish were learning from the Armenians.
Minister Terrell was evidently beginning to see the light. A big bravo to the missionary, Dwight.
Dubuque Daily Herald, Aug. 28, 1896
Leaders of the Mob Haven Surrendered and Will Be Punished.
Constantinople, Aug. 27.— The riots which yesterday caused so much excitement throughout the city are apparently at an end. The leaders of the mob which attacked the Ottoman bank have surrendered, and will be expelled from Turkey. An official account of the troubles attributes the riots to an organized effort of the central committee of the Armenian revolutionists to stir up a revolution. The rioters from the window of the bank and hotel rained bombs, shot and missiles upon the heads of passersby, wounding many persons. Many similar events reported from various portions of the city. It is known a great many persons were killed, but it impossible to ascertain the exact number owing to prevalent excitement and desire on the part of armenians [sic] as well as Turkish authorities to keep the identity of the killed and wounded secret.
Armenian Rioters in Constantinople Shed Much Blood
Evening Bulletin, Aug. 28, 1896
Armenian Rioters in Constantinople Shed Much Blood
EXACT NUMBER OF VICTIMS UNKNOWN
The Ottoman Bank Looted — Bombs Are Exploded — Gendarmes Beheaded — Four Ladies Among the Killed — Mob Leaders Surrender.
Constantinople, Aug. 28.—The riots which Wednesday caused so much excitement throughout Constantinople are apparently at an end. The leaders of the mob which attacked the officers of the Ottoman bank surrendered and will be expelled from Turkey.
It is known that a great many persons have been killed, but it is impossible to ascertain the exact number owing to the prevalent excitement and the desire on the part of the Armenians, as well as the Turkish authorities to keep the identity of the killed and wounded secret. The Armenian patriarch has excommunicated all Armenians concerned in this latest uprising.
The official account of the troubles attributes the riots to an organized effort on the part of the central committee of the Armenian revolutionists to stir up a revolution.
The invaders, as if by a preconcerted arrangement. suddenly entered the great hall of the Ottoman bank armed with revolvers. daggers and dynamite bombs. Forming in small groups, they were accosted by the officer of the guards who demanded from them a statement of their business with the bank.
Without stopping to reply they blew out his brains and then killed and beheaded the gendarmes, throwing heads of the dead men out into the streets. During the resultant confusion, they closed the doors of the bank and hurled a number of bombs into the street.
Four Turkish women who were driving along in a carriage were blown to pieces by the explosion of one of the dynamite bombs. Two of the French employes of the bank, while descending from a window by means of a rope were wounded by one of the explosions. They narrowly escaped with their lives by reason of the timely intervention of the imperial troops. The rioters captured a hotel in the city of Constantinople and bombs and shots and missiles fairly rained upon the heads of the passersby, wounding many persons. Many similar events are reported from various portions of the city.
To Try Turkish Rioters
New York Times, Sept. 1, 1896
TO TRY TURKISH RIOTERS
A SPECIAL COURT NOW SITTING IN CONSTANTINOPLE.
A Turkish Mob Attacking Armenians Clubbed Away by British Marines —The Sultan Protests, and Receives a Sharp Answer from the English Charge d'Affaires — American Houses Sacked and the Armenian Servants All Killed.
CONSTANTINOPLE. Aug. 31— A special judicial committee began sessions in this city to-day for the purpose of trying 400 Moslems and Armenians who are accused of having participated in the recent rioting in and around Constantinople.
Chaker Pasha and [Vehdy] Pasha have been appointed to the command of the military in Constantinople and Galata, respectively, with orders summarily to suppress any signs of disorder.
The Italian dispatch boat Galilee has been ordered to Constantinople as a second guardship.
A detachment of British marines who were marching from the British guardship to the English Embassy yesterday clubbed and beat back a Turkish mob which was maltreating a number of Armenians in the street. The Porte made a complaint to the conduct of the troops to Mr. Michael Herbert, British Charge d'Affaires, who replied that the marines had a perfect right to protect the Armenians if the Turkish troops did not [?] to do so.
The police to-day discovered an Armenian bomb factory in full operation. The work of making bombs was carried on in an underground vault near the northern walls of the city.
The British Embassy here will oblige all of the English families who have taken refuge upon the chartered steamer Hungaria to return to their homes.
At Hasskein yesterday the houses of a number of Armenians living in that place were attacked by Turks, the male heads of these domestic establishments being absent. All of the Armenians servants In the dwellings were killed und the houses sacked. The ladies escaped to Yenikol for protection. having lost all their personal effects.
The estimates of the number of persons killed in the recent disturbances here are increasing.
The city has remained quiet to-day, except for the throwing of a bomb and the firing of a number of shots from revolvers by Armenians who were concealed in a flour store in Galata. No one was Injured by the bomb or bullets, and no damage to property resulted.
An imperial rescript has been issued, requesting the inhabitants not to make any excursions, either by land or water, this evening, upon the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the accession to the Sultanate of Abdul Hamid II.
The foreign diplomats have sent a second note to the Tone calling attention to the conclusive evidence obtained that the Moslem mob which massacred the Armenians was organized with the connivance of certain officials. It is known also that hundreds of ruffians were brought from the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus to take part in the work of murder and rapine, and were sent back to their homes after the bloody work had been finished.
LONDON, Aug. 31 — Sir Philip Currie. British Ambassador to Turkey, left London to-day on his return to Constantinople, his leave of absence having expired.
THE PORTE'S STORY OF THE RIOTS.
He Describes the Horrors of the Armenian Revolution In Turkey.
WASHINGTON, AUG. 31.— The Turkish Legation has received from the Sublime Porte the following telegram:
" The Central Committee of the Armenian revolutionists of Constantinople organized on a vast scale a programme of disorder and criminal acts. Separate groups of the revolutionists began their misdeeds at the same hour, but at different points of the capital. Besides revolvers and daggers, they used bombs of dynamite. About fifty of these men, entering separately into the Imperial Ottoman Bank, began by killing the guards and policemen, and throwing their heads in the street. Availing themselves of the general confusion that resulted, they shut the doors of the bank and fired and threw bombs from the windows on the passers-by. Four Turkish ladles were cut to pieces by one explosion, and two French clerks of the bank were wounded and would have been killed if Turkish soldiers had not come to their rescue.
At the same moment the [?am] of Djelal Bey, situated at Stamboul, was taken possession of by other revolutionists. who threw a run of bombs on those who happened to be in the streets near by. At the [Paowatia?] quarter, another band of Armenian Anarchists took possession of the public school and began there, too, to throw bombs in all directions, killing many innocent victims. In many parts of the capital, and even in the Armenians church of Pera? a great number of dynamite bombs were discovered.
"The Armenians faithful to the Imperial throne are indignant. and their Patriarch excommunicated in the name of Jesus Christ all the criminals who put in jeopardy the lives of innocent men and women. The Patriarch begged the Sublime Porte to communicate to the press his decision against the revolutionists, in order to stigmatize before the civilized world their crimes and horrors.
" A special commission has been instituted to judge the revolutionists caught in arms, as well as all Mussulmans who have been arrested under the charge of retaliation. The commission is composed of eight Christians and Mussulmans under the Presidency of Djelal Bey, member of the High Court of Turkey."
Turkish Banks Reopened
The New York Times, Sept. 3, 1896
TURKISH BANKS REOPENED.
But Practically No Business Done in Constantinople
CONSTANTINOPLE, Sept. 2.— All of the banks In Constantinople and Galutu, except the Credit Lyonnais. reopened their doors for business yesterday. Practically no business was transacted, but It is, nevertheless, a fact that commercial confidence is returning.
LONDON, Sept. 2.— It Is learned In the Foreign Office circle that Sir Philip Currie. the British Ambassador to Turkey, who started on his return to Constantinople on Monday. left England with instructions in dealing with the Sultan to act Independently of the other Ambassadors to the Porte if the occasion should require it.
Sir Philip, according to this source of Information, is also to have free command of British naval aid to enforce such demands as he may make. The Sultan will be advised of the change In England's policy in Turkey Immediately after the arrival of Sir Philip Currie In Constantinople.
WASHINGTON, Sept. 2 — The Turkish Legation has received from the Sublime Porte the following telegram: " When the troops were passing through Pera, on their return from the Selamlik, a bomb was thrown at them from a house, but although the bomb exploded, no harm was done. Three Armenians were arrested in connection with this attempt.
In the rooms of the ministers of the school for girls at Psomatia thirty-six bombs, dynamite, and firearms were discovered. The number of soldiers and agents of the authorities killed or wounded by the Armenian revolutionists during the troubles was considerable."
French Ambassador Warns Sultan / Armenian Immigration
Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette, Sept. 30, 1896, Front page
CAMBON IN EARNEST
French Ambassador Minced no Words in Warning the Sultan
Paris, Sept. 30 — A dispatch to the Temps from Constantinople says it is stated that "M. Cambon, the French. ambassador, has informed his colleagues that during his audience with the sultan on Friday last he acquainted his majesty with the uneasiness that the recent unchecked anarchy in Constantinople caused in Europe.
He declared that a repetition of the disorder would lead Europe to intervene, in consequence of the danger to which foreigners would be exposed.
He advised the sultan to exercise clemency to bring about the pacification of the Armenians and to differentiate the peaceful masses from the revolutionary element.
M. Cambon further stated that he had demanded the release of the thousands of innocent persons who were in prison;, the convoking of the Armenian assembly for the election of a patriarch and the execution of the reforms that had been promised by his majesty.
It is stated that the sultan promised to convoke the assembly and to extend the promised reforms to the whole empire.
The porte has issued a statement rejoicing at the apparent reaction in some of the London newspapers against the excessive and anti-sultan agitation in Great Britain, which, it declares, is answerable for the terror in Constantinople, the foreign residents naturally fearing the wrath of the Mussulmans at the insults to the sultan uttered 'by the speakers at the public meetings and by the journals in England. The statement continues:
"Despite the organized agitation, vituperation and clamorous provocation emanating from London, the porte has succeeded by dint of energy and watchfulness in proving that the alarm, of its English insulters is unfounded.
"The porte does not associate the British nation, for which it has the highest regard, with the agitation of a few hot-brained politicians, who are led astray by their passions.
"The moderation of the. European nations will, far more than the vociferations of England, help the porte to protect foreigners and Turkish subjects in the capital against the plots ot Armenian revolutionists."
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( Front page )
American Immigration Laws will Not Permit the Entrance of Penniless Armenians.
PROVISIONS ARE RIGID.
Sympathy and Sentiment Can Not Interfere With Enforcement of Law.
Washington, Sept. 30 — The attention of Commissioner Stump of the immigration bureau has been called to the movement looking to the colonization in this country of Armenian refugees. Mr. Stump said that Secretary Carlisle and himself had been fully advised of such a movement, and various appeals had been made from Lady Henry Somerset and Miss Frances Willard, and English and American relief societies, asking for the co-operation of the government in furnishing these stricken people an asylum in the United States.
While the sympathies of all good people must be aroused in their behalf, the officers of the government must enforce the laws as they exist. The matter was being investigated, and if any lawful means could be found they would be exercised in behalf of the refugees. The law on the subject, however, strictly inhibits the landing in this country of all persons likely to become [?] a public charge, and also "any person whose ticket or 'passage is paid for with he money of another, or who is assisted by others to come."
Lady Henry Somerset, it is understood. has inquired .whether bonds would be accepted that these Armenians will not become public charges, and a reply has been sent stating that the Department cannot accept bonds, except under special circumstances, and after thorough investigation of each individual case. Mr. Stump said that he was in full sympathy with any movement looking to the relief of the American refugees, but "sympathies cannot be allowed to interfere with a strict enforcement of law."
Threats of the Armenians
New York Times, Oct. 4, 1896
THREATS OF THE ARMENANS.
The Porte Negotiating with Their Revolutionary Committee.
CONSTANTINOPLE. Oct. 3.— On Thursday Oct. 1, the foreign diplomats received from the Armenian revolutionists a third threat of an Armenian demonstration. In the communication conveying the threat the revolutionists declared that "terrible events" would soon take place.
The leader of the Revolutionary Armenian Committee, in reply to questions about the threat, says it must have emanated from some one of the weaker revolutionary societies, which is totally unable to carry out its menace. The Huntchakist Party, he savs, had nothing to do with it, and is not prepared to take any action beyond the private removal of certain persons by assassination. Otherwise, he says, the Huntchakists will await events.
The Porte is negotiating with the Armenian Revolutionary Committee with a view of obtaining the cessation of dynamite outrages on the part of the revolutionists, promising in return to sanction the election of a new Armenian Patriarch, to grant general amnesty to Armenian political offenders, and effect reforms in all of the Asiatic provinces. Nobody believes in the good faith of the Porte in making these promises.
From what Is generally accepted as a reliable source of information. it is reported here that an entente has been established between England and Russia in regard to Turkey.
Armenian Banker May Lose Head / Alliance vs. Turkey
Hawaiian Gazette, Oct. 20, 1896
ARMENIAN BANKER MAY LOSE HIS HEAD.
His Fortune of a Million to be Confiscated.
NEW YORK Oct 3 —The Sun's London cable says: A short time ago Apik Oundjian Effendi. the millionaire Armenian contractor in Constantinople, was arrested on a charge of bribing state functionaries and embezzling Government funds. Within a week he managed to secure his release, and it has since been learned that the operation of unlocking the prison doors cost him $100,000. Had he been wise, Apik would have realized as much on his property as he could without attracting attention and taken the first steamer for Marseilles. He chose to dally, with the result that he is once more in prison with less chance of getting out, for he is charged with high treason, and if this is proven as there is little difficulty in doing, for witnesses are unusually cheap in Stamboul, the traitor's property can be confiscated The moment is a mighty bad one for the wealthy subjects of the Sultan, particularly Armenians.
Grumpkow Pasha, a German who has done well in the Sultan's service, has been touring in Europe on a desperate mission of raising a loan for his imperial master, no matter what interest might be demanded, for the Sultan's body guard has been in a state of incipient mutiny owing to arrears of pay and if their fidelity failed, his much worried majesty knew that he would be lost. Grumpkow was treated almost with contumely in every European capital, but in Berlin, it Is understood, he managed to obtain $300,000 at 2 per cent, or more, according to one version of the story. With this money the troops around the Yildiz Kiosk were paid something on account and the rest of the cash was expended in new rifles and full supplies of ammunition for them, and then the Sultan felt that he needed pocket money.
It was at that critical juncture that a police report reached the palace that on one of the Armenian conspirators recently arrested had been found a document giving a list of subscriptions to the revolutionary treasury, and that the list contained the name of Apik Oundjian Effendi, with a very big sum placed opposite it. Within an hour Apik was once more under lock and key. He protested that he gave money to the revolutionists under threats of assassination, and the statement is no doubt true enough for the accused was never known to give anything previously, and there is pretty ample proof that the conspirators who seized the Ottoman Bank extorted large sums from rich Armenians, practically at the revolver's mouth, Banker Karagivesian among them. But this is not likely to save Apik.
A moderate estimate of his fortune puts it at $10,000,000, and the Sultan would be flying in the face of Providence to let such a chance go without replenishing his coffers. Whatever may be Abdul Hamid's weakness in the matter of blood-letting, his piety is undoubted, and he would not be likely to offend Allah by neglecting to thoroughly bleed this particular Christian.
Millionaire Apik's factories, shops and villas and his fine palace overlooking the Bosphorus are now in the hands of the Sultan's confidential treason smellers They have planted and subsequently discovered compromising documents galore, so that virtually all that remains to be done is to find Apik Oundjian guilty in what passes in Turkey for due process of law, and then confiscate his property.
If he manages to keep his head on his shoulders he will be an exceptionally fortunate Armenian.
NEW TRIPLE ALLIANCE MOOTED
Russia, England and France May Settle the Turkish Question.
LONDON, Oct 3 — American ridicule having killed the chimerical triple alliance of the United States, Great Britain and Italy in joint action against Turkey, the alliance mongers have devised a new combination--Russia England and France. The report goes that Lord Salisbury has offered to hand over Constantinople to Russia on condition that England's occupation of Egypt is regular.
This arrangement has aroused the sarcasm of the Vienna press, which asks England how she would like it if any foreign power offered to "hand over" any British possession without consulting her. This, the Austrian papers say, would be no more insolent a proposal than for outsiders to distribute the Turkish dominions among one another while they ignored the existence of the Porte.
Some comment has been caused by the long silence of Sir William Vernon Harcourt, the leader of the opposition in the House of Commons, on the Turkish question. The Liverpool Courier now announces that he is engaged in most carefully preparing a speech which he will deliver in Monmouth next week. Sir William represents West Monmouthshire in the Commons. The Courier says that he intends to declare a new and effective policy regarding Turkey which France is likely to follow.
The women of France are preparing a monster petition to be presented to the Czarina on the occasion of her visit to Paris next week asking her majesty to exert hei influence with her husband to the end of obtaining the assent of the powers to Russia's deliverance of Armenia from Turkish rule.
Holdwater: While Apik Effendi appears to have been caught between a rock and a hard place, what if he were a revolutionary sympathizer? Too bad he didn't think of reporting the fact that he was being blackmailed the first go-round, even if he had decided to comply... otherwise, he could not have expected the Ottoman government to have simply released him without investigating, if he happened to get caught. Exorbitant bail, by the way, was and is not a practice restricted to the Ottomans. It would be interesting to learn exactly how much money was appropriated from this Armenian multi-millionaire, as the journalist simply and meanly speculated. (What he should have been asking is, how could an Ottoman-Armenian have grown so prosperous in a nation where the Armenians were supposedly so persecuted.)
As far as the second article it was nice for Austria-Hungary to have exposed the hypocrisy of the Allies. A few years later, Austria-Hungary would be caught playing by similar rules:
New York Times, Oct. 31, 1903
MACEDONIAN PLAN RESENTED.
Austria and Russia Are Said Not to Have Consulted Other Powers Before Presenting the Note to Turkey.
LONDON TIMES—NEW YORK TIMES Special Cablegram. LONDON, Oct. 31.— Diplomatic circles in Constantinople, says The Times's correspondent in the Turkish capital, do not receive the Austro-Russian scheme enthusiastically on account both of the nature of the proposals and the manner in which the affair was managed.
The note was presented to the Porte on Oct. 22, but the text was not communicated by the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to his colleagues' till last Tuesday.
It is stated by the Austrian press that the consent of all the powers had been obtained to the proposals before they were communicated to the Porte, but there is reason to believe that this is a mistake, and that the two powers only took the. rest of those concerned into their confidence two days after the note was presented. They seem, remarks the correspondent, to regard themselves as successeurs, not as mandataires of the European concert, thus ruffling many susceptibilities and arousing a certain amount of resentment.
The Sofia correspondent of The Times says Austria and Russia are thought to have shown an unfortunate want of tact in their method of procedure. Their conduct, as well as certain features of their scheme, undoubtedly exposes them to the charge of self-seeking.
Trenton Evening Times, Jan. 8, 1897
Their Hopeless Struggle Against the Turks the Cause of the Massacres.
Boston, Jan. 6. — A special meeting of the Woman's Board of Missions was held in the Park street church yesterday afternoon to listen to addresses by missionaries returned from Turkey Dr. Grace N. Kimball, formerly of the Van mission, in eastern Turkey, was the first speaker. She said she would speak plainly about the Armenian revolutionists. If they had been content to live as beasts of burden and slaves they would be safe from persecution. The young men, many of whom were educated in this country and Europe, formed clubs. They comprised but one per cent, of the Armenian population in Turkey. The great mass of Armenians are as much opposed to the revolutionary party as the Turks themselves, because they saw that the revolutionists' cause was a hopeless one, and tended only to bring destruction on themselves. Of the 100,000 Armenians who were butchered 99 per cent were people who knew nothing and cared nothing about revolution. Rev. W. A. Farnsworth, D.D., of Cesarea in western Turkey, gave the audience some conception of the extent of the Armenian massacres by comparing the loss in killed in some of the big battles of the civil war with the number killed in various places in Armenia by the Turks, showing that in many cases the Armenian loss was greater. Both speakers made appeals for aid for the Armenians.
Holdwater: Rev. Farnsworth. Sounds like an impartial source.
At least he did not go typically overboard with his estimate of the Armenian mortality of the mid-1890s, arriving at 100,000. Since the reverend received his information from Armenians and fellow missionaries, sources that regarded Muslim losses as invisible, of course the Armenian losses were going to appear greater. If they were greater, as they most likely were, the reasons had to do with the fact that when skirmishes were triggered in the "civil war" — pretty much always with the Armenians firing the first shot — the Armenians were simply outnumbered. Of course the Armenians would have gotten the worst of it. While certainly a good number of killed Armenians were innocent (99% has no basis in reality, however), much more of the same applied to the thousands of Muslim dead, the ones no one cared about.
Crafty Greece Only Waiting for the Right Moment
The North Adams Daily Transcript, April 13, 1897
BY TELEGRAPH IS NOW A WAITING GAME
News From the European War Scene Today Shows that Crafty Greece Is Only Waiting the Right Moment. Why War is Delayed.
(Special Dispatch to the Transcript.) Athens April 13 —The trouble between Greece aud Turkey is now only a waiting game. Neither side wants to be first to begin the war.
The frontier situation is developing slowly for two reasons, bad weather and extreme cold, and because dispatches are being considerably delayed intentionally or otherwise. The condition of affairs is no less menacing, however, and open hostilities or a bacK down of one or the other or both countries cannot be much longer delayed.
Both Greece and Turkey are trying to avoid if possible being classed as the agressor in the conflict. It is an open secret here that by the end of the week at least 10,000 Greek irregulars will be in Macedonia, Albania and Epirus, thus making really successful steps in a war like direction before hardly a shot is fired.
It is acknowledged that Greece is gaining by every hour of delay, and is getting her troops in the best possible position for the opening of the war. This shows the shrewdness of the Greek leaders.
---- St. Petersburg, April 13 — The Novoe Vremya declares that all coercion of Greece on the part of the Powers will cease as soon as war is declared, because otherwise it would bear the character ot intervention in behalf ot lurkey. This will hasten Greece's action.
------- Larissa, April 13 — The invaders continue to blockade [Balt? ne]. It is reported that Turkish re-enforcements are now en route from [Diskata].
The remainder of the insurgents have taken up positions in the mountains. The latest details at hand are that the invaders dynamited the Turkish posts opposite [Phonika] and [Perliangin]. The troops here were kept standing under arms yesterday afternoon as it was feared that the raid would hasten hostilities. There has been an outbreak of smallpox among the Turks and many deaths are reported at [Damasi].
Turkish Report of the Invasion
Elassona, April 13 -The Turkish staff officer who was sent to [Kianis] by Edhem Pasha to ascertain definitely with respect to the invasion reports that the presence of Greek regulars among the invaders had been positively proved and that there is also good reason to believe that Greek officers of the regular army were in command. He states further that the bands be hidden during the daytime and sally forth at night to fire upon the Turkish troops. Edhem Pasha's staff are great ly puzzled by these attacks. His officers say let tne Greeks make war or keep still. It is reported that the Greeks had [?2] killed and the Turks 2 with 12 wounded. The latter belonged to the patrol posted on the edge of the forest where the Greeks were in hiding. They were picked off by sharpshooters. The report of the staff officer in question has been wired to Constantinople and a reply is anxiously awaited The Turkish forces here continue in excellent condition. The soldiers are obedient and willing while the officers are actively engaged from sunrise until late at night. Many of them are in the saddle 20 hours out of the 24.
Constantin to Inspect the Frontier. Athens April 13 — The Crown Prince Constantin will shortly leave Larissa to inspect the posts on the frontier. He will be accompanied by a battalion of infantrv and a squadron of cavalry.
It is reported here that a strong band equipped by the Ethnike hetairia is ready to enter Macedonia near Catterina and another to enter [Epirus] from the Island of Corfu.
Statement of Mustafa Bey
Washington, April 13 — In the course ot an intervieew with a press representative, Mustafa Bey the Turkish minister said, "It is true that some trouble has occurred at Tokat but the dispatches have greatly exaggerated the importance of the affair. Nevertheless, the governor of Tokat, the military commander of that place, the chief of police and seveial other officials had been removed and placed under arrest as as a preliminary step to their trial and punishment for not having been able to avert these troubles.
The Vali of Sivas said the minister has received formal orders to detect at any cost the perpetrators of the incident, to punish them with the utmost rigor of the law and to prevent a renewal of such regrettable acts. Beside a commission composed of high civil and military officers both Mussulmans and Christians selected from among prominent and impartial persons has been appointed and sent immediately under the presidency of his excellency Hassa Fehmi Pasha dlrector of the custom houses of the empire in order to make an inquiry on the spot and to try and punish the guilty parties in an exemplars manner.
The Armenian revolutionists, added the Turkish minister, are now seeking in every way to provoke the disturbance at different points of the empire with a view to increasing the embarrassments of the Turkish government, owing to the affairs of Crete and Greece. Consequently, all the provincial authorities have been urged to watch day and night that no acts likely to give rise to any disturbing incident among Mussulmans and Christians may occur.
Germans Aiding Turks
The Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette (Iowa), Apr. 03, 1897 (Also same-dated Manitoba Morning Free Press)
GERMANS ARE PRACTICING.
Keeping Bright in the Act of War by Aiding the Turks.
Constantinople, April 3 — It is stated on undoubted authority that the efficient manner in which the Turkish forces were mobilized on the Greek frontier is due to German officers.and it is added that all the plans of campaign intrusted to them to carry out have been prepared by able strategists in Berlin. The greatest confidence, therefore, is felt in military circles here as to the outcome of any conflict between Turkey and Greece. In official circles it is decided that a direct agreement between Turkey and Greece- would be hailed with the greatest satisfaction, by the British government.
According to a telegram received by tlie Turkish government, the Armenian revolutionists abroad intend to cause the resumption of rioting in Anatolia, about the middle of April, when the snows are melted. This is an intimation, that further massacres may be looked forward to at about the same time.
Armed Movement Against the Sultan
Liverpool Courier, Jan. 14, 1897
ARMED MOVEMENT AGAINST THE SULTAN.
NEW CAMPAIGN BY YOUNG TURKS
THREAT TO BLOW UP YILDIZ KIOSK.
Reuter's correspondent At Philippopolis writes under date of the 9th instant as follows: "This morning, in the principal streets of the city, a great number of placards printed in red ink in Turkish were found, and quickly torn down by the police. Similar placards have keen found also in all Turkich coffee- houses, and have created a great stir among Turks. The Turkish Consul, Ibrahim Fetih Bey, has complained to the Prefect against the placards, and this explains the activity of Ine police in suppressing them. They are issued by the Turkey Party, which has of late been increased by fresh arrivals from Constantinople. The following is a translation of passages of the placard in question:
"To the Faithful : That Sultan Hamid is mad is known to all ol us. Our religion prescribes to all true Mussulmans that they shall kill every mad dog they come across. The Young Turkey Party, which hitherto has abstained from bloodshed, has now decided to assume the title of 'Revolutionary,' and will use arms in future against the Sultan and his followers. We are prepared to meet every resistance on their part. Our duty now is to kill, to burn to ashes, and to ruin everything connected with the Palace of the Yildiz Kiosk. We shall blow it up towards the atars, whence it derives its name. Those who do not wish to join us and desire to save their lives let them hasten to the Baba Ali (Sublime Porte), and to the Konaks in the provinces and demand justice, and if they are refused their just rights then let them also take up arms and fight for their rights. Be not fearful. Follow the example of our compatriots, the Armenian revolutionists. You who have been trying to put down the Armenian revolt take the lead of it, and revolt against the tyranny which oppresses you. Tremble, oh Turks ! Inactivity on your part means faithlessness, and is unworthy of a true Mussulman. Revenge, revenge, is the cry of so many fathers and mothers who are groaning under the yoke of this cruel Government. We ask you to do your duty ; we shall do ours. With this call on you to do your duty w« relieve ourselves of a great responsibility. The hour to strike has come ; let every true Moslem do his duty."
THE CONDITION OF THE ARMENIAN PROVINCES.
(CENTRAL NEWS TELEGRAM.)
Constantinople (via Philippopolis).Tuesday.
Advices from the Armenian, provinces describe the situation of the Armenian population as most precarious. Many families, having lost their chiefs; consist almost entirely of defenceless women and children, who live in daily expectation of being massacred by men encouraged by the example of outrages committed with impunity. Four thousand vilayete are said to be in this condition.
40,000 EMIGRANTS TO TRANS-CAUCASIA.
St. Petersburg, Wednesday. The "Novosti" to-day reports that 40,000 Armenians have emigrated from Turkey to Trans-Caucasia, where fresh parties are still expected from the vilayet of Van, and that the emigrants are in a terrible state of destitution.
THE SULTAN AND SIR ASHMEAD BARTLETT.
(CENTRAL NEWS TELEGRAM.)
Constantinople, Tuesday. The audience which Sir Ellis Ashmead Bartlett had of his Majesty the Sultan yesterday was a private one, aud lasted two hours. The Sultan expressed the most friendly sentiments towards England and the English people. His Majesty explained with much care the reforms which have been carried oat in the Eastern vilayets of Asia Minor, and which were being extended to the other provinces. He especially dwelt upon the appointment of Christian sub-Governors, the admission of Christians into the gendarmerie, and the careful inspection of the court of justice that is being made. The Sultan informed Sir Ellis that practical measures had also been taken for the re-building of the houses and churches in the villages, and for the distribution of relief to the suffering, which will he continued throughout the winter. His Majesty stated the most direct and positive orders had bsen given to all tho officials that the first attempts at violence should be immediately checked and the offenders punished. In spite of the enormous expense to which Turkey has been put of late in keeping over 400,000 men under arms, the Turkish Budget showed a surplus. His Majesty said the Government had no intention of interfering in any way with the service of the debt, or with the revenues assigned to the bondholders. The Sultan said that tranquillity now prevailed everywhere, and would be maintained and that prosperity would soon be completely restored to ail sections of hie people. A special commission, composed of very capable men, had just been appointed to supervise the choice and appointments of all officials, so that only the most worthy might be promoted ; and a special commission, consisting of two Europeans and two Turkish subjects, had likewise been appointed for the supervision and improvement of the finances. His Majesty trusted that his intentions would bo rightly judged by the English people from these practical acts of reform. After hia audience with the Sultan, Sir Ashmead Bartlett, who is accompanied by his private secretary, Mr. Wm. H. Bennnett, had a very interesting interview with Ghazi Daman Pasha, the hero of Plevna.
Armenian Revolutionists Defend Recent Bomb-Throwing
Cedar Rapids Eve Gazette, Aug. 23. 1897
LAST DESPERATE RESORT.
Armenian Revolutionists Defend Recent Bomb-Throwing.
Constantinople, Aug. 23 — The foreign ambassadors here have received a circular letter from the Armenian Dashnak-Zutium committee almost identical with that sent to them in 1896, declaring that the Armenians are tired of waiting and are resolved to take action for the redress of their grievances.
Geneva, Aug. 23 — The Groshat, the organ of the Constantinople committee of the Armenian revolutionary federation, which is printed here, asserts that the recent explosions in Constantinople were the work of the committee, and says the committee is directing the movements of the parties who are fighting the Turks in the vilayet of Van.
"We are obliged," the Groshat says, "to resort to every possible means to carry on the struggle against such overwhelming odds. Revolution is the only source left us."
Sentenced to Death
Sandusky Star, Aug. 28, 1898
SENTENCED TO DEATH.
CONSTANTINOPLE, Aug. 25.— A dispatch from Van, Asia Minor, says eleven Armenian revolutionists have been condemned at that place. Two were sentenced to death and the others to imprisonment.
The Turk No Religious Persecutor
New York Times, Sept. 10, 1898
In Harper's Magazine for September, Mr. Sidney Whitman's article, "The Turk at Home," will give to many new ideas in regard to the vexed Armenian subject. In the first place the Turk, even if an official, is little given to talk. As far as the gift of the gab goes as represented by a French or German, or most partlcuarly by a Russian, the Ottoman Is nowhere. Said a Turkish friend to Mr. Whitman: "We are a taciturn people. We cannot defend ourselves in writing. We suffer rather In silence." Attacks on the Turkish Government, emanating in foreign papers, are there never noticed, "but there is certainly something to be said on the Turkish side. How many are the Armenians n Asiatic Turkey? According to reliable statistics some 800.000. They cannot be called a nation, and these are scattered "over an area half the size of Europe." Now what is their condition when compared with 5.000,000 Russian Jews cooped within the pale assigned to them by a strong Government," and that Government but yesterday begging for a period of eternal pence? Mr. Whitman writes that the Armenian revolutionists state that they cannot exist In Turkey on account of persecution "on religious grounds." The truth is that the Armenian language, creed, and schools are perfectly free in Turkey, and persistently interfered with in Russia, They accuse the Turk of religious fanaticism, whereas the high road from Trebizond to Erzeroum is lined on both sides with Christian monasteries and churches of various denominations." Is it generally known that for centuries Turkey has been the asylum of men of various creeds when they were tortured, burned, or beheaded in other parts of Europe. Mr. Whitman tells many facts relating to Turk and Armenian, and the influences of missions for good or bad on the latter.
The above (where the emphasis was Holdwater's) was embellished by a shorter variation in the Sept. 25, 1898 issue of the New York Times, adding:
THE TURK NO RELIGIOUS PERSECUTOR.
The Turkish-Armenian revolutionists state that it is impossible to hope for anything but persecution on religious grounds from the Turk, says Sidney Whitman, writing In Harper's Magazine in defense of the Turk, whereas the Armenian language, creed, and schools are perfectly free In Turkey, and persistently Interfered with in Russia. They accuse the Turk of religious fanaticism whereas the highroad from Trebizond to Erzeroum is lined on both sides with Christian monasteries and churches of various denominations.
These Christian monasteries and churches have existed peacefully and unmolested, been protected even by imperial firman, throughout ages during which it was a capital offense in England for a Roman Catholic priest to read the mass; during which Irish Protestants ruthlessly slaughtered Catholics, regardless of age or sex; during which Jews were burned at the stake in Spain in their thousands, those that escaped flying to Turkey, where they found an asylum, during which the centre of Europe was so frightfully devastated by religious fanaticism that the dead were torn from their graves to feed the starving population.
Armenian Newspaper Coverage — 1900s, vs. Turks
The bigoted American and Western press naturally depicted "The Armenian Question" almost entirely from the perspective of Armenian and WWI propaganda. But even with some of these articles, the inconsistencies of the "genocide" tale slipped through; sometimes the newspapers even released accounts of the Armenians' belligerence. As we know, the two big "genocides" committed were in the mid-1980s and 1915-16. Save for the Adana incidents of 1909 (also presented as a sort of "genocide," where we are told innocent Armenians were massacred for no reason, neglecting the usual fact that the Armenians fired the first shot), the 1900s are frequently bypassed. Yet the Armenians were very active, practicing their familiar methods of terror and murder. Sometimes the press reported their terrorism against Azeris (when Armenians did not like the status quo in Baku, where the Azeri Turks were rich and Armenians were the workers, and they engaged in the "Armenian-Tatar" War of 1905... yet another episode presented as poor, innocent Armenians getting picked on), but as you will see on this page, the terrorist Armenians were very busy with the Ottoman Turks. (And sometimes Russians, as well.)
This page will feature some of these accounts, as well as others of interest, taking place during the decade of the 1900s.
Many thanks to Gokalp.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1) Antranik Seizes Armenian Convent
2) Fifty Terrorists Set Fire to Muslim Town; Blow Up Barracks
3) Turkey Disquieted by Armed Armenians
4) Assailants of Galatzin
5) Hamid's Sleep Comes High / Russianizing the Armenians
6) Bomb Thrown Among Russians
7) Fighting in Turkey, Battle with Armenian Rebels
8) Destroy Many Towns / Turks Lose 136
9) Armenians Fight Turks
10) Armenians Kill Turks
10b) Armenians on War Path
11) Trains Derailed and Thrown Over Precipice
12) Real Revolution There
13) Powers Give Approval / Russian Slaughter of Jews
14) Officers Raid a Bomb Factory
15) Armenians massacred forty-two workmen
16) Commissioned to Kill
17) American Penal Practice, 1906: Ball and Chain
18) Daring Revolutionary Plot
19) Four Villages Reduced to Ashes
20) Turk Troops Wipe Out Greek Insurgents
21) The New Woman in Turkey
Antranik Seizes Armenian Convent
The Idaho Daily Statesman, Nov. 24, 1901 (Also in Mountain Democrat, Dec. 7, 1901)
Constantinople, Nov. 23.— A band of Armenian revolutionists commanded by an individual named Andranik has seized the Armenian convent in the neighborhood of Mush and is now entrenched therein. The convent Is surrounded by troops.
The Decatur Review (Illinois), Nov. 25, 1901
Armenian revolutionists seized a convent near Mush and defied the Turkish troops.
The sultan of Turkey protests against the constant intermeddling of foreign nations in Turkish affairs, declaring it will be impossible for him to carry out reforms until the foreign governments learn to keep their hands off.
The Des Moines Daily Leader, Nov. 11, 1901
AN UNSATISFACTORY EXPLANATION
Representative of the Porte Tells of the Seizure of a Convent.
London, Nov. 26.— Costaki Anthopulo Pacha, the Turkish ambassador to Great Britain, has given out the porte's explanation of the seizure of an Armenian convent in the neighborhood of Mush by Armenian revolutionists, and the subsequent surrounding of the convent by Turkish troops. The ambassor [sic] says that bandits have been ravaging the country and extorting money and goods from the Armenian population, murdering those who refused to comply with their demands. These bandits brought about sixty women and children as prisoners to the monastery, and Andranika, the leader of the bandits, tried to obtain money by threats from the Armenians of Mush.
Thereupon, in order to protect the women and children, the imperial authorities surrounded the monastery with Turkish troops. Some fighting occurred, during which two brigands and a Turkish corporal were killed. British and Russian consuls repaired to the scene and testified to the correct attitude of the Turkish soldiers. The brigands kept up a hot fire from the monastery, and being well provisioned, they were able to offer a stout resistance.
This official statement from the Turkish ambassador does not explain how the affair ended, but a despatch received subsequently from Constantinople says that the brigands fled and the Turkish troops were withdrawn.
Holdwater: Note the insulting headline. Too bad these bigoted newspapers couldn't do without the editorializing in their presentation of the news. They had to get their zingers in there, reminding readers that anything coming from Turkish sources couldn't be trusted. In view of what we know of how these terrorists operated, there is nothing in the statement that sounds suspicious.
Pretty cool that the Ottoman ambassador to Britain was Greek, as was the ambassador (termed a "minister," actually; he's the one missionary Cyrus Hamlin tried to paint as a traitor to his Ottoman nation) to the USA. These were not far from the days when a Catholic would be lucky to be elected as dog catcher in United States politics.
Fifty Terrorists Set Fire to Muslim Town; Blow Up Barracks
The Fort Wayne Sentinel, Sept. 11, 1901
PREPARING THE PUBLIC
Constantinople, Tuesday, Sept. 10. Fifty Armenian revolutionists, according to Turkish reports, recently set fire to the Mussulman quarters at Mush, Turkish Armenia, where fighting afterward occurred, the Armenians retiring toward Sassoun. It is also reported that on September 3 Armenians and Turks blew up the barracks at Sassoun, where 3,000 troops were stationed, and that a state of panic prevailed there in consequence. Such Turkish reports have previously been forerunners of massacres of Armenians, and it is generally apprehended by non-Mussulmans here that massacres have already taken place.
Holdwater: So here we have Armenians behaving criminally, and the newspaper makes sure to let us know it's all a front to hide the criminal acts of the Turks committed or sure to follow.
TURKEY DISQUIETED BY ARMED ARMENIANS
The Weekly Sentinel, May 20, 1903
(Also in The Lima Times Democrat May 16, 1903: DISQUIET PREVALENT Among Turks Over the Invasions by Armed Bands of Armenians; The Daily Northwestern, May 16, 1903: ARMENIAN BANDS ACTIVE. THEY CROSS INTO TURKEY FROM RUSSIAN TERRITORY AND HIDE IN MOUNTAINS. The Officials of the Porte Are Disquieted, Fearing a Reprisal of Revolutionary Efforts. This one has following addition: "Rome, May 16.—It is reported that Turkey has agreed to buy two warships which have been built for the Argentine republic." Another two carrying the same article were The Fort Wayne Sentinel, May16-1903, and The Oakland Tribune, May 16, 1903: JAILS ARE OVERFLOWING WITH PRISONERS. Bulgarians are Getting a Rough Deal at the Hands of the Turks. The latter two also carried accounts of Jews mistreated/massacred in Bessarabia. See below.)
TURKEY DISQUIETED BY ARMED ARMENIANS
Invasion of Warlike Bands is Said to Proceed from Russian Territory.
Constantinople, May 16.—The Turkish authorities are disquieted at the recent appearance of bands of Armenian revolutionists, coming from Russia, in the districts of Bayazid and Sausun, Armenia, and are adopting rigorous measures to guard the frontier. The Armenians cross in small parties in the neighborhood of Bayazid and thence they make their way to the Sausun mountains, where they are safe from pursuit. It is alleged here that the Russian authorities of Kars, Asiatic Russia, are aware of the movement of the Armenian revolutionists, but that they do not interfere. It is believed that the appearance of these bands indicates a revival of activity on the part of the old Armenian committees, who are understood to be anxious to be in a position to take advantage of possible complications arising from the Macedonian situation, in which case the claims of the Armenians will be revived and the same advantages gained by the Macedonians from European intervention will be demanded for Armenia.
The Turkish government has notified the Bulgarian exarch that Gerassimos, bishop of Strumitza, Macedonia, has been removed and has invited the exarch to appoint his successor. The exarch, however, refused to recognize the authority of the Turkish government to remove the bishop and has advised Gerassimo, who is practically a prisoner in his own house, to remain firm. It is alleged that Bishop Gerassimos is a supporter of the Macedonian movement, but it is also stated that the charges are brought by the jealous Greek clergy.
The prisons of Macedonia are overflowing with Bulgarians, the Turkish authorities hoping to thereby paralyze the action of the Macedonian committees.
It was announced today that Turkish troops, entered Ipek, Albania yesterday and not May 8, as previously announced, after meeting with strong opposition.
Assailants of Galatzin
The Lima Times Democrat, Oct. 30, 1903
ASSAILANTS OF GALATZIN.
Three in Number Have Been Identified by the Authorities.
Tiflis Russian Trans-Caucasia. Oct. 30.— The three men who attacked Prlnce Galatzin, the governor of the Caucasus, on the outskirts of this city Tuesday, while he was driving with his wife, and who were subsequently killed by Cossacks, have been identified as belonging to the lower class of Armenians.
Holdwater: Galitzin (who had little mercy for Armenians) was seriously wounded, and was replaced by Vorontsov-Dashkov. The Hunchak background of the assassins was missed by this news report, which was ironic; the other front page news item (“ARMENIAN IDENTIFIED”) regarded the arrest of Krikorian, on suspicion of the murder of Sagouni, which was creating a big fuss in the newspapers, uncovering the terrorist nature of the Hunchaks. See more on the "1900s" page focusing on terror reportage.
Hamid's Sleep Comes High / Russianizing the Armenians
Sandusky Evening Star, Oct. 2, 1903
His Sleep Comes High
This illustration of Abdul Hamid accompanied
Probably no ruler on earth has more cause to feel uneasy when bedtime comes than the sultan of Turkey. Abdul Hamid shows that he doesn't feel safe when asleep by requiring a guard of several officers and a score of private soldiers in and about his bedroom at night. It is estimated that the sultan's nocturnal guard costs expressed in American terms, $900 a night, and the officials [??] get their wages every morning.
This expensive guard his been maintained by the sultan since the assassination of the king and queen of Servia. Of course the timorous ruler of Turkey always has bten particularly well guarded at night but the murders at Belgrade scared Abdul Hamid almost out of Us wits and he at once established his high priced guard. The command of the guard is intrusted to eight of the sultan's most faithful generals, two of whom are on duty every night.
Holdwater: An 1896 newspaper report told us the sultan was so broke, he couldn't afford to pay these guards. You know you're in trouble as a monarch when you can't pony up a lousy grand a night.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(And on the same page:)
(Eradication?) of Armenia.
Apparently the czar is having somewhat more difficulty in Russianizing the Armenians than he is in Russianizing the Finns. While the latter do not take kindly to the process, they have no Mafia and they do not resort to the knife. Their resistance is so far confined to mere protest and to immigration to the United States.
With the Armenians it is different. The trouble in that quarter is religious, racial and political, and is causing no little discomfiture to the czar's government. The Russian frontier has in recent years been advanced to take in about one third of the Armenian race. With the last advance of the Russian line there was a general movement of the Armenians from Turkish territory to the Russian side, as the people believed that, whatever their political status might be under the Russian flag, they would at least be free to practice their religion. Their church is older than the Russian church, older than the Roman church. But the Russians have been "converting" by means which the Armenians regard as practically a coercion many Armenians to their own form ot Christianity. A recent Russian decree has handed over the property of the Armenian national church in in Transcaucasia to the Russian civil administration, an act which can only be regarded as a step toward the suppression of the church altogether.
The response of the Armenians is one of assassination, and Russian officials and ecclesiastics are falling victims, as the Russians themselves, to revolutionists from Turkish territory. In this collision with the Armenian national movement the Russians are in a sense hoist by their own petard for the Turkish government has been complaining for the last dozen years of the propaganda carried on in their dominions by Armenian revolutionists from Russian Transcaucasia. Meanwhile there seems to be no safe ground for the Armenian except in America, and, though tbey are permitted to find asylum here, they are less welcome than are the hardy and industrious Finns.
Holdwater: the report makes it seem as though the Armenians were not free to practice their religion in the Ottoman Empire ("... the people believed that, whatever their political status might be under the Russian flag, they would at least be free to practice their religion"), which was terribly unfair and inaccurate. The reason why the Armenians moved was because their terrorist leaders were working on their people's rabid nationalism, as well as their racist hatred of Turks, and the ones who moved stupidly figured they would be allowed to live in a sort of independent Armenia. Many regretted their decision later, as their lives were infinitely better in the Ottoman Empire. One description that's great in the above is that Armenians have a "Mafia."
Bomb Thrown Among Russians
Sandusky Star, Feb. 17, 1904
Was Thrown Among Russians Who Were Praying for Victory.
Berlin, Feb 17. — Lokal Anzeiger reports that during divine service at Baku in Russian Trans Caucasia to-day while prayers were being offered for a Russian victory in the far east. Armenian revolutionists hurled a bomb into the congregation. Three persons were killed and many injured.
Holdwater: The identity of the bomb thrower may not have been known, but we don't need to guess very hard.
Fighting in Turkey, Battle with Armenian Rebels
The News (Frederick, Maryland), May 2, 1904
FIGHTING IN TURKEY
Troops Lose 20 Killed and 23 Wounded in Battle With Armenian Rebels.
Constantinople, May 2.— According to official advices there has been serious fighting In the Sassun district of Asia Minor between the troops and Armenia insurgents numbering 2000. The troops lost 20 killed and 23 wounded. Twelve villages in the Talori district , have been destroyed, but whether by insurgents or Kurds Is not known.
There are 10,000 troops in the disturbed area.
Private advices say that the Kurds attacked two villages north of Sassun, losing 26 killed.
[The Sassun district of Asia Minor became notorious in 1894 because of a series of massacres of Armenians by Kurds. In the same year there were massacres of Armenians In the neighboring districts of Bitlis and Mush.]
Holdwater: Usually, whenever there was the rare report of Armenian belligerence, they would stick in a reminder (from "Private advices," this time) that the poor, innocent Armenians were once again being brutalized.
Destroy Many Towns / Turks Lose 136
The Iowa Recorder, June 01, 1904
Destroy Many Towns.
According to a dispatch from the Vali of Bitlis, Asiatic Turkey, seventeen villages have been destroyed by Armenian insurgents in the district of Sassun. More than 600 Armenian families have taken refuge at Mush, a town in Bitlis.
The New York Times, May 19, 1904
TURKS LOSE 136 IN BATTLE.
Fight with Armenians in Mush District -Sassoun Laid Waste.
LONDON, May 19.— The Central News correspondent at Baku, Caucasia, reports a serious fight between Armenians and Turkish troops at Chelcuzan, in the district of Mush.
The Turks lost 136 killed and wounded, while the.Armenians had their leader and many others killed.
CONSTANTINOPLE, May 18.— According to a dispatch from the Vali of Bitlis, Asiatic Turkey, seventeen villages have been destroyed by Armenian insurgents in the district of Sassoun.
More than 600 Armenian families have taken refuge in Mush, a town in Bitlls.
Armenians Fight Turks
The Post-Standard, Syracuse, N.Y., September 6, 1904
ARMENIAN INSURGENTS RESISTING THE TURKS.
Uprising Reported at Van in Asiatic Turkey.
The Washington Post SEPTEMBER 6, 1904, p. 1
ARMENIANS FIGHT TURKS.
Insurgents Successfully Resisting Sultan's Troops at Van.
Paris, Sept. 5 — A despatch to the Temps from Constantinople, by way of Sofia, says that an official report which has reached one of the foreign consuls there states that Armenian insurgents at Van, Asiatic Turkey, are successfully resisting the Turkish troops, which until yesterday had been unable to reduce or disperse them. The Armenians advanced to within about 400 yards of the French consulate. The population of Van is seeking refuge in the schools and convents. It is expected that Turkey will mobilize the Fourth Army Corps and draw troops from Asia Minor in order to suppress the uprising.
It was announced from Constantinople September 2 that a fierce flght between Armenian insurgents and Turkish troops had occurred at Van August 31, and that more than a score were killed. About 150 Armenians raided the town, captured four houses, and barricaded themselves. Troops attacked the houses, and in the fight which followed two soldiers and twenty other persons were killed The authorities set fire to a number of adjoining houses, so that the troops might be better enabled to besiege the insurgents. It was said by the authorities that other Armenian bands were preparing to cross the Persian frontier.
Holdwater: This was exactly the type of occurrence, where Turkish law officers were performing their duty in confronting these criminals, that would normally be reported in the Western press as a "massacre." For example, we can easily imagine the Armenians who would tearfully tell this tale to missionaries or consuls, referring to the houses set afire as done out of the usual Turkish barbarity. This one story got through with some accuracy, remarkably enough.
Armenians Kill Turks
The account below was reported in many newspapers, and the short and long versions may be seen. The Manitoba Free Press (Aug. 10) and The Daily Huronite (Aug. 12) blared: ARMENIANS AVENGE TURKISH ATROCITIES. Troops Destroy Five Villages — Armenians Slaughter Two Garrisons. The Frederick News (Aug. 10)'s version: TURKISH TROOPS ANNIHILATED. Destroyed Several Villages and Were Slain By Armenians.
The Anaconda Standard, Aug. 10, went halfsies (ARMENIANS AND TURKS BUTCHERING EACH OTHER) while The Indiana Democrat, Aug. 17, could not resist the typical Terrible Turk slant: ARMENIANS AND TURKS FIGHT. Turks Destroy Villages and Massacre the Natives.
Here is the way The Daily Huronite, Aug. 12,1904, and The Bismarck Daily Tribune, Aug. 11, put it:
ARMENIANS KILL TURKS.
Several Hundred Soldiers Slain by Insurgents.
London, Aug. 11.— The Tabriz, Persia, correspondent of the Daily News, in a dispatch dated Aug. 6, says:
"On July 13 a band of Armenian revolutionists appeared near Outchkilissa. Turkish soldiers and Kurds, finding an excuse, attacked and. destroyed the villages of of Outchkilissa, Koomlouboujak, Gougan, Karabazar, and Savto butchering men and outraging women.
"Two large Armenian bands. marching to Sassoun to help the insurgent leader Antranlk, attacked the garrisons at Mossunzory and Goutchagh for revenge on July 25. At dawn bombs were thrown into these places, killing many, and severe fighting ensued. A majority of the soldiers were killed, and the garrisons resembled graveyards. One band forced its way through the Kurdish tribes towards Arjess. The number of soldiers killed amounted lo several hundred."
(The long version)
The Washington Post, front page, August 10, 1904
SLAIN WITH BOMBS
Turkish Garrisons Attacked by Armenian Rebels.
REVENGE FOR MASSACRE
Several Hundred Soldiers Killed in Fighting Around Sassun.
Destruction of Five Villages and Massacre of the Male Population Followed by Desperate and Successful Counter Attack- No Reply to Secretary Hay's Note Yet Received from the Porte-- Our Stand Justified at Berlin.
London, Aug. 10.— The Tabriz, Persia, correspondent of the Daily News, in a dispatch dated August 6, says:
"On July 3 a band of Armenian revolutionists appeared near Outchkillasa. Turkish soldiers and Kurds, finding an excuse, attacked and destroyed the villages of Outchkilissa, Koomlouboujak, Gougan, Karabazar, and Savto, butchering men and outraging women.
"Two large Armenian bands marched to Sassun to help the insurgent leader Antranik attack the garrison at Mossunsory and Goutchagh for revenge on July 25. At dawn bombs were thrown into these places, killing many, and severe fighting ensued. A majority of the soldiers were killed and the garrisons resembled graveyards. One band forced Its way through the Kurdish tribes towards Arjess.
"The number of soldiers killed amounted to several hundred."
Demands Not Yet Granted.
Constantinople, Monday, Aug. 8.-The American Legation has not yet received a reply from the porte regarding the demand upon the Turkish government for the same favored treatment in the matter of schools, hospitals, and charitable institutions accorded to other powers. However, it is anticipated by diplomats that the demands will be granted before the arrival of the American squadron at Smyrna.
Berlin, Aug. 9.-Secretary Hay's course toward Turkey, according to the official view here. is fully justifiable. The example of France In forcing the porte to settle claims through a fleet demonstration is cited as an analogous case, and the officials here expect that the Sultan will promptly yield to the United States' demands before the demonstration at Smyrna reaches a serious aspect. Germany, unlike most European countries, has no claims against Turkey, although Turkey still owes money to Germany's shipbuilding and arms companies. The very exceptional relations Germany has with the porte will, it Is assumed, be favorable to America should the Sultan ask for German's advice.
Better Diplomatic Status.
The press generally prints the news of the action taken by Secretary of State Hay with regard to the difficulties between the United States and Turkey without commenting thereon.
The National Zeitung, however, considers the subject at great length, and says that the center of gravity lies in the demands of the United States, which are no longer for compensation to Americans for losses sustained owing to the troubles in Armenia, but for the raising of American diplomatic representation to ambassadorial dignity in order that American citizens may enjoy in Turkey the same rights and privileges enjoyed by the citizens of other powers signatory to the treaties of Paris and Berlin.
The Turkish government opposes the wishes of the United States in this respect ostensibly on the grounds of economy, but really because naturalized Armenians, "American Asiatics," are the most dangerous enemies to the existing order of affairs in Turkey.
The Sultan, the National Zeitung says, is not likely to yield without a hard struggle, and President Roosevelt cannot afford the loss of prestige which, would result from a failure to enforce his demands. For this latter reason the outcome will be watched with the greatest interest.
Possible Diplomatic Rupture.
Secretary Hay occupies considerable time at the Cabinet meeting yesterday in a presentation of the latest phases of the Turkish situation. He recounted the details of his interview with Chekib Bey, the Turkish Minister, at which the Secretary forcibly stated the attitude of the American government. He explained also the reasons which had actuated him in requesting that the American European Squadron should be sent to Smyrna, the most convenient port to Constantinople, It is not deemed wise by the Secretary that the reasons for this action should be disclosed entirely at this time.
Fresh negotiations with the porte have been instituted, and, in the event of their failure, it may be that Minister Leishman will leave his post and go aboard the American flagship, thus creating a situation of some seriousness.
Holdwater: You can bet the sneakiest move of the Armenian "colonists" was to become American citizens, not caring anything about America of course, with the idea of going back to the Ottoman Empire to stir trouble, now counting on the protection of the United States government. Indeed, "American Asiatics" were "the most dangerous enemies to the existing order of affairs in Turkey."
Armenians on War Path
The Mansfield News ("Only Four Escaped"), August 2, 1904; also The Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette ("Armenians Make Raid"), The Altoona Mirror ("Revolutionists are Active"). and The Ogden Standard ("Armenians Ambush Soldiers"). The one below is from The Anaconda Standard:
Armenians on War Path.
Constantinople, Aug. 1.— Official telegrams report that a band of Armenian revolutionists ambushed a party of soldiers near Moush. On the arrival of reinforcements the Armenians fled, setting fire to three villages on their way.
Another band of Armenians, numbering 60, attacked the village of Mousum, in the vilayet of Erzeroum, but was repulsed by the garrison, and attempted to escape to the Russian frontier. This was prevented by the frontier guards, however, only four of the Armenians getting away.
Trains Derailed and Thrown Over Precipice
Sandusky Star Journal, Feb. 22, 1905
TRAINS DERAILED AND THROWN OVER PRECIPICE
Armenian Revolutionists in Baku Region Wrought Awful Tragedy ...All Passeagers Killed by Dastardly Work of the Rebels.
BERIN Feb 22 — [Moi?n] Post reports that the Armenian revolutionists near Baku have derailed a number of trains on the Caucasian railway and have hurled them over a precipice. All of the occupants of the trains were killed. The number of victims is not known.
Real Revolution There
The Indiana Democrat, Mar. 1, 1905
REAL REVOLUTION THERE
Armenians of Black Sea Region Form Provisional Government.
According to reports from Batoum racial disorders in the Caucasus have developed into actual revolution in the cities of Batoum, Pati and Kutals, at the eastern end of the Black sea, under the lead of Armenians, who have set up a form of provisional government. Telegraphic communication has been cut off for several days.
The Armenian faction a few days ago made prisoners of most of the officials, shutting up the officers and some of the troops in the barracks, and, aided to some extent by reservists, took the reins of government into their own hands. The semi-weekly steamer service between Batoum and Odessa has been interrupted.
Powers Give Approval / Russian Slaughter of Jews
Oakland Tribune, May 10, 1905
POWERS GIVE APPROVAL
CONSTANTINOPLE, May 10.—The ambassadors of six of the powers to-day presented to the Porte a collective note approving the financial scheme for administering the three Macedonian vilayets, Salonica, Monistir and Uskub, conditional upon Turkey agreeing to the appointment of four financial representatives of the powers which will constitute a commission to deal with the provincial budgets.
Troubles are recommencing in Armenia. Advices from Bitlis say there have been encounters between revolutionists and Turkish troops in the neighborhood of Mush, during which a number of men were killed or wounded. In addition to the Armenian bands already reported to have crossed the Persian frontier other bands are said to be preparing to Invade Ottoman territory.
SLAUGHTER OF JEWS
Two Hundred Said to Have Been Killed By Russians.
ST. PETERSBURG, May 10.— This afternoon very grave reports are current in this city as to the extent of the massacre of Jews at Zhitomir the number of killed and wounded now being placed as high as 200, but precise information is lacking.
The Minister of the Interior has called for a detailed report, which is expected tomorrow.
Dispatches are being held up. Telegrams sent by the, Associated Press to Zhitomir remain unanswered.
NO FURTHER DETAILS.
ST., PETERSBURG, May 10.— No further details have reached here from Zhitomar, the scene of the recent attack of the Orthodox Christians on the Jews. It is asserted that a fortnight before the disorders proclamations were spread calling on the Christians to beat the Jews. When these proclamations were shown to the Mayor of Zhitomar the latter declared them to be stupid and said there was no occasion for alarm.
At the ministry of the interior it is said that M. Bouligan sent urgent instructions the night of, May 8 to Zhitomir ordering the authorities there to "protect the Jews and prevent disorders.
The creditors of M. Kroushevan, former editor of the Bessarabitz, have levied on his newspaper, the Friend, recently established at Kishineff.
SEIZE REVOLUTIONARY PRESS.
BATOUM, Caucasia, May 10.— The authorities here this morning seized a secret revolutionary printing press.
Officers Raid a Bomb Factory
Indiana County Gazette, July 15, 1905
Officers Raid a Bomb Factory.
St. Petersburg. July 15— Advices from Baku.Trans-Caucasia, report that the police there made a raid on a secret bomb factory operated by terrorists. The officers seized 90 bombs ready for use and a large quantity of materials for the manufacture of infernal machines.
Armenians Massacred Forty-two Workmen
Lincoln Evening News, Feb, 27, 1905
Bloodshed Rampart in Caucasus.
ST. PETERSBURG, Feb. 27. The situation in Caucasus is rapidly becoming more serious. At Baku today Armenians massacred forty-two workmen in Milikoff's factory who refused to participate in the revolutionary movement.
Commissioned to Kill
The Marshfield Times, Sept. 29, 1905
Consul General Dickinson at Constantinople secures an admission from Vartanian that he was commissioned by the Armenian revolutionists to kill.
American Penal Practice, 1906: Ball and Chain
(The following is presented as a reminder of the times, keeping in mind the holier-than-thous pointing to the barbarities of the Ottomans. Note the crime of the prisoners here.)
Oakland Tribune, May 4, 1906, excerpted
DRUNKARDS 'WARE OF POLICE!
BALL AND CHAIN METHOD TO BE USED
SAN FRANCISCO. May 4.— A ball and chain and plenty of hard labor for drunks — that is what the Police Department and the District Attorney's office are planning. The police, judges, Chief Dinan and the District Attorney's office will enforce these drastic means to discourage intemperance. Up till now drunks have been confined in the Stanyan-street station, then kicked into the street. This has been done because there is no prison, temporary or permanent.
"We cannot run things according to Hoyle these times," said Judge Cabaniss. "Drunkenness and lawlessness must be stopped and we will use the simplest and quickest methods to stamp them out. We need men these days."
"Ball and chain and work — that Is what the District Attorney's office will use," said Assistant District Attorney Bernard Flood. "The drunkards and the loafers must be weeded out."
Daring Revolutionary Plot
The Anaconda Standard, May 4, 1906
(Variation of the following may be found in The Fort Wayne Sentinel, May 3. The Reno Evening Gazette and The Oakland Tribune also printed the same, both dated May 4, the latter with the headline, GREAT PLOT TO ROB IS FOILED.)
DARING REVOLUTIONARY PLOT ON MOST PRETENTIOUS SCALE
Correspondence of the Associated Press. Baku. Caucasia. April 18.— A daring plot or Armenian revolutionists to rob the magazine in the arsenal here, guarded hy the Salivanesk [Salivansk] regiment, and containing more than 1,000,000 rifle cartridges, the entire reserve supply for all the regiments opposing the garrison, was accidentally discovered when Ihe conspirators were already on the very verge of success. They bored a tunnel 700 feet long in the direction of the arsenal. It was one of the most pretentious examples of subterranean work in revolutionary annals since the days of the terrorists of the '80s.
From the basement of an Armenian house the revolutionists worked their way under several Intervening residences to a depth of 20 feet. They constructed a completely sided tunnel, roofed it with planks and provided it with electric light and electric bells, connected with the stations of the several revolutionists on watch.
Owing to a slight miscalculation the tunnel. In burrowing upward entered, not the magazine, but an adjoining storeroom in the arsenal containing uniforms. Before they had time to rectify their mistake the revolutionists were accidentally discovered by an officer: the alarm was given and a cordon of troops was immediately thrown around the adjoining houses. But owing to the length of the tunnel, the Armenian house from which the conspirators started was not suspected and they had ample time to escape. The tunnel entrance was eventually discovered by volunteers, who entered it from the storeroom and traced the passage lo its source.
Four Villages Reduced to Ashes
The Lima Times Democrat, Sept. 19, 1906
FOUR VILLAGES REDUCED TO ASHES.
By Associated Press.
Tiflis, Sept. 19.— According to a report received here from the governor general of the Caucasus, four Tartar villages In the district of [Sangesur?] have been reduced to ashes by Armenians. The inhabitants of seven Armenian villages participated In the work of destruction but fled before the arrival of troops. The Tartar residents of the devastated region who escaped massacre have fled from the district. The bodies of the slain lie unburied among the ruins.
Turk Troops Wipe Out Greek Insurgents
The Fort Wayne Sentinel, July 30, 1907
TURKISH TROOPS AND BASHI-BAZOUKS VICTORIOUS
Band of Greek Insurgents Wiped Out After a Big Pitched Battle.
Athens. July 30.— There has been a pitched battle between Turkish troops, supported by Bashi-Bazouks, and a small band of Greek insurgents, who had entrenched themselves in a house in the outskirts of Seres, European Turkey, fifty miles north-east of Saloniki. The band was completely wiped out but 30 men were killed before the soldiers, aided by artillery, succeeded in capturing the miniature fortress.
During the fighting the Bashi-Bazouks pillaged over one hundred houses and burned a number of Greek buildings in Seres.
The New Woman in Turkey
The Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette, May 27, 1907
THE NEW WOMAN IN TURKEY.
According to a very striking article in "Appleton's Magazine" for June, discontent is rife among the veiled women of the east and the harems are hotbeds of woman's rights discussions. The author of the article, Mrs. Vaka Brown, herself born a Turkish subject, describes an interview with a conservative:
"I do not think Turkish parents have any right to experiment with their children. I should not like to give to my daughters this burden of unrest. I should like to bring them up as true Osmanll women."
"Then you disapprove of the modern system of education that is creeping into the harems? Were you to be free to see men and choose your husbands would you still disapprove?"
"Yes. It took you many generations to come to where you are. Back of you there are hundreds of grandmothers who worked for what you have to-day. With us it is different; we shall be the first grandmothers of the new thought, and we ought to have it come to us slowly and through our own efforts. Mussulman women, with the help of Mahomet, ought to work out their own salvation and borrow nothing from the west. We are a race apart, wlth different traditions and associations."
"Is this the thought of the educated women of the harems to-day?" I asked.
Houlme's face saddened as she said:
"No, young Hanum, for I am alone in this thought as far as I can make out. The others say that we must immediately be given freedom and liberty to do as we like with ourselves. Indeed, they look upon me with mistrust as if I were a traitor."
"Have they any definite plans of what they want to do?'
"I doubt whether you would call them definite plans, but I should like very much to have you come with me to our next meeting, which will be in two days. There are forty of them now and I think that they will do more harm than good, as they are going about it in a very irrational way. Their motto is 'Down with the old ideas.' Naturally they refuse to obey parents and husbands."
"How old are they, on tho average?"
"The youngest of them is seventeen and the oldest twenty nine. The eight or ten strikers engaged are all unmarried with the exception of five, who have left their husbands."
"You are not sympathy with their movement, although you belong to it?"
"No, young Hanum, for I am afraid that it is more romanticism that guides them than thought for our beloved country. I call them, to myself, 'Les Romanesques des Harems,' though they call themselves 'Les Louises Michel.'"
"Goodness gracious!" I exclaimed, "Louise Michel was an anarchist!"
"So are they," said Houlme, "and because I tell them that through anarchy we can do nothing they will not hear me."
I promised Houlme to go with her to the meeting and speak to them if they would listen.
Armenian Newspaper Coverage — 1900s, Terror
The bigoted American and Western press naturally depicted "The Armenian Question" almost entirely from the perspective of Armenian and WWI propaganda. But even with some of these articles, the inconsistencies of the "genocide" tale slipped through; sometimes the newspapers even released accounts of the Armenians' belligerence. Little did the Western nations realize that with the immigration of their beloved Armenians, the nations would soon be needing to deal with the terror tactics of the extremists among the Armenians. These gruesome stories made the headlines often enough that Armenians were even cast as villains in crime stories. Such was the dishonesty, racism and hypocrisy of the West, however, that even though they personally got a firsthand taste of what the Armenians were capable of, they would still be represented as the poor, innocent victims at the hands of the savage, Terrible Turks.
This page will spotlight articles of Armenian terror appearing in the American press, as well as others of interest, taking place during the decade of the 1900s.
The final article is from 1933; the 1900s terror committed in the West appears to have been dominated by the Hunchaks, and it seemed fair to throw in a Dashnak example for good measure.
Many thanks to Gokalp.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1) Police are Baffled
2) Meets with Tragic Death
3) The Armenian Vendetta / British Ambassador's Salary
4) The Victim was a Terrorist
5) Suffocated in a Trunk
6) Priest's Murder Political Plot
7) Armenian Murder Trust
8) "Believe Me, You Die"
9) Armenian Priest is Indicted
10) Investigating Plots of Armenian Blackmailers
11) A "Death Warrant"
12) Society of Murderers Has a Written Constitution
13) Hunchaks' Bloodthirsty Constitution
14) Origin and Degeneration of Murderous Hunchakist Society
15) Organized Armenian Assassins Arrested
16) Hunchak Den Found Stocked Up with Weapons
17) Ringleaders Confess
18) Is Priest a Murderer?
19) Armenians in Violent Pact
20) Locate Murderers of Armenian Priest
21) Hamparsum Boyadjian or "Murad" in USA
22) Assassination Traced to New York
23) Say He Guided Assassin
24) Assassin is Put to Death
25) Archbishop of Armenian Church is Assassinated (1933)
Police are Baffled
(Emphasis in the article text is Holdwater's.)
The Connellsville Courier (Pennsylvania), Oct. 28, 1903
[Shorter version in Coshocton Daily Age (Ohio), The Daily Herald (Ohio), Daily Kennebec Journal, all dated Oct. 28, 1903.]
POLICE ARE BAFFLED
Assassination of Armenian Revolutionist Shrouded in Mystery.
RESULT OF BITTER VENDETTA
Two Clews Left — American-Made Hat and Pistol — Boldness Creates Universal Sensation — Armenian from United States Believed Guilty.
London, Oct. 28.— Sagatel Sagouni, president of the Armenian revolutionary society, was murdered at the doorstep of his lodgings in Nunhead, an unpretentious little suburb of London, late Monday evening.
The murder presumably was committed by a fellow Armenian recently from the United States. The assassination had a political motive and was characterized by a boldness to which London has seldom been treated. It created an unusual sensation here since it appears to have been only an incident in a long and bitter vendetta between factions of Armenian revolutionists. The attempted murder of Kureghian, in Boston, the recent killing in Switzerland and the assassination of the most prominent Armenian in London, are so far achievements credited to the Armenian radicals here. It is said that two members of the opposition party have already been killed in Russia, though the London Armenian, revolutionary committee denies both knowledge and responsibility for the crime.
Prelude to Bitter Feud.
It is generally expected that Sagouni's death is only the prelude to other chapters in the story of a bitter feud. The murderer, who has not yet been apprehended, left In the hands of the police two clews — a soft felt hat bearing the name of an American clothing firm and an automatic pistol of a recent American make.
Members of the Armenian committee here express themselves as certain that the murder is the work of an Alfarist member of the radical minority. The police are following up all clews suggested by Sagouni's associates. What may be a positive coincidence is suggested by the fact that the Alfarist headquarters In London were recently closed, the members scattering to Egypt. Smyrna and. America.
The Macedonian committee attempted to co-operate with the Armenian committee In an anti-Turkish revolution in 1895, but subsequently withdrew because of the internecine strife of the Armenians.
Armenian Sentenced In Boston.
Boston. Oct. 29.— Coincident with the murder in London of Sagatel Sagouni was the sentencing here of Samuel Gulesian. an Armenian, to a term in state prison of not more than 12 and not less than nine years for an assault, with murderous intent on Peter Kareghian, editor of an Armenian paper.
Judge Stevens, in imposing the sentence, asserted that the crime no doubt was of a political nature. Gulesian and Kareghian were members of rival Armenian societies and the shooting of the latter on July 7 last grew out of the enmity which existed between the members of the two organizations. Gulesian is only 19 years old and is said to be the only one of his family who survived the recent massacres in his native land.
Meets with Tragic Death
The Lima Times Democrat?, Oct. 27, 1903
MEETS WITH TRAGIC DEATH
President of Armenian Society Assassinated on His Return to London.
His Society Was Entirely Passive, Devoted Its Money to Charity and Vigorously Opposed Violence. That Is Considered the Cause of Act.
London, Oct. 27.—Sagatel Sagouni. president of the Armenian revolutionary society in London, was murdered in the suburb of Nunhead, late yesterday evening. The crime hae created a sensation as It has every appearance of being of a political character, and has been preceded by the assassination of other officials or branches of the same society on the continent.
Sagouni, who only returned to London yesterday, after settling up the affairs of an associate in Switzerland, who was recently assassinated by stabbing, was entering his residence when a man rushed across the road and then fired [ten?] shots at Sagouni in quick succession. the last bullet entering the region of the heart. The murderer. who appeared to be a foreigner, fled. The only clues to the man [in possession of the authorities] are a felt hat and a silver plated revolver, made in New York, which he dropped in his flight,
The murdered man, who was a mining engineer, became wealthy in the Caucasus, and devoted his money to the Armenian cause. His society was entirely passive and opposed to violence, and it is thought this attitude [inspired?] the advanced section of the Armenians with the desire for vengeance, the latter claiming that Sagouni's society devoted funds to charities which would have been better applied to violent remedies for the Armenian grievances.
Sagouni is said to have moved to England from New York early in 1902, [?] stated that Sagouni's life had been threatened on account of his participation in the exposure of the editor of a Boston newspaper, a young Armenian, after the misappropriation of funds by a faction of the Armenian revolutionists. These men are alleged to have collected $20,000 in American, in 1902, and to have put the money in their own pockets, instead of pushing the propaganda for the emancipation of the Armenians, for which the money was subscribed.
The police are of the opinion that the assailant of Nazarbeck at Lausanne and the murderer of Sagouni, are identical.
In This Country Do Not Regard It As Very Significant.
London, Oct. 27.—The murder of Sagatel Sagouni, president of the Armenian revolutionary society, in London is not regarded as being of great political significance by Armenians in this country, but rather as a result of a bitter feeling which exists between two factions within the revolutionary party itself. In support of this view was cited the recent attempt to assassinate the Armenian leader in this city [?] members of revolutionary party tried to hold socialist views, which he [?declined?]. At the trial of the case an officer of the party testified that the members of the socialist wing had taken oath to remove "all obstructions in spreading their views.
The Armenian Vendetta / British Ambassador's Salary
New York Times, Oct. 31, 1903
THE ARMENIAN VENDETTA.
Krikorian, Under Arrest at Boston, Denies Any Knowledge of Sagouni's Murder in London.
BOSTON, Oct 20.-Before a United States Commissioner to-day Vahtan Krlkorian, the Armenian poet, journalist, ana orator, who was arrested yesterday upon his 'arrival from London, where Sagatel Sagouni was murdered on Monday,. demanded to know on what charge he was being held.
Upon being told that the authorities of the country from whence he came charged ! him. with being a fugitive from justice and with having committed a political murder, Krlkorian demanded proof. This the Commissioner was unable to give at this time, and asked Krikorian to plead, which he did saying he was not guilty. Pending the arrival of direct charges Krikorian was sent back to jail.
During the proceedings several Armenians were present, including Editor Kureghlan of Young Armenia and Peter Kazeroas. The latter declared that they were in readiness to give testimony; but were informed that they would not be needed until later. To the local police Kureghian stated that Krikorian was the head of the London Central Committee and that it was he who ordered his (Kureghian's) murder and attempted personally to assassinate him several months ago when he was editing a paper in London.
Krikorian, while somewhat nervous, shows no great excitement over his detention. Several times to-day he denied that he knew anything of the murder, and stated positively that ne was never President or any officer of the Armenian Committee, nor of any other secret or revolutionary society. He said he had once been a member of the committee, but had severed his connection with it some time ago.
LONDON, Oct. 30.— At the headquarters of the Armenian revolutionists at Peckham, a suburb of this city, it is believed that Vahtan Krikorian, under arrest at Boston, is probably identical with the Armenian of that name who, with two others, named Shahriman and Arsonian, seceded three months ago and set up a rival society at Clapham, another suburb of London, where the Alfarists assembled. These three men are said to have disappeared in August. and It was thought they had gone to Cyprus,
Krikorian, who was formerly an Armenian Protestant preacher, is reported to have been hostile to Sagouni since the split in the society In 1902.
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BRITISH AMBASSADOR'S SALARY.
London Spectator Wants the Washington Post to be Better Paid Than Any Other.
LONDON, Oct. 31.— The Spectator to-day contends that as Washington has become the most important station in the British diplomatic service, the salary of the Ambassador ought to be raised to £10,000.
Should the salary of the Ambassador at Washington be increased to £10,000 a year he would be the best paid official of the British diplomatic service. At present the salary of the envoy at the American capital is £6.500. which is £1,000 more than Sir Henry Mortimer Durand has been receiving at Madrid.
The Madrid position is the worst paid of all the British Embassies. After it comes the Washington Embassy, and then the Embassy at Rome, to which a salary of £7,000 is attached; St. Petersburg, £7,800; Berlin, Vienna, and Constantinople, £8,000 each, and Paris, £9,000.
The Victim was a Terrorist
Daily Kennebec Journal, Nov. 3, 1903
SAGOUNI'S ILL FORTUNE.
Was Connected with Burning of American College at Mersivan.
London, Nov. 2.— A former resident of Constantinople, in an interview connects Sagatel Sagouni, the president of the Armenian Revolutionary Society in London, who was murdered in a London suburb, last week, with the burning in 1893 of the American College for Armenian girls at Mersivan, in Asia Minor. In an interview it is said that the college was destroyed by the Turkish authorities on the ground it harbored Armenian revolutionists.
Sagouni, the interviewer says, was charged with conveying messages of the college to the revolutionists but fled with his family to Baku, he being a Russian subject. He afterwards came to London, where the two English professors of the American College for Armenian Girls at Mersivan are now living.
Holdwater: Are we seeing a proud tradition, here? As the head of a Dashnak Armenian organization, Sagouni was a terrorist himself. Similarly, the chairman of another Dashnak organization, ANCA, Mourad Topalian, was convicted of terrorism. The ANCA-WR chairman running the show at the time of this writing, Steven John Dadaian, was probably a member of the L.A. Five.
Suffocated in a Trunk
The Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette, May 27, 1907
SUFFOCATED IN A TRUNK
A MYSTERY IN MURDER OF AN ARMENIAN PRIEST.
Crime Was Committed in Chicago Evidently, and the Trunk With Its Grewsome Contents Is Then Shipped to New York.
NEW YORK, May 26 — Rev. Father Casper, of the Armenian Apostolic church, of Hoboken, N. J., was murdered in this city some time last night. The body was found to-day in a trunk which had been left as security for their room rent by two Greeks, who three weeks ago, engaged a furnished room of Mrs. Henry Sheerer, who occupies the third floor of a tenement at 308 West Thirty-Seventh street. The body was in a kneeling posture with the head bound against the knees by a heavy strap that passed over the back of the neck, and was buckled under the shins. The murdered man was about sixty years old.
An undershirt of balbriggan and a cuff on the right wrist were all the body wore, but on top of it had been thrown three coats of clerical cut, a white laundered shirt, two pairs of black lace, shoes, a soft felt hat, two Roman collars and a detached cuff.
The police thought it possible that the body was shipped here by express from Chicago and the authorities of that city were asked to follow a clew, based on a meal ticket also found in the trunk. This ticket was issued by a restaurant at 1222 Halsted street, West Pullman, Chicago. Because of the condition of the body the manner of death was not immediately apparent Following an autopsy at the morgue two men were arrested on suspicion.
Mrs. Sheerer told the coroner that when the two men engaged the room In her home they described them-selves as Paul and John Sarkis, each about thirty-five years old. The men had been visited, she said, by a man wearing a clerical garb, who looked not unlike the murdered man. She thought that this man called at 8 o'clock last Wednesday morning.
Late Wednesday afternoon an ex press wagon brought to the house the trunk which later was found to contain the body. The autopsy developed that the neck had been broken as had one arm. Coroners' Physician Lehan declared, however, that death was due to suffocation.
The internal organs were congested and Dr. Lehan gave as his opinion that the man was thrust into the trunk while alive and the cover of the trunk held down until death [ensued].
A CLUE IN CHICAGO.
CHICAGO, May 26— At the West Pullman address, 12,220 (correct) Halstead street, two Armenians conducted a restaurant until five months ago under the name of S. Ermoylan Brothers. The Chicago police learned to-night that on February 7, of this year, a trunk which is said to answer the description of that found in the New York boarding house, was shipped from West Pullman by express to Sarkis Ermoylan, 426 West Fortieth street. It was shipped by a man who gave his name as K. Konosian. Lewis B. McDonald, agent for the Adams Evpress company, at West Pullman, said that Kenosian told him that the trunk contained silks and was valued at $200. Search was begun at once for Kenosian.
Priest's Murder Political Plot
Trenton Evening News, May 27, 1907
PRIEST'S MURDER POLITICAL PLOT
By Publisher Press Direct wire.
New York May 27? — It Is now believed that Father Casper Haran, the Armenian Priest whose dead body was found stuffed in a trunk In a house on west Thirty-seventh street, was the victim of a political plot on the part of Servians and Armenians, who have been planning to overthrow the King of Servia.
It was said that the alleged plot was forming In this country, that the priest had secured Infomation of the plot and exposed It and that he was marked for death.
The names and an accurate description of the men who murdered the priest are said to be In possession of the police These are believed to have been working with Chicago Armenians for the reason that the trunk In which the body was brought here from Chicago. The murderers are believed to have drugged the priest and then while he was helpless forced his body into the trunk, leaving him to suffocate.
The suspects for whom the police are looking today are Paul Tiren and John Moonellin, Armenians, who were lodgers In the house where the body was found. The suspects brought In the trunk to the house and left it with the landlady as deposit for their room rent which was due. They had been lodgers in the house for several weeks and had always paid their bills promptly. The landlady was not suspicious and accepted their excuse of not having ready money on hand. The men had been gone three days when the trunk was opened by the police. Since then no trace of the missing men hm been found.
Armenian Murder Trust
The Lake County Times, July 24, 1907
CLAIM TRUST OF MURDER
Many Crimes Are Traced to Armenian Secret Society.
Chief Shippy and Chicago Police Think Headquarters Are in Chicago.
Chicago, July 24.— LIST OF CRIMES TRACED TO ARMENIAN MURDER TRUST.
As far as can be learned by the police, the following murders are the harvest of the murder trust to date :
Apik Unjian, Persian commissioner to tho Louisiana Purchase exposition, killed In Constantinople six months ago.
The Rev. Father Kaspar's body found cut to pieces In a trunk in New York a few months ago.
Hovhanes S. Tavshanjian, the richest Armenian in America; shot and killed in New York last Monday.
Two members of the Old Hunchakist, shot and killed in London two years ago.
In addition to this list it was learned that five years ago S. Sabahgoolian, the present head of the Old Hunchakist in Paris, was shot at and wounded in Boston by a member of the New Hunchakist, who was sent to prison for nine years.
The following have been marked lor death by the New Hunchakist, unless they pay $25,000 apiece to the society:
I. Gulbengian, J. Karaghensian, a nil K. Kazenjian, millionaire rug- dealers of New York.
Chicago is the clearing-house of the "murder trust."
The police learned last night that the "New Hunchakist," an Armenian secret society which sends its murderous emissaries all over the world to take the lives of men marked for death in its book of fate, has its central headquarters on the South Side in this city. The greed of money is behind the organization and money alone will save those whose names have been marked with the black cross, a symbol of the diabolical purpose of the organization.
Chief Shippy, through Detective Isaac Ter Isalan of the Cottage Grove avenue station, learned last night that the president of the society lives on the South Side and that, through his orders, many mysterious murders have occurred in the past, There are fourteen sworn members of the organization, whose betrayal of the trust imposed on each of them would mean immediate death.
Victims are Rich Men.
These fourteen men, skillful in the extreme with the favorite weapons of the New Hunchakist society, the dagger, hunt down their prey in every large city in the world. The men who are the victims of their blackmailing schemes are all rich men of the Armenian race.
In addition to the five murders that have been traced to the members of the "New Hunchakist" the police have discovered that the society has marked for death a half dozen Chicago Armenians of wealth, and three other merchants In New York, of whom they have demanded as blood money $25,000 each.
In trailing the clearing-house of the murder trust to Chicago the police have been aided by the discovery that every one of the five murders known to have been committed by the "New Hunchakist" were the acts of assassins sent out from Chicago.
The murder of Hovhanes S. Tavshanjian, the richest Armenian in America, in New York Monday, has resulted in disclosures which make it plain to the police that Chicago is the nest from which the assassins of the secret Hunchakist, more powerful and dreaded than the Italian Mafia, are being sent on their diabolical missions. Here it is that the men employed to kill those who refuse to pay tribute to the Hunchakist are schooled and supplied with money and passports for their murderous expeditions to all parts of the world, according to the police.
Two Previous Crimes.
In addition to the most recent tragedy, that in which the wealthy Hovhanes S, Tavshanjian met his end, two others within a few months have now been traced directly to the lair of this desperate band in Chicago. The first of these was that of the Persian commissioner to the Louisiana Purchase exposition, M. Unjin, who six months ago was killed In Constantinople because he would not pay 525,000 into the hands of the officers of the Chicago clearing-house of the desperate Hunchakist.
Shortly after its organization a plot was formulated by its directors for the purpose of blackmailing an amount of money from one of the wealthiest merchants of Constantinople, Apik Unjian, and the first attempt was successful, but upon the merchant's refusal at their second demand he paid the penalty with his life. The perpetrators of that deed were sent from the local organization here.
Old Hunchukist a Rebel Body.
The "Old Hunchakist," from which the subsequent organizations have sprung, dates Its origin as far back as 1887, at which time it was organized in London by the revolutionary Armenians for the purpose of educating their young in the revolutionary ideas and teach them to always remain rebellious against the oppression of Turkey. Ten years later out of the dissatisfaction there arose the organization which is now a disgrace to the members of the old society and is a menace to the lives of the wealthy.
Their demands for money are made under tha guise of necessity of funds for the society; of course, it is necessary to secure funds for the maintenance of the society, and the practice of soliciting funds is in vogue even in the old society, but the money is at all times, in the latter, requested and not demanded.
The Dashakitz, established in 1896 [HOLDWATER NOTE: the year was 1890], is one of the strongest secret societies which are so numerous throughout Turkey and Russia, and many of the Old Hunchakists, since the desertion of the secessionists, have joined the former.
Investigation by the police yesterday disclosed that 41 Orchard street, the house reported once to have been the home of Bedros Hampartzooniian, the New York murderer, is occupied and owned by W. Meyer, a German, who never knew the slayer of the New York rug importer. The property at 41 Orchard street has been in the Meyer family fourteen years.
Within a few months came the murder of the Rev. Father Kasper of West Pullman, whose body, chopped to pieces, was found in a trunk in New York.
A Chicago man, who resides on the South Side, is said to be the bead of the Hunchakist, and in his hands are the records and books of the society, wherein is contained detailed accounts of all the crimes committed and also the record of all money received in the blackmailing game, according to the police.
Holdwater: note the line, "more powerful and dreaded than the Italian Mafia"... they got that right! The deadly Hunchaks and Dashnaks made the goodfellas look like pikers.
"Believe Me, You Die"
The Newark Advocate, July 25, 1907 [PIC]
"BELIEVE ME, YOU DIE"
Grim Notice Received by Wealthy Armenian Boston Merchant.
Boston, July 25 — Moses H. Gulesian, a wealthy Armenian merchant of this city, asserted yesterday that he received a postal card, bearing New York postmark, and signed "Committee of Revolution," informing him that he was to be killed like Hovannes S. Tavshanjian, the New York rug importer.
The postal card read:
"My Brother — We today have killed H. S. Tavshanjian, and next Monday will kill you. You are a millionaire and you will give nothing to our party. Believe me, you die.
"Committee of Revolution."
Mr. Gulesian said that when he received the card he thought it was a joke, but when he learned of the assassination of Tavshanjian he felt that the matter was serious
The message was written in English.
Armenian Priest is Indicted
The Fort Wayne Sentinel, July 30, 1907
ARMENIAN PRIEST IS INDICTED BY NEW YORK JURY
Charged With Attempted Robbery in Connection With Murder Case.
New York, July 30.— Father Martoogesian, the Armenian priest, and former leader of the Armenian revolutionary Hunchakist party, who was arrested last night as a result of a police investigation following the murder of H. S. Tavshanjian, was indicted by the grand jury to-day on a charge of attempted robbery in the second degree. His bail was fixed at $25.000.
The murder of Tavshanjian, who was reputed to be one of the wealthiest Armenians in the country, was laid at the door of Armenian revolutionists. It has been the theory of the police that he was killed after he had repeatedly refused to supply money to one of the revolutionary societies. Following the arrest of Father Martoogessian and several other Armenians last night, however, the Hunchakist party issued a formal statement declaring that the party is in no way involved in the affair and that the men suspended [sic] of killing Tavshanjian long ago were expelled from the party because of their methods of obtaining money from wealthy fellow countrymen.
Shocked and Filled With Horror.
The statement says: "Like all patriotic and law-abiding Armenians, the members of the Armenian revolutionary Hunchakist party have been shocked and filled with horror and consternation by the cowardly assassination of their honored countryman, the late H. S. Tavshanjian. They are especially indignant because the disreputable leaders of the small gang of blackmailing murderers presume to call themselves Hunchakists, degrading thus the honored name of the patriotic party.
"For various acts of treachery and heinous crimes of blackmail, they Were finally expelled from the Hunchakist party. Yet they have always endeavored to call themselves "re-organized Hunchakists," exploiting thus the great name of our old party — so loved companies be enjoined and restrained ! and honored by all patriotic Armenians.
"These alfarists during their decade of existence, have done nothing for Armenia, but bring disgrace to her fair name by their heinous crimes of blackmail and murder. The scandal of their misdeeds reached such a point that even their own followers protested and rebelled lately.
Want Distinction Made.
"Therefore the executive committee of America of the Armenian revolutionary Hunchakist party earnestly requests the impartial press and the people of America not to confound this gang of blackmailers with the old mother party, and hold her responsible for its shameful and loathsome misdeeds.
"The Hunchakist party during its twenty years of existence has raised funds for her heroic struggle against Turkish tyranny, only through absolutely voluntary contributions from patriotic Armenians."
This statement is called an "unofficial declaration" and is signed by the committee.
Arrests Are Made.
Following a searching examination of Father Martoogessian, the Armenian priest, who has been placed under arrest, in connection with the Tavanshanjian murder by attorneys of the district attorney's office several Armenians were taken into custody by the police. They were held as witnesses.
A big crowd gathered around police headquarters when. Father Martoogessian and other prisoners were being held there. By the time the prisoners were taken out of the building on the way to court fully 500 persons were crowded around the Mott street entrance. As the police and their prisoners came out the crowd began to hoot and jeer. A big gang of men at work on two new buildings across the street from headquarters quit work temporarily and joined in the demonstration against the prisoners.
Investigating Plots of Armenian Blackmailers
The Newport Daily News, July 31, 1907
JEROME ASSUMES PERSONAL CHARGE
Investigating Plots of Armenian Blackmailers
District Attorney's Forces and Police Ferreting Out Clues
NEW YORK, July 31 — District Attorney Jerome has taken personal charge of the investigation into the plots of the Armenian blackmailers which led to the assassination of H. S. Tavshanjian, and all the forces of the district attorney's office and the police department worked zealously today to ferret out more clues that would lead to the arrest of the murderer or murderers, who are believed to have masked their operations under the name of the Hunchakists, the Armenian revolutionary society. Several Armenians appeared today at the district attorney's office and were closely questioned as to methods of the dreaded band of blackmailers who systematically extorted large sums of money from their wealthy countrymen, under threats of death.
District Attorney Jerome is seeking every possible bit of information concerning Father Levond Martoogessian, the Armenian priest who is now held in the Tombs under $25,000 bail for attempted robbery.
A trunk is reported to have been found in Lowell, Mass., where Bedros Hampartzoomian lived, which is said to contain papers revealing the plots of the blackmailers. Handwriting experts examined today several letters which were sent to rich Armenians demanding money. The district attorney will obtain the handwritings of the Armenians now under arrest. The blackmailing letters demanded sums ranging from $10,000 to $25,000. The police have discovered that certain Armenians not only extorted money, but ran a "fence" where stolen funds were disposed of. The police believe that the blackmailers have not only been guilty of extortion, but have been robbing their victims as well.
The grand jury today found three additional indictments against Father Martoogessian; two charge attempted robbery and the third extortion. The Armenian priest later was brought before Judge O'Sullivan and entered a preliminary plea of not guilty. Monday counsel for the priest will file a formal plea [?] indictments against him.
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Trunk Found in Khachaderian's Room in Lowell Sent to New York
LOWELL, Mass., July 31 — In an effort to learn the details of the band of Armenians who are alleged to have conducted a campaign of blackmail and extortion, the police of this city are conducting a rigorous investigation in the local Armenian colony. Although the Armenians in Lowell number not more than 200, it is said that a revolutionary committee has been very active here.
All of the acquaintances of Bedros Khachaderian, or Bedros Hampartsoonian, as he is known in New York, the slayer of Hovannes Tavshanjian, have been interrogated by the police, but little information could be obtained than would throw any light uon the alleged blackmailing conspiracy. It was learned, however, that Khachadorian had been in America about five years, and after working for a while at Providence, R. I., came to this city where he was employed for more than a year in one of the cottonmills, leaving the city almost three weeks ago. While he made his home at a tenement house, 4 Corbelt place. His cousin, Stephen Martian, lived in the same building.
Yesterday, a representative of District Attorney Jerome's office came here from New York, and after a conference with the police visited Khachadorian's room on Corbelt place. He took from the premises a trunk belonging to the alleged murderer. What the trunk contained is not known. The trunk was taken to New York and will be turned over to District Attorney Jerome for investigation.
Father Martoogessian, the Armenian priest under arrest in New York, is known here.
The investigation of the Armenian plot is apparently ended here. The trunk is seized in the room formerly occupied by Bedros Khachadorian, accused of the murder of Tavshanjian, was sent to New York last night. District Attorney Jerome's agent left for New York this morning. Local Armenians do not believe the report that the murder of Tavshanjian was planned here.
- - - - - - - - - -
NO HUNCHAKISTS IMPLICATED
No Branch of Organization Has Ever Threatened Armenians
BOSTON, July 31 — M. Shakinian of this city, editor of an Armenian paper, sent a letter to District Attorney Jerome in New York today claiming to be the representative of the Reforme[?]chakist association in America, and declaring that no branch of his organization has ever sent any threatening letters to any Armenian. He denounces the reports that the members of the Hunchakist association in America and [im]plicated with the sending of the letters is malicious lies. He expresses a hope that the real instigators of the letters may be found.
A "Death Warrant"
Fitchburg Daily Sentinel, Aug. 1, 1907
A "DEATH WARRANT."
Specimen of Letters Sent Out by Armenian Terrorists.
New York, Aug. 1.— Four indictments now lie against Father Levant Martoogeseian, the Armenian, who, it is alleged, sometimes laid aside his priestly robes to practice extortion and blackmail. The priest is just now the central figure In the conspiracy which, he district attorney seeks to prove, had for Its object the robbery of wealthy Armenians and led to the murder of the rug merchant, Tavshanjian, and others who refused to be be financially bled.
From the slayer of Tavshanjian, Bedros Hampartzoomian, as he is known here, the police hope to secure a confession establishing that the youth unwittingly was the agent of blackmailing terrorists. He is expected to make disclosures that will make easy the wiping out of a dangerous gang.
Of the three additional Indictments against Martoogessian, brought in by the grand Jury yesterday, two charge attempted robbery, as did the original indictment, and one alleges extortion. The latter charges that the priest was responsible for at least one of the blackmailing letters which quickly followed the death of the rug merchant.
This letter was mailed In New York on the afternoon of July 22, the day that Tavshanjian was shot. It was written in red ink in the Armenian language and was signed by the symbol of the terrorists, three hands with daggers uplifted, poised above a red heart. The letter Is directed to Gulabi Gulbenkian & Co. Brunswick building, New York, and Is headed "Death War- rant." It says:
"The executive of the Constantinople Armenian Revolutionary Terrorists' organization condemns to death Haroutian Gulbeukian, Gulabi Gulbenkian and Patrick Gulbenkian, the three brothers who entirely have deaf ears to all appeals for national freedom. Our executive board, having given its decision to Haroutlan and Gulabl Gulbenkian, in America, gives them 24 hours time to decide between their duty and death. Constantinople Armenian Revolutionary Terrorists' organization."
The letter is dated "Constantinople, June 21, 1907." Following the letter is a postscript, also in red ink, which reads as follows:
"Although neither prison nor hanging can prevent us from fulfilling our duty to the end, It Is necessary that you should know. If you betray this letter or cause harm to one hair on the heads of one of us — against that consider your whole family wiped out."
Before this letter came, Haroutian Gulbenkian, who Is the accusing witness against the priest, had received a blackmailing letter demanding $25,000, but had not complied with the demand. The sense of the Indictment is that tbe priest either sent the quoted letter or caused It to be sent.
It Is also alleged that on Sept. 15 Martoogessian threatened to kill or cause to be killed Bedros Hazanjian, a merchant of this city, unless the latter gave up $15.000 to the Armenian revolutionists. Further, it is charged that Martoogessian represented, or caused to be represented, to Miran G. Karagenslan, an Armenian, that he would meet death unless he gave $100,000 to the Armenian revolutionary fund. Karagensian, it is said, received this communication in the form of a letter on Aug. 29, 1905. The letter added: "The list is not finally closed yet. There may be several others, and you be the next."
The late afternoon developed an important witness when Magderich Lustrian, a blacksmith, was examined by Assistant District Attorney Manley. According to information later given out at the district attorney's office, the witness said that he had often attended meetings of the Hunchakist society, at which Martoogessian presided. Continuing, he is alleged to have stated that he knew of five different cases where men had been sent from this country to Europe at the instigation of a man named to murder persons. On two occasions. Lustrian said, he had been ordered to do murder, but managed In various ways to shift the responsibility.
Some time ago he was told that he would have to kill Nlkolat Milack, because at that time it was believed that Milack was a Turkish spy. According to Manley, the blacksmith made further startling admissions and furnished corroborative evidence of great Importance against the prisoner, who is declared by other Armenians to have been the moving spirit in the blackmailing band.
Society of Murderers Has a Written Constitution
The Marion Daily Star, Aug. 6, 1907
TRANSLATIONS ARE STARTLING
Society of Murderers Has a Written Constitution.
THE HUNCHAKISTS DEAL WITH ENEMIES
Life and Death Power Held Over Members.
Except in Cases of Emergency, Leaders Must Secure Authority from a Superior Before an Assassination Taskes Place — Murder is Made a Business by This Acquisition to New York's Populace.
New York. Aug. 6 — Armenian students are completing the translation of the Hunchakist society's written constitution, which fell Into District Attorney Jerome's hands yesterday. The instrument is only party rendered into English and it is believed the remaining sections will prove quite as startling as those translated yesterday. This document gives the leaders of the various sections the power of life and death over their own members, as well as outsiders who incur their emnity. It provides that the "dasnabads," or leaders, must secure authority from superiors before ordering assassinations, except, in cases of emergency.
While there has been at no time any doubt that the Hunchakists were acting along a regularly outlined campaign, New York authorities were surprised to find that they were acting under a written constitution. The investigators of the organization's doings are hopeful that the work of translation, as it progresses, may reveal the identities of the section leaders or the society's supreme head in this country.
The evidence of the written document may be supplemented within the next few days by a complete confession from Bedros Hampartzoomian, who assassinated Hovannes Tavshanjian and is now said to be on the verge of telling the police he committed the crime.
Hunchaks' Bloodthirsty Constitution
Fort Wayne News, Aug. 6, 1907
A BLOODTHIRSTY DOCUMENT SECURED BY NEW YORK POLICE.
NEW YORK, Aug., 6.— Armenian students are completing the translation of the Hunchakists society's written constitution, which fell into District Attorney Jerome's hands yesterday. The instrument is only part rendered into English and it is believed the remaining sections will prove quite as startling as those translated yesterday. The document gives the leaders of the various sections the power of life and death over their own members, as well as outsiders who incur their enmity. It provides that the leaders must secure authority from superiors before ordering assassinations, except in cases of emergency. While there has been at no time any doubt that the Hunchakists were acting along a regularly outlined campaign, New York authorities were surprised to find that they were acting under a written constitution. The investigators of the organization's doings are hopeful that the work of translation as it progresses may reveal the identities of the section leaders or the society's supreme head in this country. The evidence of the written document may be supplemented within the next few days by a complete, confession from Pedros Hampartzoonian, who assassinated Hovannes Tavshanjian and is now said to be on the verge of telling the police he committed the crime.
Origin and Degeneration of Murderous Hunchakist Society
The Newark Advocate, August 6, 1907
CAPTIONS for the above read (clockwise from top left):
Scene in restaurant where Armenian Hunchakists Meet
Calendar seized in the rooms of the Hunchakist. (Dated Jan. 1904)
Mugurditch I. Catholicos or Porp of Armenian National Church
Rev. Levon Martogessian
The Armenian Cathedral at Etchitiadzen, holy see of the Gregorian Armenians
ORIGIN AND DEGENERATION OF MURDEROUS HUNCHAKIST SOCIETY.
New York, August 6.— Since District Attorney Jerome began to cast his net about that particular pestiferous nest of Armenians which appears to practice intimidation and assassination as a business, the "Huchag," or Hunchakist, Society has loomed-into something of the dread notoriety peculiar hitherto to traditions of the Mafia, the Black Hand and the Camorra of Italian lineage.
It is as easy to glean conflicting stories of the origin, purposes and methods of the Hunchakists as of the that such an organization as the Black much advertised Black Hand enterprises usually associated with Italy's sons. Many educated Italians insist that such an organization as the Black Hand never had a real corporate existence in Italy or anywhere else, but that it is a mere phrase the fearsome import of which has been welded into a weapon by irresponsible and unscrupulous blackmailers. Similarly, many educated Armenians and Moslems, as well as Americans whose business dealings have familiarized them with social and political conditions in Turkey and Syria, sneer at the so-called Huntchakist Society, and maintain that if it ever had any loftier purpose grounded either in patriotism or religion it degenerated long ago into an unorganized system of blackmail and outlawry, devoid of both centralized authority and patriotic inspiration.
Just as cheap swindlers have used the new inspiring "Black Hand" menace to extort money from timid victims, these men will tell you, so a lot of Armenian scoundrels, most of them exiles from their country for their country's good, have sought to gratify cupidity, personal jealousies or revenge by recourse to the Hunchakist traditions for fearsome oaths, secret plottings and death penalties.
Organized Armenian Assassins Arrested
Daily Nevada State Journal, August 14, 1907
ORGANIZED ARMENIAN ASSASSINS ARRESTED
NEW YORK, Aug. 13.— District Attorney Jerome announces the arrest of the ringleaders of the Hunchikist secret society and the obtaining of important confessions therefrom, which will end their organization.
Detectives have secured much evidence regarding murders committed by men connected with this society.
Under the guise of a patriotic organization for freeing Armenia in Asia Minor from Turkish rule, the society has levied blackmail on wealthy Armenians for many years. Mr. Jerome says the American headquarters have been at Lowell, Mass , and taht [sic] the members are fanatics as reckless and indifferent to their own fate as are the nihilists of Russia.
The greatest difficulty has been experienced in obtaining information from local Armenians. It has been necessary to send to Paris, to the headquarters of the Federation the Armenian Revolutionary Committees, to learn the facts. This federation is called the Drochagjst organization, and is opposed firmly to the Hunchakists. It is the Drochagists who are actually fighting in Asia Minor and most of their members are upright and honorable men. The Hunchakists have frequently resorted to murder in their bitter fight against the Federation members. Mr. Jerome says it is the worst case of organized murder and blackmail taht [sic] this country has ever known.
Holdwater: This account got a few things right... and one thing dead wrong. "Under the guise of a patriotic organization"? Absolutely. "Members are fanatics as reckless and indifferent to their own fate..." That one was half right. Indifferent to the fate of other Armenians whose lives they would be putting at risk would have been more geared to the truth. As far as the "Drochagists," meaning the A. R. F. or Dashnaks, being "upright and honorable men"... was the author out of his mind?
And how about the Hunchaks' getting the credit up till that point for having committed the "worst case of organized murder and blackmail" in the history of the USA? You go, Hunchaks!
Hunchak Den Found Stocked Up with Weapons
The Fort Wayne Sentinel, August 14, 1907
HUNCHAKIST DEN FOUND STOCKED UP WITH WEAPONS
Murder Tool Chest Filled With Poisoned Knives, Pistols and Bombs.
New York, Aug. 14.-When the grand jury yesterday began its hearing of the newly found evidence which is expected to start a string of Armenian man hunters toward the "little room of the iron door" at Sing Sing, it had something more tangible and perhaps more convincing than the mere word of trapped conspirators to go by. It had the deadliest collection of murder tools that has ever been found under one roof in New York city.
Acting upon information embodied in the statement of Kissak Jelalian, a squad of detectives went late yesterday afternoon to a dingy tenement at 317 East Forty-ninth street On the ground floor of this building is an Armenian restaurant, where, it is now known, many killings have been plotted by the dreaded Hunchakists.
Murder Armory in Cellar.
The detectives went straight TO the coal cellar. In a bin they found a ton or more of hard coal. Lump by lump they removed the coal. Underneath was a cunningly devised trapdoor. They raised the trapdoor and there was a veritable Bluebeard's tool chest.
Arranged neatly in rows were knives with poisoned tips-deadlier than a rattler's fangs; revolvers of a certain unique type, like the revolver that killed the millionaire rug merchant, Tavshanjian, in Union square three weeks ago; bottles filled with drugs, the vapors of which are fatal; bombs enough to blow an ordinary building into powder. It was the workshop of the Hunchakists that the detectives had unearthed under a commonplace coal bin.
Medieval ingenuity had been combined with modern invention to insure a perfect job every time agents of the society might go after a marked man. For example, there were three slender little files, a scratch on the skin with the point of one of which would mean death, for each file's tip had its coating of poison, just as Jelalian had said.
Poisoned Daggers In Collection.
Three long daggers were similarly treated, so that the wounds would be fatal, even though the blades might fail to reach a vital organ. Under the seals of three well stoppered bottles was hydrocyanic acid, better known as prussic acid, even the fumes of which are dangerous.
There was an iron bomb and powder to fill it, with fuses and other attachments to set it off. Wooden molds for making bombs, a steel chisel, a bottle of sulphate of antimony and a jar of unidentified white powder were also found.
For two hours yesterday District Attorney Jerome, three of his assistants, Nott, Manly and Perkins, and Deputy Police Commissioner Woods examined all the Armenians who have been arrested in the last few days. At the end of the inquiry all the prisoners except Jelalian, who has confessed his share in the murder of Tavshanjian, were sent back to cells at police headquarters. The district attorney took Jelalian before the grand jury in tho afternoon.
After spending some time in the grand jury room, where he left a long typewritten statement that had been prepared by Deputy Police Commissioner Woods, the district attorney went before Judge Foster, in general sessions, taking with him Jelaiian and Alie Booznijian.
Confessions Reveal Death Plot.
This Booznijian, like Jelalian, has admitted that he served the Hunchakists until he discovered that he was being used as an agent to promote murder and blackmail. However, he insists that he did not go as far as Jelalian, who guided the assassin of Tavshanjian to the rug merchant's place of business in Union square and pointed out the victim to him.
Judge Foster committed the two Armenians to the house of detention in bonds of $5,000 each. It was stated that they would be taken before the grand jury again tomorrow. Answering a question put by a reporter, Mr. Jerome said:
"The bullet that killed Mr. Tavshanjian has been examined closely in the light of recent developments. I don't think it was a poison tipped bullet. It was a .38 caliber metallic coated bullet, but not a poisonous bullet."
It was rumored about the criminal court building that the confession of Bedros Hampartsoonian, the assassin, now in the Tombs, implicates many Armenians in this city.
Jelalian, who was arrested Sunday night on suspicion of being concerned in the murder of Tavshanjian, made the confession which started the police on the trail of Hunchakists to District Attorney Jerome last night. Jerome questioned him for four hours, and. it is said, got every detail of the crimes and conspiracies of the Armenian blackmail and murder gang.
The Washington Post, Aug. 14, 1907
Hunchakists Admit Blackmail and Murder.
ORGANIZATION BLOTTED OUT
Police Announce that Kassak Jelalian, Arrested Sunday Night, Has Told that [?]Directed Slaughter and Mutilation [?]Jartaman and Assassination of Rug Merchant — Leaders Arrested or Fleeing
New York Aug 13 — According to an announcement by District Attorney Jerome and Deputy Police Commissioner Woods early this morning the detective bureau officers have arrested the ringleaders of the Hunchakist secret society and obtained confessions from them which will end the existence of the organization.
Kissak Jelalian arrested Sunday nlght confessed to Mr. Jerome the police say. After a grueling examination which lasted for more than six hours that it was he and no other who had directed the murders of Father Kasper Vartaman, whose body was cut to pieces and the wealthy rug merchant Tavshanjian killed as he was entering his office near Union square.
Pointed Out Doomed Man
He furthermore declared it is said that he has stood by while Bedros Hamptzoomian waited for the coming of the victim and pointed out the doomed man.
It is given out by Detective Petrosino who has had the actual investigation !n charge, that Father Martoggessian who has been under arrest in connection with the murders is not directly connected to the society though he is still believed to have known a great deal of its inner workings.
Lieut. Petrosino of the New York detective department recently encountered in Boston an Armeniam named Manoojian who offered his services. Manoojian furnished information enabling Petrosino to send a wire to this c?ty that resulted in the arrest of Borhas Alltepunerjian.
Find Daggers and Bombs.
The police searched the building where Alltepunerjian lived and in the cellar under a co?il heap? protected by boards they found poisoned daggers, small bombs, a quantity of poisoned bullets, revolvers and several large bombs of hydrocyanlc acid and sulphate of ammonia as well as chemists' scales bullet molds and electric apparatus of various kinds.
Taken to police headquarters the man broke down and confessed. He confirmed the police said what they had already suspected that Kassak Jelalian was the head and front of the society.
Several other arrests were made during the afternoon by detectives. The police believe that with the exception of a few unimportant members now fugitives the principal members of the society are under arrest.
Holdwater: The author's contention in the first paragraph that these arrests would have ended "the existence of the organization" was way too premature.
The word "ringleaders" brings to mind the Armenians arrested in Istanbul on April 24, along with the rest of the Ottoman nation. Certainly some were innocent, but a good percentage were composed of fanatical murderers, as the kind we've been getting acquainted with. That is, the very men Armenian propaganda tells us were the "Armenian intellectuals and cultural leaders."
Is Priest a Murderer?
The Daily News [Frederick], August 16, 1907
IS PRIEST A MURDERER?
Father Martoogessian Must Face Grave Charges When Arraigned.
Rev. Levont Martoogessian
New York, Aug. 16.— Father Levont Martoogessian, who was arrested after the murder of H. S. Tavshanjian and is now in the Tombs under $25,000 bail on indictments for robbery and blackmail in connection with the Hunchakist society, may soon be accused of a graver offense. This was predicted by the district attorney, when he asked that Martoogessian's bail should be made so heavy that he could not find a bondsman.
Acting District Attorney Nott had a long conference with two Armenians whose identity he would not disclose saying that if their names became known the terrorists might frighten them into silence. It is known these men gave information which will prove that Martoogessian knew more than has been suspected. It is declared he was aware also of the sending of Hunchakists to Boston to murder two Armenians who had displeased the terrorists.
When these two witnesses complete their story detectives will be sent to Boston to find corroboration there. With this done and the Tavshanjian ends adjusted, further charges will be made against the unfrocked priest.
Meanwhile Inspector McCafferty's detectives are searching for Arzoolan agent of the foreign Hunchakists, who is said to have been the head of the conspirators on this side of the ocean. He was last reported seen in Providence, R. I.
Mr. Nott has learned that Aram Tashlan, an Armenian recently convicted of murdering his brother, and now in state prison for life, was a member of Martoogessian's branch of the Hunchakists.
Armenians in Violent Pact
Fort Wayne News, Aug. 20, 1907
ARMENIANS IN VIOLENT PACT
AMERICA HAS 700 "PATRIOTS" WHO SEEK FREEDOM FROM TURKEY.
CHICAGO, Aug. 20 — An Armenian giving the name of Monoog Curezhin, forty years of age, who is in jail today charged with knowledge of the murder of an Armenian rug merchant in New York, is believed by the police to he a leading member of the Hunchakist society and efforts arc being made by the police of Minneapolis, Chicago, New York and Constantinople, to connect him with associations of Armenians in America and plots against the sultan. Two fingers of the prisoner's right hand are missing and he says he lost them while experimenting with explosives in Waukegan, Ill., preparatory to a trip to Turkey to assassinate the sultan.
Two years ago an Armenian priest and four Thessalians were found murdered in Minneapolis and their bodies thrust into trunks and closely packed with clerical raiment. Murders of less spectacular display occurred in the interim, culminating in the murder of Father Kasperkut, of Chicago, whose body was found in a trunk in New York, and the assassination of a New York rug merchant, who, it is believed, failed to contribute to the Huncnakist society.
Curezhin, according to the police to-day, made a full confession of his connection with the Hunchakist society and told of its purposes. Curezhin says 700 Armenian patriots are banded together in this country for the purpose of liberating their native land from the rule of Turkey. Every member of the society is trained in the use of explosives and almost any one of them, he says, is willing to blow the sultan and his entire retinue into eternity if the opportunity is presented.
Two Hunchakists exist. The oldest is devoted exclusively to acts of physical revolution and the later one to the levying, of funds as well as to the general plan. The prisoner has given the police the names of 500 of the members. He will ho released, as there is no specific charge against him.
Holdwater: He ratted out 500. Quick, get Soghoman Tehlirian on his trail; the assassin of Talat Pasha had experience in snuffing out other Armenian finks.
Locate Murderers of Armenian Priest
The Weekly Sentinel, Aug. 28, 1907
LOCATE MURDERERS OF ARMENIAN PRIEST
Three Armenians Who Committed Crime in New York, in Bulgaria.
New York, Aug. 28?.— Three Armenians wanted for tho murder of Father Casper, the Arkanian, have been located, It is stated today, in the Arna, Bulgaria. They escaped from this country by Montreal and lied to Marseilles, and eluded the police there and went to Bulgaria.
The murder of Father Casper was one of the most atrocious In the history of murders about New York. The country had been widely searched for his murderers, but. no definite trace of them could be found.
Hamparsum Boyadjian or "Murad" in USA
The Oxford Mirror, Jan. 16, 1908
Gen. Hempartzoonian Boyadjian, head of the Hunchakists, or Armenian Revolutionary society, is in New York to organize Armenians in America in armed bands to help the society in its effort to wrest their country from Turkey.
Holdwater: Since the authorities, particularly the New York police, had a good bead on what sort of criminals the Hunchaks were, one wonders how this mass murderer could have been allowed entry into the country in the first place.
Assassination Traced to New York
The Ogden Standard, Feb. 17, 1908
ASSASSINATION IS TRACED TO NEW YORK
New York, Feb. 17.— Word was received in New York last night of the assassination in Egypt of an Armenian editor named Arplarian and the crime is traced directly to the Hunchakist troubles In New York which have resulted In the murder of several men here, notably that of a wealthy rug merchant named Tavshanjian, who was shot in Union Square last summer and for complicity in whose murder Father Martgoosian, a prominent Armenian, is soon to be tried. Armenians here say that after the murder of Tavshanjian here Arplarian published numerous editorials In his paper in Cairo, demanding that the perpetrators of the crime be punished. They believe that his assassination is the result of these publications and believe that the crime was committed by several Armenians who went to Egypt from New York for the purpose of frightening New York Armenians and preventing their testifying against the Hunchakists here.
Say He Guided Assassin
The Washington Post, Aug. 13, 1908
SAY HE GUIDED ASSASSIN
New Arrest Made in Hunchakist Murder Case.
Incriminating Evidence of Armenian Blackmailing Conspiracies Alleged to Have Been Found in His Room
New York Aug 12. — In Kisaak Jelalian arrested early to-day and taken to the Tombs, the police believe they have the man who piloted Bedros Khachadorian to his victim H. S. Tavshanjian, the Union Square rug merchant assassinated as the result of an Armenian Hunchakist conspiracy.
Seven suit cases believed to contain papers of great Importance in the murder plot were said to have been found in Jelalian s room. Translators were put to work on them at once, but it will be some time before their contents are known. There will be other arrests to-day the police think and they admit that sensational developments are looked for.
Detectives are searching for evidence to connect Jelalian with Levont Martogessian the unfrocked priest indicted for attempted robbery and extortion.
Jelajian Is thought to be the man with whom Bedros lived while he was here waiting for an opportunity to serve the blackmailers. The prisoner was arrested by Detective William H. Tiche of the district attorney's staff and lives in West Forty second street, between Ninth and Tenth avenues. That Bedros came directly from Lowell, Mass. to Jelalian and that the latter went with him to Union Square on the day Tavshanjian was slain is the belief of the detectives. It was Jelalian they think who sent the numerous blackmailing letters mailed immediately after the assassination.
Khachadorian attended a meeting of Hunchakists in Lowell before he left. There it was decided to remove Tavshanjian and Khachadorian was selected as the tool.
At this meeting $300 was raised for the murderer's expenses and he left Lowell and went to Chelsea where he remained half a-day and then came to New York.
Five days before the murder of Tavshanjian, Jelalian was seen standing in East Seventeenth street Union Square, watching the store of Tavshanjian. He was noticed by a man at a rug store in the vicinity who knew that he belonged to tho murderous Hunchakist band. He watched him for about fifteen minutes.
Jelalian has been in this country for about six years. He has never been known to work very much but seemed to have no difficulty In living without work.
He was generally known by Armenians as a member of the murderous Hunchakist Society.
In the Tombs, Khachadorian is believed to be in daily communication with Martogessian, the priest leader of the Hunchakist. When first told that he had been deceived as to the character of his victim, Khachadorian expressed great regret and declared he would unfold the whole plot and give evidence against the members of the society. Then Martogessian was arrested and confined in the Tombs, and Khachadorian has undergone a change of heart. He seems in mortal fear of the priest.
Jelalian's arrest it is expected will be followed by several more in this city and Boston Detectives have the suspects under surveillance.
(The following article appeared directly underneath)
BOYS HAVE "BLACK HAND."
Admit Threatening to Kill Youth Unless Mother Paid $100
Special to The Washington Post. New York Aug. 12?— Charged with attempted blackmail and with sending threatening letters through the mails, two fifteen year old boys Were arrested early this morning by Acting Captain O'Day of the East Twenty second street station and sent to the Children's Society for safe keeping until their case can be tried in the Children's Court.
The boys gave their names as Peter Boyle of 241 East Twenty-first street and Palmer Murcha of 229 East Twenty first street. It Is charged that those boys who were dragged out of bed by the police shortly after midnight, had written a threatening letter to Mrs. A. C. Schupp of 204 East Twenty first street, demanding $100 and threatening to "take away your son and kill him if the money failed to be forthcoming" when a man with a green necktie and a white cap passed her stoop on the night of Saturday last.
The letter read as follows "Dear Madam, If you don't give $100 to a man with a green necktie and a white cap who will pass by your stoop tonight at 10 o'clock your son will be taken away and killed. BEWARE."
The boys admitted to the police that they were guilty.
Holdwater: How heartwarming that the Hunchaks served as inspiring role models for some of America's youth.
Assassin is Put to Death
The Fort Wayne Sentinel, Dec. 6, 1909
ASSASSIN IS PUT TO DEATH.
Armenian Revolutionist Dies for Murder of Countryman.
New York, Dec. 6.— Bedros Hampartzoomian. the Armenian slayer of H. Tavshanjian, the wealthy rug merchant, was put to death in the electric chair at Sing Sing prison today.
Hampartzoomian, an agent of a circle of a revolutionary society, the Hunchakists, had demanded sums of money from the rug merchant to aid in overthrowing the sultan of Turkey. Tavshanjian refused the demand and one day he was called to the door of his establishment and shot down by Hampartzoomian.
Archbishop of Armenian Church is Assassinated
As explained in the intro, an exception is made to the "1900s" theme of this page, in order to provide the Dashnaks with murderous equal time.
The Fresno Bee, Dec. 25, 1933
ARCHBISHOP OF ARMENIAN CHURCH IS ASSASSINATED
Four Men Held For Christmas Butcher Knife Murder Of Leon Tourian
PRELATE SLAIN BEFORE HORRIFIED CONGREGATION
Strife Over Pro-Soviet Policy Declared Motive For Fatal Attack
(By The Associated Press)
NEW YORK, Dec. 25.— Four men were held to-day in connectlon with the murder of Archbishop Leon Tourian, head of the Armenian Church of North and South America, yesterday in the Holy Cross Armenian Apostolic Church.
Martin Mazian, 41, and Asjan Yerjianen, 42, were booked on homicide charge. Matos Leylegian, 39, and Nishan Sarkisian, 38, were arrested a few hours after the murder, which occurred as the archbishop moved up the church aisle.
The four men live in New York. Mazian and Yerjianen admitted being present, but denied having had anything to do with the murder of the prelate, police said.
The Holy Cross Apostolic Church was shuttered and silent to-day amid the chorus of Christmas hymns from neighboring houses of worship, !ts altar desecrated by the blood of its primate, stabbed to death as he opened Sunday morning's services.
Archbishop Tourian was murdered before a .horrified congregation by a band of political assassins as he moved up the aisle in the colorful processional march. The killers closed in on the prelate silently and swiftly as he passed the rear pews behind his accolytes [sic] and choir.
Stabbed Three Times
Under a rain of knife-thrusts he dropped the cross ho was holding aloft and crumpled without a cry 1o the floor, where he died while the enraged crowd was still struggling with his murderers. He had noon stabbed three times in abdomen.
The suddenness of the crime anrl the uproar which followed made it difficult for the police to find out how many men, had been in the attacking group or how many had participated in the actual killing.
One of the assailants hurled a hlood-stalned knite in the direction of the altar and dashed toward the rear of the church, where he was turned back into the crowd by the gun of the prelate's personal bodyguard, drawn too late to avert the killing.
A moment later a police officer fought his way through the milling worshipers [sic] and rescued Leylegian and Sarkisian. who were being beaten by members of the congregation.
Other groups of police made surprise raids on the two principal Armenian clubs of, the city, questioning some 300 persons. Two other men, one of them a brother of Leylegian, were taken into custody and later released.
Pro-Soviet Policy Blamed
It seemed fairly well established, police, said, that.the cause of the attack was the militant pro-Soviet attitude of the archbishop, against which a minority of the American church membership have consistently fought, an antagonism which had become so acute as to cause the archbishop to hire a bodyguard nnd to employ the utmost precautions at the hotel in which he lived. where a complete, identification was necessary for admission into his apartment.
Archbishop Tourian, who was 55 years old, came to this country in 1931 from Armenia, where a republic supported by and friendly to the Soviet had been established in 1920. The archbishop had been outspoken in his approval both of the government and the Soviet. Exiled supporters or the old regime have bitterly opposed him for this attitude.
A Christmas bazaar which was to have been held at the church last night wns postponed. Because of the murder the church can not be used again until it has been reconsecrated. Police are continuing their investigation. They attributed responsibility for the slaying to Dashnag or Tashnag, a supposedly revolutionary Armenian society.
Repudiated in California
Assistant Chief inspector John J. Sullivan was told that the archbishop was recognized throughout his archdiocese except in Callfornia.
But even in the East feeling against the prelate was bitter among a small group, witnesses said, so much that at a recent picnic at Worcester, Mass., the archbishop was assaulted. Two men were arrested on this charge and a fine of $50 wns imposed on one.
Two factions have sprung up in Ihe church, police were told, since the archbishop came lo this country. On July 1st. last, he refused to speak at Armenian Day exercises at fhr world's fair in Chicago until the old Armenian flag was hauled down. Several men were arrested in a fight that followed.
At that time the archbishop, an imposing figure more than six feet in height and weighing 215 pounds, said he was following orders from the Catholicos, head of the Armenian Church throughout the world.
In September a group headed by the archbishop withdrew from the annual general assembly in St. Gregory The Illuminator's Church on East Twenty-seventh Street. The quarrel followed charges of pro-Sovietism against the prelate.
A separate meeting was held at which feling ran so high that police protection was obtained for the archbishop. The so-called anti-Soviet group asserted then that it would force his resignation. Since then, it was reported, the archbishop has been under police protection.
The primate, who came here from Manchester, England, previously had served in Bulgaria and Syria. During the world war he left Bulgaria with his people and King Ferdinand decorated him with the Bulgarian medal.
Archbishop Tourain was the author of seven volumes of sermons printed in England during the last nine years.
Holdwater: "They attributed responsibility for the slaying to Dashnag or Tashnag, a supposedly revolutionary Armenian society." The author is assigned a story dealing with Armenian terror, and he had no idea who the Dashnaks were. About as unprofessional and irresponsible of the similarly ignorant Scott Simon, who hosted a genocide "debate" for PBS.
What do you make of the fact that the murderers committed their crime so blatantly out in the open? Either they wanted to show the community they meant business, or they weren't thinking straight. Prof. Heath Lowry provided a little epilogue to the above (See link below):
...Not one individual in the crowd was able to identify a single one of the assailants. The New York District Attorney who prosecuted the subsequent trial of the nine man Dashnak cell responsible for the assassination, had the following to say in regard to the failure of a single Armenian present in the Church to testify against the assailants: “The detectives faced a wall of reticence which did not auger well for a solution of the mysterious killing. Either these Armenians wished to settle the feuds in their own way by murderous counterplots; or they were too much in fear for their own safety to disclose what they know. [Spectator, December 7, 1983]
Armenian Newspaper Coverage — "1915" Decade
The bigoted American and Western press naturally depicted "The Armenian Question" almost entirely from the perspective of Armenian and WWI propaganda. (The partisanship was so blatant, for example, eastern Anatolia, part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries, was often referred to as "Armenia.") But even with some of these articles, the inconsistencies of the genocide tale slipped through; sometimes the newspapers even released accounts of the Armenians' belligerence (frequently couched in terms such as "self-defense," but in reality exposing the lie that there was no Armenian rebellion).
This page will feature some of these accounts, as well as others of interest, taking place during the "1915" decade.
Many thanks to Gokalp.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1) Armenians Side with Russians
2) Thieving as Turkey Mobilizes; Armenians Besiege Van
3) Armenians Join Russians and 20,000 Scatter Turks
4) Germans in Constantinople / Turkey Compelled to Help Germany
5) Cossacks Rout Turks / England Declares War / Annexes Cyprus
6) Armenians Are Fighting Turks In Self Defense
7) Turkish Origin of Military Bands
8) Armenians Fight for Russia
9) Armenian Force Increased to 15,000 / Kurdish Separatist
10) Enver Pasha's Boast of Bloody Butchery
11) Kurds Continue Atrocities
12) Case of the [Ship Named] Armenian
13) A Russian Army Camp in Turkish Armenia
14) Turks Driven Back — Armenians Big Help
15) Kurdistan Villages Robbed of Population
15b) Americans Tell Terrible Tales of Turk Cruelty
16) Armenians Loot Turk Homes in Retaliation
17) Armenians Slay Turks in Revolt
18) Russians Victorious (with 50,000 Armenian volunteers)
19) Armenian Volunteers Aided General Allenby
20) America's Only Terms to the Huns: Unconditional Surrender
21) Armenians Go to Europe to Fight for the Allies
22) Armenia Loyal to the Allies
23) Armenians Recapture Erzerum After a Battle with the Turks
24) Armenians Seek Original Country & Independence
25) Turkey has a Greek Peril
26) Armenians in Revolt
Armenians Side with Russians
Elyria Evening Telegram, November 13, 1914; also nearly duplicated in Fort Wayne Journal Gazette, Nov. 13, 1914, "Armenians Active In European War," as well as the Manitoba Free Press, Nov. 13, 1914 ("Unearthing Guns and Ammunition"); parts may also be read in the Washington Post piece below.
ARMENIANS READY TO SIDE WITH RUSSIANS
Want to Get Into War in order to Be Delivered From Turkish Rule, Says Dispatch From Petrograd
Petrograd, Nov. 13, via London.-Reports reaching the Russian capital from the Turkish border attach increasing importance to the part the Armenians are playing in the Russian-Turkish war.
During the days when coats were ten dollars and
sweaters cost a buck.
In several towns occupied by the Russians the Armenian students have shown themselves ready to join the invading army and explained that they had prepared themselves for the Russian approach by constant drilling and by gathering arms, secretly. All along the line of march, according to these dispatches, the Armenian peasants are receiving the Russian troops with enthusiasm and giving them provisions freely.
An Armenian newspaper, referring to this crisis in the history of Armenia, publishes the following.
"The long anticipated way of deliverance for the Turkish Armenians is at hand, and the Armenians are prepared for any sacrifice made necessary by the performance of their manifest duty."
From this border country there have come to Petrograd further reports of armed conflicts arising from the refusal of Armenians to become Turkish conscripts and surrender their arms.
It is now rumored that the Important city of Van is besieged by Armenian guerrilla bands in great force. In Feitun the bands are said to exceed 20,000 in number, and they are reported to have defeated all the Turkish troops sent against them, causing the Turks heavy losses.
A dispatch received here from Constantinople says that the Turkish cruiser Goeben was penetrated by a shell at her water line during the recent bombardment of the Dardanelles by the allied Anglo-French fleet. The damage inflicted is described as serious.
The Goeben is one of the two German cruisers taken over by Turkey after the outbreak of the war.
Thieving as Turkey Mobilizes; Armenians Besiege Van
Manitoba Free Press (Winnipeg), Nov. 7, 1914
THIEVING WHILE TURKEY MOBILIZES
General Seizure of Even Silk Stockings and Sets of Furniture and Ladies’ Shoes
New York, Nov. 6—Merchandise of every conceivable value is being seized by officers of the Ottoman government in cities of Syria, under the general orders of mobilization of troops according to reports from missionaries made public today by the board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian church.
“Under the order of mobilization,” the board states, “unwilling conscripts are being gathered, each soldier being required to bring with him from his home eight days’ rations with a certain amount of money. The local officials have turned the orders to commandeer horses, mules food and fodder into a most wicked and unbridled system of plunder. They have entered the shops at Beirut at all hours of the night and day, and have seized not only flour and articles of food, but dry goods, clothing, household utensils, silk stockings by the gross, foreign made shoes for women, and expensive sets of furniture.”
Washington, Nov. 6—Mirza Alii [Kuli?] Khan, the charge of the Persian legation here, called upon Acting Secretary Lansing at the state department today to inform him officially that his country had decided to preserve an attitude of strict neutrality as between Russia and Turkey during the war.
London, Nov. 6—The Sofia, Bulgaria, correspondent of Reuter’s sends the following dispatch:
“A number of subjects of the powers in the triple entente have arrived here from Constantinople. They report that the Turkish capital is quiet and that the military law is being enforced with the utmost rigor.
“I learned that even the Grand Vizier was unable to free himself from the trammels of the military party. He tried thrice to resign, but was threatened with court-martial and forced to remain in office against his will. The best informed of the Turkish public are opposed to war, it is said. They consider the situation as most critical to Turkey but have kept silent through fear of arousing the enmity of the military party.
“Trade is at a standstill in Constantinople. The cruiser Goeben, accompanied by four torpedo boats, proceeded to the Black Sea Tuesday.
Armenians Besiege Van.
London, Nov. 7—A dispatch received by the Daily Telegraph from Tiflis, capital of the Lieutenancy of Caucasia, by way of Moscow, says:
“The Turkish town of Van (140 miles southeast of Erzurum, Turkish Armenia), is being besieged by a detachment of Armenians who are aiding the Russians. The town has a large arsenal. Another detachment is operating in the rear of the Turkish army.”
Holdwater: Note the Ottoman Empire was in such dire straits, the drafted men were asked to bring supplies and money from home! (As if being taken into the army wasn't bad enough, they had to pay for it..!) Let's note here that Armenian propaganda loves to tell us the Armenian conscripts were especially picked on (excluding the many who dodged the draft and joined the enemy; see article below), but the fact is, everyone was being treated unfairly.
Armenians Join Russians and 20,000 Scatter Turks
The Washington Post, Nov. 13, 1914
ARMENIANS JOIN RUSSIANS AND 20,000 SCATTER TURKS NEAR FEITUN
DEAL BLOW TO TURKS
Russians Scatter a Big Army Occupying Batum Valley.
ARE NEAR ERZERUM FORTRESS
British Capture Turkish Torpedoboat, and Czar's Troops Damage the Former German Cruiser Goeben-Americans Join Russians-Twenty Thousand Defeat Ottoman Forces at Feitun.
London, Nov. 12.— The Russian army of Armenia, whose base is on Kars, Transcaucasia, is approaching the Turkish fortress of Erzerum.
A dispatch from Petrograd says:
"A graphic account has been received here of the end of the Russian transport Truth, which the Russians sank sooner than surrender her to the Turkish cruiser Goeben. When called upon to surrender her captain headed the Truth for the shore, opened the valves, and blew a hole In the bottom of the vessel
Sailors Sing as Ship Sinks.
"Lieut. Ragowsky perished while attempting to fire a second charge of explosives. Part of the crew got off In boats, while the others Jumped Into the water, and were picked up by the Turkish ships.
"The ship's chaplain and a handful of men were left aboard. As the ship went down the chaplain was seen on deck giving his blessing to the men, who remained about him cheering and singing the national anthem."
A Turkish torpedoboat which escaped from the Dardanelles has been captured off Tenedos, an island five miles off the northwest coast of Asia Minor, according to an Athens dispatch.
An Amsterdam dispatch says that the kaiser has ordered that all Mohammedans captured from the allied armies be sent to Constantinople to serve in the Turkish army.
Pic from the front page: WAR, WITH "ALL THE COMFORTS OF HOME." The British trenches along the [Al?ne] are so ingeniously constructed as to afford almost complete protection. Hot meals are served, newspapers are read, and a system of hot baths has in some instances been installed. The floor of the trenches is sloped so as to give good drainage and are arranged so as to communicate with one another.
Austrian Officers for Turkey.
A telegram from Bucharest, Roumania, says that Halil Bey, uncle of Enver Bey, the leader of the Young Turks, has arrived there on a special mission in behalf of Turkey.
Rome, Nov. 12-Advices from Constantinople say that the Ottoman army still lacks 700 officers, and that the authorities at Berlin were requested to supply them. Berlin replied that it would be impossible to send all Germans, but would supplement them with Austrians, who would travel to Constantinople individually as civilians.
Petrograd, Nov. 12-- A dispatch received here from Constantinople says that the Turkish cruiser Goeben was penetrated by a shell at her waterline during the recent bombardment of the Dardanelles by the allied Anglo-French fleet. The damage Inflicted is described as serious.
Russians Take Many Turks.
An official communication from the general staff of the Caucasian army under date of November 10 says "Small skirmishes In the region beyond Tchoruk River, in the neighborhood of the province of Batum have occurred. "We maintained our position at Koprukeut. Turkish attempts to envelop us resulting in failure. We captured many prisoners and large quantities of munitions. We have occupied all of the valley of Alasckertaka.
"According to a Turkish officer taken prisoner, the Turkish army commanded by Hassan tazet Pasha, is guided by Germans."
Armenians Fighting the Turks.
In several towns occupied by the Russians the Armenian students have shown themselves ready to join the invading army. Reports tell of armed conflicts arising from the refusal of Armenians to become Turkish conscripts, and surrender their arms.
It is now rumored that the city of Van Is besieged by Armenian guerrilla bands In great force.
In Feitun the Armenians are said to exceed 20,000 in number, and they are reported to have defeated all the Turkish troops sent against them, causing the Turks heavy losses.
Holdwater: Note these 20,000 Armenians were all Ottoman-Armenians.
A peculiar pattern in reports featuring Armenian belligerence was that the "Armenians fighting Turks" angle rated big headlines, and yet there were hardly many details in the accompanying text; in the example above, no less than three other topics preceded the Armenian portion. This must have been the bigoted editors' way of making their bigoted readers feel good; at last the poor, helpless Armenians were giving the monstrous Turks well-deserved comeuppance!
The accent above is on how the Germans were in control of many segments of the Ottoman military, and the shortage of military manpower (the example here was in the officer corps, but the problem was extensive), demonstrating how desperate the situation was for the Ottomans. The last thing they needed was to deal with many thousands of their own traitorous, revolting Armenians.
Germans in Constantinople / Turkey Compelled to Help Germany
Two articles from The Manitoba Free Press, Nov. 13, 1914
Asquith May Ask for Million More Men
Reports in Lobbies at Westminster Are That Demand for Funds, on Tuesday Will be for Billion Dollars With Probability of Half Crown Income Tax in Addition —Three Thousand German Officers in Turkish Naval Service — Kaiser's Men Control Constantinople.
GERMANS IN CONSTANTINOPLE.
London, Nov. 12.-An Englishman, long a resident of Constantinople, which city he left on Nov. 1, has arrived in London. He says that in addition to the crews of the cruisers Goeben and Brealau, nearly 3,000 German officers are in the Turkish naval service. Two months ago, he says, all the German clerks of public and private establishments were taken over by the military authorities and placed in charge of the telegraph and postal departments and the censorship.
He adds: "Every Turkish ship has a German officer in command. It was a mistake that the Khedive was not allowed to return to Egypt some time ago, where he could have carefully watched developments, whereas in Constantinople, he is the centre of the intrigues of discontented Arabs of the Nationalist party and Germans."
MORE OFFICERS NEEDED.
Rome, Nov. 12.-Advices from Constantinople say that the Ottoman army still lacks 700 officers and that the authorities at Berlin were requested to supply them. Berlin replied that it would be impossible to send all Germans, but would supplement them with Austrians who would travel to Constantinople individually as civilians.
Manitoba Free Press, Nov. 13, 1914, from the article, "Turks Attack on Koprukeni Repulsed With Heavy Loss."
Turkey Compelled to Help Germany
London, Nov. 13:—(2-57 a.m.)—The Morning Post's Athens correspondent says:
"According to statements made by a diplomat here, Turkey was compelled to enter the war by a secret treaty made some years ago with Germany whereby Turkey agreed to assist Germany if war was declared on Germany if war was declared on Germany by Russia.
"In return Germany likewise agreed to assist Turkey if Russia declared war on Turkey.
"At the opening of the war Germany demanded Turkey's assistance, but the Turkish cabinet, which regarded such an act as suicidal, replied that Turkey would be unable to assist because she had no money, because the army was going through a period of reorganization, and because the fleet was powerless to defend the capitol.
"Germany answered these objections by sending money, men and ships, whereupon Turkey was compelled to enter the arena because of her solemn treaty obligations."
Holdwater: Interesting explanation as to why the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers; this one has not been as widely circulated.
Cossacks Rout Turks/England Declares War/Annexes Cyprus
The Syracuse Herald, November 5, 1914
COSSACKS ROUT THE TURKS NEAR ARMENIAN LINE
Petrograd Statement Says the Kurds Fled, Leaving the Wounded.
By F. L. Murray
Petrograd, Nov. 5 — Additional victories for Russian troops in their invasion of Asiatic Turkey were announced in an official report from the general staff issued here to-day. The Cossack forces are advancing rapidly and inflicting sudden blows upon the Turks.
The official report follows:
"In the Caucasus one of our columns suddenly attacked the enemy near Ardost, fifteen miles south of Kars, near the Armenian frontier. The Turks fled, deserting their wounded.
"Dislodging the Turks from their positions, at [Id?] (about fifty-eight miles west of Ardost), the Russian troops took a large quantity of food supplies. Our troops captured Raorasan (southeast of Id in Armenia) after a sharp fight. The Russian force there consisted of 100 Cossacks. They attacked the enemy's trenches and sabred the Turkish infantry.
"Another column traveling fifty-six miles in thirty hours over difficult roads encountered Turkish troops at Mysonne and Diyadin (about forty-five miles west of the frontier.) Our troops dispersed a large force of Kurds and occupied Diyardin, where we took a large quantity of munitions of war and numerous prisoners.
On November 3d we captured Bayazid after routing the Turkish troops, who offered strong resistance.
ENGLAND DECLARES WAR AGAINST TURKEY, AND THE OTTOMAN ENVOY IS GIVEN HIS PASSPORTS
If Triple Entente Is Victorious in This War, Russia Will Undoubtedly Open the Dardanelles
By HEEBEET TEMPLE.
London, Nov. 5.— England declared war on Turkey to-day as Tewfik Pasha, the Ottoman envoy, left London with his staff. The formal declaration of hostilities caused no surprise as England and Russia have been waging war on Turkey for several days.
This action by England only served to emphasize the great political upsets that have occurred in the present struggle in Europe. For many decades England has fought both with arms arid diplomacy to prevent Russia gaining possession of the Dardanelles and thus securing an outlet into the Mediterranean. But if the Triple Entente is victorious over the Teutonic allies in the present conflict, Russia will undoubtedly gain in the end which she has long sought.
In the Russo-Turkish war, when it looked as if Russia would be victorious England and France sided with Turkey and the Muscovite aim was defeated.
Envoy Goes, to the Continent
London, Nov. 5 — Tewfik Pasha, the Turkish ambassador, and his staff left London to-day for the continent and the rupture of relations between England and the Porte was complete.
While the destination of the ambassador was stated to be Constantinople, it is believed he would not go there, as he has opposed the war party.
The severance of diplomatic relations would have occurred several days earlier, but for a personal plea from the envoy to Sir Edward Grey to delay acting until he could try to influence the Porte in favor of maintaining neutrality and granting the wishes of the Triple Entente.
A dispatch to the Times from Dedeagatch says that the Grand Vizier knew nothing of the Black Sea raid until after it occurred. The minister of marine was also ignorant of the plan to open hostilities and learned of it only in a roundabout way. Then he demanded an explanation from Enver Bey and was informed that Russia had attacked the Turkish fleet.
This statement received no corroboration and the minister of marine resigned. Other ministers who favored neutrality did likewise and the Grand Vizier later gave up his office.
England Annexes Island of Cyprus
London, Nov. 5.— Great Britain has annexed the Island of Cyprus. Official announcement to this effect was made by the Gazette to-day. Cyprus has been nominally a Turkish possession, but in reality it has belonged to England since that country took control of it and governed it by a resident commissioner.
The island has a population of more than 250,000. It is about  miles long and from a forty to fifty miles in width.
The defensive alliance between Great Britain and Turkey having become annulled by the outbreak of war, the British government decided that it was necessary to appropriate the island in order that proper provision might be made for its government and for Its protection.
The island, since the Anglo-Turkish convention of 1878, had been occupied and administered by Great Britain though it had remained under the suzerainty of the Sultan.
(Continued on Next Page)
Holdwater: Ambassador Morgenthau corroborated in his "Story" book that Jemal Pasha, the Minister of Marine, was surprised by the attack upon the Russian coast.
Armenians Are Fighting Turks In Self Defense
The Newark Advocate, November 7, 1914; the same article was also in The Dallas News, Nov. 8, 1914: "ARMENIANS AND TURKS FIGHT. Several Sharp Engagements at Lake Van," as well as in the last segment of the Atlanta newspaper report, provided below.
Americans [sic] Are Fighting Turks In Self Defense
[ASSOCIATED PRESS TELEGRAM]
Petrograd, via London, .Nov. 7.—A dispatch received here from Tlflls, says Armenian refugees reaching there report that volunteer bands of Armenians have had several sharp engagements with the Turkish garrison at Van on Lake Van In Armenia, and about 145 miles south-east of Erzerum.
These bands of Armenians have come together in the interior of Turkey for self defense.
The Atlanta Constitution, Nov. 8, 1914
BRITAIN SEIZES TURKISH SEAPORT
Soldiers from India Occupy Fao,on Persian Gulf — Russians Claim to Be Driving Turks in Great Disorder.
London November 8 — (12:30 a. m. ) The admiralty announces the occupation of Fao, a port of Asiatic Turkey at the mouth of the River [?hat] el- Arab in the Persian gulf. A military force from India covered by the sloop Odin landed with a naval detachment after the Turkish guns had been silenced, according to the announcement.
There were no British casualties.
Fao is the terminus of the submarine telegraph to India.
TURKS ARE DRIVEN BY THE RUSSIANS
Petrograd November 7 — An official communication from the general staff in Caucasia dated November 8 says:
There have not been any considerable actions as yet. Some Kurdish regiments, supported by infantry and masses of the population in arms attempted an offensive movement in the region northeast of Karakilissa. The Turks were driven back with great losses.
The Russians continue to pursue the Turkish and Kurdish troops who were defeated in the hilly regions of Passine [Diadme and Baiazel]. These places have been occupied by our troops. The Turkish troops have been in part exterminated and part dispersed.
A dispatch received here from Tiflis says Armenian refugees reaching their reports that volunteer bands of Armenians have had several sharp engagements with the Turkish garrison at Van on Lake Van In Armenia, and about 145 miles southeast of Ezeroum.
These bands of Armenians have come together In the interior of Turkey for self defense.
Turkish Origin of Military Bands
The Newark Advocate, November 12, 1914
Turkish Origin of Military Bands.
Talking of the military element at the Yildiz palace under Abdul Hamid, including the military band, Sidney Whitman in "Turkish Memories" remarks that military bands as such are quite a modern feature In Europe and owe their origin to the Janissaries: "Janitscharenmusik" Is still to this day the term used In Germany for an Infernal din of tin kettles, pipes and brass. To the Turk, then, is due all the noise which has become such a public nuisance in our time on the continent of Europe — a heavy responsibility before the tribunal of decency and decorum.
Holdwater: How nice that a Western newspaper gave the Turks credit for something besides making war, while making certain to underline that any such accomplishment would be sure to set civilization back.
Armenians Fight for Russia
Manitoba Free Press, Jan. 8, 1915; Also The Reno Evening Gazette, Jan. 7, 1915, p. 5 ("ARMENIANS FIGHT FOR RUSSIA"), and in The Indianapolis Star?, January 08, 1915 ("ARMENIANS JOIN RUSSIANS: Detachment of Volunteers Arrives at Tiflis for Army Service.")
TURKS TAKE URUMIAH
Ottoman Troops Occupy Important Russian Base
Berlin, Jan. 7.— The Turkish official bulletin received here today reports that Ottoman troops have occupied Urumiah, which has been an important base for the Russians.
Urumiah is a town of Persian Armenia in Azerbaijan, with a population of from 30,000 to 50,000.
Armenian Volunteers at Tiflis.
London, Jan. 7.— Reuter's Petrograd correspondent transmits a message from Tiflis stating that a detachment of Armenian volunteers had arrived there from America. The volunteers received an enthusiastic reception.
The Armenian volunteers evidently are to serve with the Russian army in the campaign against Turkey, whose troops were advancing in the direction of Tiflis until as reported in Petrograd two days ago. they were defeated disastrously. Tiflis is a Russian city in the trans-Caucasian region. The territory known as Armenia, which is not a political unit, includes part of the trans-Caucus.
Armenian Force Increased to 15,000/Kurdish Separatist
Daily Kennebec Journal, May 28, 1915
ARMENIAN VOLUNTEERS ARE TO BE INCREASED TO 15,000
(Associated Press Correspondence)
Tiflis April 23. — A visit to the general staff of the Armenian volunteers disclosed active preparations to raise their contingents from about 5000 to a full division of about 15,000. Five Armenian detachments are now [arriving] from Batum to Tabriz. It is planned to unite all but one in a single body. Volunteering is proceeding briskly having begun even before Turkey entered the war. Armenian subscriptions defray all costs and. the management is in the hands of the Armenian National Bureau, in which all elements of the Armenian race are represented.
Hope of emancipating Turkish Armenia has ended party disputes which used to be as fierce as they were unintelligible to the outside world. There is entire confidence in the allied armies.
The outbreak of war instantly recalled the general inspectors newly created upon the initiative of Russia, and it is now one of the absorbing questions of the Caucasus whether England and France will not leave the determination of the fate of Armenia to Russia alone.
The Armenians are consoling themselves with the assurance that the Russian government does not want to arm Turkish Armenia, though they would be very glad if they had even vague promises held out.
But the most striking of the historic Armenian animosities at this time is that, while making larger preparations to fight, the Armenian leaders would much prefer that there should be very little fighting In Turkish Armenia, as every advance of the Russian Armenians would be preceded by massacres and the grant of autonomy would find the Armenian people too weak to utilize their new privileges of self government. There are however words of caution against waiting for peace negotiations to drop Into their laps the ripe fruits of diplomacy.
In any case it is considered doubtful whether Turkey would yield more gracefully to diplomacy than to a [?]. It is feared she would rather repeat, in the form of a reduction of their numbers, the historic argument that the Armenians are really a negligible minority. There is believed to be danger in delay. The diplomatic ch[?]board Is more uncertain than the military. Even if everything should go well with the triple entente, it is believed in the end Turkey will have to be coerced by arms and will almost certainly revenge itself on its helpless Christian subjects.
BEDRKHAN BEY WILL STRIVE TO REGAIN LOST THRONE
(Associated Press Correspondence)
Russian Headquarters Persia, April 8. —The grandson of the lost King of Botan set out today to win back his ancestral throne with the aid of twenty Kurds. Bedrikhan Bey was really the hereditary lord of a group of Kurdish chiefs and in Asiatic language a King until he became involved in war with Turkey in the year of the Hegira, 1262. Notwithstanding his French education and his polished manners Abdurrazzak thinks In Turkish Arkudish when he relates Kurdish history.
Bedrkhan Bey was Imprisoned and passed 18 years In Crete in honorable detention. Later he was allowed to establish his household gods at Contantinople where Abdurrazzak was born and he died at Damascus. The grandson after being secretary of the Turkish embassy at Petrograd In 1892 and master of ceremonies at the Contantinople court, engaged In a palace plot 10 years ago. Together with two brothers and an uncle he passed four years in a Tripoli prison with heavy ball and chain attached to his leg under a suspended sentence of death.
The Turkish revolution brought freedom and Abdurrazzak shared the honeymoon of Turkish constitutionalism with the Young Turks for seven months. He then formed the plan of separating Kurdistan from Turkey and went to Russia to seek support. After five years there he came to Persla to establish relations with his grandfather's subjects. He opened a Kurdlsh school in a building he bought In the city of Hai and bided his time which he now thinks has come much simpler.
Enver Pasha's Boast of Bloody Butchery
The Fort Wayne News, Oct. 7, 1915
ENVER PASHA'S BOAST OF BLOODY BUTCHERY
GLORIES IN HIS RUTHLESS SLAUGHTER OF HELPLESS CHRISTIANS.
EMILY C. WHEELER
Makes a Sensational Statement Concerning the Atrocities of the Turks.
NEW YORK, Oct.7.—"It is Enver Pasha's boast that he killed more Armenians in thirty days, than Abdul Hamid did in thirty years. And Abdul Hamid was known as the 'great butcher' and the 'red sultan'."
This statement was made today by Miss Emily C. Wheeler, secretary of the National Armenia and India Relief association, an organization which since 1895 has been active in mission work in Turkish Armenia. Information on which her statement was based was given her by a missionary, an Armenian physician just returned from Turkey. Miss Wheeler herself spent eighteen years in Armenia and was there during the massacre of 1895.
"German officers are active in the Armenian persecutions," continued Miss Wheeler, "according to stories told me by my missionary friends. Certain classes of Turks are not in sympathy with the horrible outrages but they dare not protest as the movement is being directed from Constantinople.
"Out of the Armenian nation 1,500,000 people, 800,000 have been killed or deported. The Ottoman government is waging a campaign of extermination. This is evident from the slaughter and is further indicated by the statement of the governor of Van, made in November, 1914, that the government intended to kill every Armenian, even down to the babies, to rid Turkey forever of the "Armenian question."
"They have succeeded so well in some villages there is not even a sign of life left. The entire district of Tiflis has been leveled by fire. Women have been scorched, scalded and beaten to death. Even the orphans in our missions have been deported. In the Van district alone 57,000 Armenians were killed in August.
"One of the young women attached to the Van mission has been missing since July. She is a Miss McLaren, an American, who volunteered to serve in the Red Crescent, the Turkish Red Cross. She disappeared when the Turks fled before the Russian soldiers. She is probably dead. Another instance is that of Sister Martha, a German woman, who fled with fifty orphans from the savage Kurds in July. Nothing has been heard of them.
"Those who managed to escape death are suffering indescribable tortures from starvation. The government hinders all outside aid and will do nothing itself to relieve conditions.
"Of the 270,000 Armenians who started for Russia over 100,000 died of typhus. There are 60,000 Armenians serving in the Russian army. This, and the fact that there is a handful of Armenian revolutionists stirring up trouble are the excuses offered by the government for the persecutions."
The physician, said to be a former Princeton man, killed at Harpoot, was Professor Vorperian, an Armenian, who graduated from Princeton twenty years ago. He was executed for alleged participation in the revolution. Miss Wheeler said today funds for the National Armenian and India Relief association work are urgently needed.
Holdwater: This pure propaganda is irresistible on several levels. Note first that the Enver boast was provided not only by a missionary, but an Armenian missionary... as if the Turkish leader would have dared make such a statement to such a person, even if he had entertained such thoughts. Secondly, Ambassador Morgenthau related the same invented anecdote in his "Story" book, but this time the speaker was Talat. Silly Samantha Power actually provided this sewage as "historical evidence" in her "Pulitzer Prize winning" book.
Of note as well is the bigoted missionary's assertion that there were 1.5 million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, at least one statement based on fact. In addition, she helpfully supports Richard Hovannisian's claim that of 300,000 Armenians who accompanied the Russian retreats, almost half died of disease. So one-tenth of the entire population, and about one-quarter of the entire mortality would also be designated as "genocide" victims, even though the Turks weren't in sight. Lastly, note the Armenians' wide scale betrayal (the "Wheeler-Dealer" dishonestly couches it in terms of a "handful" of revolutionists) is simply an "excuse" for the "persecutions" the Armenians were forced to face.
Kurds Continue Atrocities
The Pinedale Roundup, Wyoming June 24, 1915
KURDS CONTINUE ATROCITIES.
Armenian Volunteers Fighting to Protect Christian Population.
Tiflis, Trans-Caucasia.—After the occupation of Van, Turkish Armenia, by the Russians, bands of Kurds continued to commit atrocities in the districts of Bitlis, Mush and Diarbekr. Armenian volunteers in increasing numbers are fighting desperately to protect the Christian population from the Kurds. Inhabitants of Diarbekr, following the example of the Armenians in Van, have organized armed bands.
Holdwater: If these atrocities were being committed, the reason was revenge, for the terrible crimes the traitorous Armenians had committed upon the Kurds and other Ottoman Muslims. Yet the newspaper had to make it seem as though the poor, helpless Armenians were being set upon for sport, as though Ottoman Muslims were not going through a nightmare, and did not have better things to do than to use Armenians for target practice.
By the way, how could the Armenians in Diyarbakir have had the manpower to form armed bands? We were around a month into the "deportation" already, and as any Armenian propaganda aficionado knows, all the Armenian young men were killed by this time, leaving only the women, children and old men to be sent off on their un-merry way.
Case of the [Ship Named] Armenian
Lancaster Daily Eagle, July 1, 1915
The following is in regards to an American ship that carried war contraband for the British and was sunk by a German submarine, with a casualty of "nineteen Americans, most of them negroes... missing and believed to be lost." (Another toll of 29 lost and 10 injured is provided later in the article.)
The main point of interest here is that sympathy for the Armenians was raised to such a fever pitch, evidently one effect was that this ship was named... "the Armenian." An excerpt:
Case of the Armenian
That the case of the Armenian, even if all the points now in doubt are resolved in favor of the vessel and against the German submarine will not arouse popular feeling in this country to the extent that has been the case regarding other Americans who have been made victims of German submarines is the expectation here. It is not doubted that public opinion will incline to the belief that the negroes and possibly other Americans lost with the Armenian knew full well the dangers to which they were exposed, and therefore should not have taken service on her unless prepared to accept all the consequences. That the Armenian was carrying horses and mules for the British army is taken for granted, and it is thought that this will prove a fact [becoming large?] in the public mind. Finally, it is expected that if reports show that the Armenian was under charter to the British government, many Americans will agree with the view that Germany will undoubtedly take, namely [that she] was practically an auxiliary transport of the British government.
A Russian Army Camp in Turkish Armenia
Middletown Daily Times-Press, Aug. 10, 1915
(The same story was also reported in The Daily Northwestern, Aug. 14, 1915: " WARFARE IN ARMENIA ONLY PLAIN MURDER. SOLDIERS SUFFER LESS THAN NON-COMBATANTS, WOMEN'S BODIES BEING STREWN ALONG THE RUSSIAN TRAIL. STRUGGLE FOR LIFE UTMOST")
Sidelights on the War
A Russian Army Camp in Turkish Armenia, Aug. 10 — (Correspondence of the Associated Press) — The Russian army that is in pursuit of the elusive Turks in this region have, at this writing, reached the Valley of the Habur, an affluent of the Tigris, at a point sixty miles south of Van.
On June 2, the right flank of the Russian forces engaged the Turks under Hallid Bey, near the Tigris, and fought until nightfall, when the Turks made off into darkness. The Armenian volunteers, who are doing some of the best fighting for the Russians, began the battle at 9 o'clock in the morning and sustained it alone on open ground until noon, when General T's cavalry from Sarai came into action. The artillery was brought up in the afternoon, but by then to Hallid Bay had taken a position on inaccessible mountains, and since then there has been no contact with him.
Whatever may be true of atrocity stories from other sources. It is certainly a fact that the warfare in Armenia has resulted in the killing of more non-combatants than soldiers, and it is doubtful if there is any other area In the world where the war is so plainly a case of murder.
The Associated Press correspondent has himself seen the corpses of non-combatants, both men and women, strewn alone every trail that the Russian army has traversed. On June 4, while climbing: a pass at least 16,000 feet above sea level, two remarkably handsome Armenians were seen slain beside the road, and nearby lay a Kurdish girl, dead from starvation and hardship. In a niche of the rocks of the high mountain pass there was found a deserted baby softly crying beneath a saddle blanket.
At one point a group of thirty Armenian women gathered at the mid- day halting place of the Russian soldiers on the crest of the pass, and moaned for food and clothes, but there was nothing to spare them, as the soldiers themselves were without bread or fuel to cook their super-abundant mutton. They were in a district where even dry weeds failed them for fire-building purposes, and there were no more villages to destroy for roof timbers. Even the veteran campaigners of the Russo- Turkish war of 1877-8 and of every Russian campaign since then are sickened by the conditions with which they come in daily contact in this devastated land, and especially by the emergence of the brute Instincts to kill and destroy.
The roads and sheep paths everywhere are bestrewn with the possessions of the Kurds of Van vilayet and on the mountains and In the valleys there graze countless thousands of their abandoned sheep. Dead horses, broken saddles, harness and torn uniforms testify also to the rapid weakening of the Turkish regulars.
One mountain stream was found bridged with rugs and carpets laid on roof timbers from a neighboring village. Another was formed of the bodies of sheep, similarly supported.
The Kurds have borne the brunt of the Turkish retreat, and in addition to the leaving behind of their cattle, they have abandoned their rich carpets and rugs, and so much rough carded wool, that in places the wool lies thick enough to pave the muddy roads.
The Russian military students in this camp claim that the present progress of their forces has cast a shade even upon the crossing of the Alps by Hannibal and Napoleon. Almost daily this army has had to cross worse than Alpine heights. The best maps have proven unreliable, and there have been no competent native guides. Detachments have gone three or four days at a time without a pound of bread or rye toast, and a. general halt was made necessary today by the almost total lack of salt, sugar, bread and barley. The horses have climbed up and down many steep slopes 2,000 feet high on grass alone. The last great pass, a snowy waste of many miles, is marked by scores of dead and dying horses. In some places the ground to be traversed was covered with snow hundreds of feet deep. In other places horses had to be led over narrow, melting snow bridges across swirling streams. To slip was to be engulfed and that fate befell three of the Russian soldiers.
In the sunshine it is blistering and blinding, at night there is frost, Last night fresh snow fell on the heights around the camp. The camel train arrived last night, 24 hours late. The men had to sleep the night before in the open. Scarcely a dozen camp fires of scanty dried stubble blazed long enough to boil tea and those too thinly covered to sleep had to walk in the dark to avoid freezing.
To complete the desperation, the bivouac chanced to be in a place overgrown with poisonous weeds, while the starving horses ate greedily. As a result fifty or sixty, including General N's mount, were dead before morning.
For a week life has been reduced to its elements. Thousands of men think day and night of nothing but the primal animal needs. Warmth, food and rest are paradise here. The Russian soldier and still more the Armenian volunteer, is resourceful. Failing tea, bread and meat, he fares forth to milk, fat-tailed or Angora sheep. Boots are wearing out and of course there is no depot. Here, too, the soldiers resort to self help with the aid of freshly skinned horse hides.
Yet there has been scarcely a word of complaint and the chief regret is that they have been able to force their enemy to accept a decisive engagement.
The genocide poster boy
Holdwater: Aside from the two "remarkably handsome" Armenian men, and the women who would have dared to openly meet this regiment, it appears the main sufferers here were Muslims. This is a rare Western report shedding light on these invisible victims, even admitting "the Kurds have borne the brunt."
Two questions come to mind: what became of that abandoned baby? (Is it... is it possible the Armenian soldiers would have saved its life?) And secondly, would the Kurdish girl, dead from starvation and hardship, have looked much better than the "genocide poster boy," shown above? Why is he regarded as a victim of "genocide," and not her?
Turks Driven Back — Armenians Big Help
Cedar Rapids Republican, July 18, 1915
TURKS DRIVEN BACK FROM PASS
APPROACH TO VAN IN HANDS OF RUSSIAN ADVANCE GUARD
ARMENIANS BIG HELP
Threatened Massacre or Christians by Turks and Kurds Averted by Victories of Russians In Turkish Armenia
Dehr, (Vilayet of Van) Turkish Armenia, May 18.—(via Petrograd, June 6):— Outposts of the Russian forces here are bivouacking 10,000 feet above sea level around the region of the Haneour pass, marking the approach to Van, the capital of the Armenian vilayet, which is an important [seat] of American missions. The pass itself has been taken back into Russian control by an operation in which the Armenians cleared the surrounding hills of scattered Turks and Kurds. From the number of empty cartridges found in the yielded trenches, it is apparent that the Turks lacked marksmen rather than ammunition.
Bashkala, the most important town between Dilman and Van was re-occupied today by Russian cavalry, which drove off about fifty Kurds, and with this event the long expected advance on Van began in earnest. The great question agitating the minds of the Russians and of the Armenian volunteers is whether they will arrive in time to save the beleaguered Armenians of Van from slaughter.
(Note: Cable despatches from Turkish Armenia in the middle of June said briefly that the Russian forces had occupied Van, and that the threatened massacre of Christians by Kurds and Turks had been averted).
The Armenian volunteers have behaved well in this campaign, as they did in Dilman. Here they held an exposed trench fourteen hours after Turkish fire without relief and then advanced on the wavering enemy. The head of the Armenian volunteers has been a leader of revolutionary bands for twenty years. A silent, observant man with bronzed features, shaggy brows and mustache, he might pose for a western sheriff. Samson Khan, his chief ot staff, as a striking contrast. He is typically Armenian in his vivacity, but an indispensable aide, as the leader does not speak Russian. The detachment of Armenian volunteers, numbering about 1,000, is composed of only fifteen per cent Russian Armenians, the remainder being more or less recent refugees from Turkish oppression. There are two from America, one from China, and quite a number from Armenian colonies in Bulgaria and Rumania. One of the men from America abandoned a prosperous business In New York to help free his race. Another was professor of archeology at Petrograd. A third was a teacher in an Armenian college at Yalta. The junior surgeon was educated In the American college in Beirut. Many expect to emigrate to America after the war.
So far, the Russian pursuit of the Turkish army has been largely a question of communications. The slope from the plain of Salmas to the [Honeuur] pass is long, but in the main regular and could be traversed in an automobile, but the pass itself is a difficult divide of fully ten miles with many steep ascents. The mountains, upwards of 8,000 feet high, are so far bare of snow but also are void of any vegetation except short grass and early field flowers. Not a bush or tree has been seen since the plain was left behind, and the snow-clad mountain masses ahead do not promise fuel. The soldiers gathered dry weeds to boil their tea kettles until Dehr was reached. There dismantled Armenian houses afforded firewood. The train is composed of camels, pack-horses, mules and donkeys.
Dehr is the seat of an ancient monastery whose foundation is lost in traditions of the early Christians. The present fortress-like church was probably built over 1200 years ago. Bullets and shells did no damage to the six-foot thick walls but everything movable was destroyed and defaced by the Turks and Kurds. The village was plundered and dismantled. The Turks seem bent on the total destruction of Armenian culture. The villagers were killed or enslaved or escaped without any of their possessions. But with the hope and determination of their race, they are already returning to rebuild their homes.
Kurdistan Villages Robbed of Population
The Dallas News, July 13, 1915
MANY BODIES FOUND CRAMMED IN WELLS
Kurdistan Villages Robbed of Population
In Bashkala 500 Women and Children Were Divided Among Harems of Hasem Bey and Hashi Bey.
Correspondence of the Associated Press. Russo-Armenian Camp, near Bashkala, Kurdistan, May 24. — For a perfect epitome of conditions in this region it is necessary to stop only a few yards from Bashkala on the Chukh road to the hamlet of Heresan. There today the Associated Press correspondent found sixty Armenian men, all that are known to remain alive and free in a population of 500 — not a single woman or child but what had been killed or carried away by the Turks and Kurds.
Half a dozen wells were crammed with the bodies of those who had not been carried away. Sherabeg, a Kurdish chief, began the ravages last fall, killing a score of men and carrying off thousands of heads of cattle. Some sixty of the sturdiest of the survivors fled to a monastery about fifteen miles away to procure arms and help, but they could not recapture their village, and had to flee for their lives, leaving the remaining population in the power of the Kurds. The latter camped at Heresan all winter and used the women and children as they chose. Immediately after the defeat of the Turkish troops under Hallil Bey, at Dilman, the Kurds foresaw their expulsion and made an end of such of the female and youthful population as they did not take away in slavery.
City Now Abandoned.
In Bashkala there is no one living now. But lately it was a flourishing and picturesque Asiatic city with many well-stocked stores and comfortable homes. Many of the houses were two-story structures of brick with tasteful balconies. There was an abundance of good rugs and some European furniture. The population comprised 1,500 Armenians, a few Jews and perhaps 3.000 Moslems. Of the Armenians 500 women and children had been carried away and divided between the harems of Hassem Bey and Hashi Bey, Kurdish chiefs. The remainder had perished or fled. The Bashkala Moslems had also paid dearly, for their handsome city was looted, dismantled and burned. There were fires in a dozen places when The Associated Press correspondent visited the city today with a Russian General and his staff. The revenge on the Moslems had been worked in spite of the strict injunctions issued by both the Russian and Armenian leaders. The Armenian volunteers were particularly enraged because the Moslems, and, it is said, the Jewish merchants also, betrayed the Armenians, who had been friendly to the Russians on their first advance on Bashkala last year.
It is characteristic of the bitterness between the two races, that twenty-five Heresan recruits serving in the Turkish army were killed outright in the way of reprisal when news was received of the Turkish defeat at Dilman.
With Russian General.
The correspondent has been riding almost daily with General N--- of the Russian army, or Andranik, the Armenian leader, in pursuit of the illusive Turkish army under Hallil Bey. It was disclosed today that at least part of the Turkish forces were in a superb position on the slope of a high mountain flanked by some still higher. The Russian artillery succeeded in sending the forces to cover, but there was no general engagement. There has been a warm crossfiring between outposts, and on May 20 the Armenians succeeded in driving the Kurds from some of their mountain strongholds behind Bashkala and from the eastern side of the pass of Shukh. It yet remains to be seen whether the Turkish forces, which were shelled today, are of full strength.
One thing which impressed an American visitor in this region is the excellence of the grain fields of the upland plains. As good as they are in some places, the country would gain enormously from the application of American irrigation methods and modern agricultural work. Whatever may be the issue of the war, it seems quite possible that this will come to pass, for all Armenians look upon America as their schoolmaster.
Holdwater: Wonder which on-the-spot "eyewitness" provided the report that 500 Armenian women were doled out among the Kurdish "harems." (Was this a time for sexual tomfoolery?)
At least the reporter eked out a few words that Muslims had been victimized by Armenians, in spite of the "strict injunctions issued by ... Armenian leaders." (Indeed, the sound you heard was that of a stifled snicker.) Importantly, there is rare word that Jews had also been victims of the Armenians. Why? The Jews had "betrayed" the Armenians, because the Armenians had been "friendly" to the Russians... the enemies of their country.
Americans Tell Terrible Tales of Turk Cruelty
The Lethbridge Daily Herald (Alberta), September 18, 1915
AMERICANS TELL TERRIBLE TALES OF TURK CRUELTY, HAD TO LEAVE ARMENIA
Russians Find Trenches Choked With Bodies of Armenians Massacred by Barbarian Allies of Germany
Dr. Clarence Ussher
His racist book was the basis
for Atom Egoyan's ARARAT.
Petrograd, via London, Sept. 18.— Dr. Clarence D. Ussher, Mr. and Mrs. Yarrow, and thirteen other persons, comprising the missionary staff at Van, Turkish Armenia, passed through Petrograd, today, on their way to Bergen, Norway, having had to abandon. to pillage and flame the result of seventy years work at Van.
Aged, but dauntless, Mrs. Reynolds broke her leg In the hurried flight from Van, and died at Tiflis two days before her husband reached there from America. Mrs. Ussher died of typhus fever shortly before the flight. Dr. Ussher was attacked the same day as his wife was stricken. He is still scarcely able to walk, although he has recovered from the disease.
The entire party suffered hardships on the road.
Van again is in the hands of the Russians, who are declared to have found the canals and trenches choked with untold thousands of bodies of Armenians who had been unable to escape, and were killed. It .is stated that in addition to the mission compound, all the better buildings in the city were destroyed, including the home of the governor and the headquarters or the Armenian government.
The massacre, the missionaries report, was directed by Jevdet Bey, who had burned the compound before retiring from the first siege of Van in the early summer. When Jevdet returned he took a terrible vengeance for the raising of the siege by the Armenian volunteers.
Holdwater: Some of you might be wondering what this blatant work of missionary propaganda is doing on this page. It's to show that when you look closely, sometimes even in the most shamelessly racist and dishonest presentations, the grains of truth can slip through. Why did these "barbarians" behave in the way the hateful missionary partisans reported? The key word is "vengeance." Even here, it was difficult to keep under wraps the plain fact that the Armenians had betrayed their country, with the implication that they just may have committed terrible crimes of their own.
Armenians Loot Turk Homes in Retaliation
The Dallas News, October 6, 1915
ARMENIANS LOOT TURK HOMES IN RETALIATION
AMERICAN MISSIONARIES ARRIVING IN NEW YORK GIVE NEW VIEW OF TROUBLE.
STORY OF VAN'S DEFENSE
Turks and Kurds Waging Holy War on Christians With Intention of Extermination.
New York, Oct. 5. - The Turks and Kurds are waging a holy war of extermination on the Armenians, according to sixteen members of the Armenian board of foreign missions, who arrived today from Van, Turkey. Ernest Yarrow, one of the missionaries, told how the Armenian population of Van, numbering 1,500, held out against 5,000 Kurds and a Turkish company commanded by a German officer, from April 20 to May 17, when Russians arrived and relieved the town.
"We had six American and two Red Cross flags." said Mr. Yarrow, "and we flew these over the mission, but they were not respected by either of the combatants. The Turkish company arrived three or four days before the Russian relief came, and the shrapnel from the Turkish guns tore down all of our flags.
"We sheltered large numbers of Armenian women and children, but as soon as the Turks and Kurds had been driven away from the town, virtually all of the Armenians turned out to loot the Turkish houses and duplicate the atrocities that had previously been practiced upon the Armenians. It was with great difficulty that they were restrained.
"The Turks and Kurds have declared a holy war against the Armenians and vowed to exterminate them. The population of Van was poorly armed and was forced to use brass and copper trinkets to make bullets. Three small cannon were made of scrap metal. The supplies of ammunition were running short and the Russians arrived just in time to save the Armenians from being wiped out."
Mr. Yarrow said many Armenians were suffering from typhus and other diseases and when he left conditions almost everywhere in Armenia were terrible. Half of the missionaries were taken ill during the siege and six died. Mr. Yarrrow said only a portion of the real story had been told.
Holdwater: In April, 1915 there were 33,789 Armenians in the city of Van, out of some 100,000 for the province. This does not take into account the many thousands of Armenian fighters who had piled into Van, which Morgenthau had estimated as close to 25,000. Yet the lying missionary Yarrow, in an attempt to show how poor and helpless his beloved Armenians were, vouched for "1,500." He also would distort the fact that the Armenians possessed superior weaponry (for example, as sophisticated Mauser firearms working like machine guns), which the Armenians had stockpiled well in advance of their planned rebellion.
Although the headline promises a telling of Armenian crimes, the accent surely needed to fall upon the "extermination" efforts of the Turks, outnumbered and out-resourced as they were. We are asked to believe the Armenians were "restrained" from their very real extermination efforts, but at least Yarrow was being inadvertently truthful by stating, "only a portion of the real story had been told."
Armenians Slay Turks in Revolt
Oakland Tribune, Feb 21, 1916
Armenians Slay Turks in Revolt
Grand Duke’s Victory Disrupts Islam
ROME, Feb. 21—It is stated in dispatches received here that the Germans are preparing to leave Constantinople, where their position has become difficult.
The Russian line is reported already from thirty to sixty miles west of Erzerum.
The Turkish debacle in Armenia surpasses all imagination. No unit remains intact, and the debris of the army in flight is being massacred by the insurgent Armenian population.
The Armenians have now begun giving organized aid to the Russians. After the massacres of last year by the Turks, all the able-bodied men who escaped enlisted in the Russian army and Grand Duke Nicholas now has under his command a force of 50,000 Armenian volunteers.
Information from Constantinople depicts the situation there as tragic. No direct news has reached the Turkish capital from Asia Minor for ten days, but the Greeks have informed the Turks of the catastrophe at Erzurum. Agitation and revolt are the order of the day. The troops refuse to march toward Asia.
The Sultan has summoned the principal authorities of the empire to take decisions of supreme importance.
(A variation is below)
Russians Victorious (with 50,000 Armenian volunteers)
From The New Oxford. The same article was reproduced in The Frederick Post (Maryland), Feb. 23, 1916, with similar headings: "Russians Win Van District Drive South. Menaces Turks' Mesopotamia Army. SLAVS ARE NEAR TREBIZOND. Turkish Losses In Past Two Weeks' Fighting Said to be Nearly 100,000. Bitlis Reported Evacuated."; the text below begins with "London, Feb. 22.")
Russians Victorious in War District
The Russians have occupied the entire Lake Van district, the Turks retiring southward and even evacuating Bitlis, according to a Petrograd despatch received in Rome and given out by the wireless press.
On the other wing, according to the despatch, the Russian advance guards have arrived within a short distance of Trebizond, on the Black sea coast.
Earlier despatches show that the Russians are pressing their advance on both flanks. Driving the Turkish rear guards before them with heavy losses, one of their armies is advancing rapidly toward Diarbekr, on the Tigris river.
Diabekr is only fifty miles from the Constantinople-Bagdad railway, the only line of communication for the Turkish army in Mesopotamia.
Turkish losses in the past two weeks' fighting with the Russians are said to be nearly 100,000 men in killed, wounded and prisoners. The kaiser is reported to have sent an imperative message to Field Marshal von Der Goltz, the chief military adviser of the Turkish army, that the advance of the Russians must be stopped at any cost.
It is reported on excellent authority that a big German force is being massed east of Constantinople for the protection of the Turkish capital. The menace of the Russian invasion of Turkey is more dangerous that at any other time during the course of the war. Approximately 250,000 Russians have poured through the passes of the Caucasian mountains supported by enormous quantities of artillery.
Along the Black sea littoral Russian warships are bombarding Turkish towns.
Information received in Rome that the Turkish rout in the Caucasus surpasses all imagination. No unit remains intact and the debris of the army in flight is being massacred by the insurgent population.
All able-bodied Armenians who escaped from Turkish conscription have enlisted in the Russian army. Grand Duke Nicholas, it is reported, has now 50,000 Armenian volunteers under his command.
Emphasis of last paragraph is Holdwater's: That would be a lot of Ottoman-Armenians, busting the myth that the Armenians who served with the Russians were composed primarily of Russian-Armenians. Note this massive treachery was reported two months before the April 24 "beginning" of the "genocide."
Armenian Volunteers Aided General Allenby
Manitoba Free Press, Winnipeg, Oct. 5, 1918; the same article was also in the same-dated The Ogden Examiner, Utah: "ARMENIAN VOLUNTEERS BATTLING TURK WITH VICTORIOUS BRITISH.")
Armenian Volunteers Aided General Allenby
Boston, Oct. 4.—Announcement that Armenian volunteers, many of them from this country, participated in the British victory over the Turks in Palestine, under General Allenby, was contained in cablegrams received today at the headquarters here of the Armenian National Union of America.
Officials of the union here explained that the fact that Armenians are fighting with the British in Palestine had not been made known heretofore because of the fear of massacres of their countrymen by the Turks.
Holdwater: Had the Brits been aware of the concept of genocide that would arrive years later, they would have needed to ask how those Armenians they feared would be in line for massacres would have still been alive in the first place.
Of interest in this piece is this rare acknowledgement: "The Seventh Ally" of the Entente were not only fighting with the Russians and the French, but with the British, as well.
America's Only Terms to the Huns: Unconditional Surrender
The Ogden Examiner, Utah, October 5, 1918
America's Only Terms to the Huns: Unconditional Surrender
ADEQUATE punishment for the military autocrats who plunged the world into war in 1914 and who have since carried on a campaign of ruthlessness against civilized peoples must be meted out at the war end. Justice to the remainder of the world demands that these men, the worst murderers of all history, should suffer the direst of penalties. At the same time, the peoples who have approved of their acts and who have assisted in their campaigns of ruthlessness should suffer penalties.
Richard H. Edmonds, writing in the Manufacturers' Record has made a suggestion regarding the penalties that should be . provided for. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey.
His suggestion follows:
Unconditional surrender of armies and navies.
The death penalty. Inflicted upon the kaiser and. every male member of the Hohenzollern and Hapsburg families who have been parties to this war, and every military and political lender responsible for bringing on this world crime.
Full payment in ships or in money for every ship sunk by German submarines.
The restoration in money or materials of every product — whether of art, or machinery, or foodstuffs, or raw material, or jewelry, or cars, or locomotives, or securities, or. money, of which Germany has looted other countries.
A financial indemnity to the family of every soldier who has been murdered or permanently invalided in the armies of America and our allies, and a similar pension or payment to every man and woman from thn over-run countries who have been enslaved by Germany and made to work on its farms or in its factories.
The repudiation or confiscation of every dollar of bonded Indebtedness of every kind outstanding against Germany, Austria, Turkey and Bulgaria and held by any of the citizens of these countries, the total amount of these bonds to be used toward the payment of the cost of the war to the allies. To this should be added an additional indemnity sufficient to cover all the expenditure made by America and our allies In carrying on this war.
Turkey forever banished from Europe.
There are a few more penalties that should be inflicted — because they are only justice to the peoples who have been under the Hun dominion. Alsace-Lorraine should be returned to France; Bohemia and Galicia, with intervening territory should be made a free country; Poland, including territory in both Germany and Austria, should be freed; the Jugo-Slav territories should be joined with Serbia or placed as a free nation; ltalian-settled lands on the Adriatic and in the Alps should be returned to Italy; Transylvania should be returned to Rumania; Armenia freed and Palestine placed under Christian rule. Besides, while Denmark has not been in the war, it would be justice to force the return of the stolen Danish provinces to that country by Germany.
Provision should be made that none of the sunken ships, upon being salvaged, should or could become, the property of Germany.
There should be no terms of a "soft peace" and no terms that would permit the Germans to organize for another war. They should be made to suffer for the misdeeds comitted [sic] since 1914 and given such a lesson that no effort at militarism would again be considered. The lesson thus taught to Germany would also serve as the precedent in all future world affairs, a precedent meaning that the free nations of the world intend that autocracy shall be banished and real liberty remain.
Holdwater: We've all heard of the term "poor loser," but talk about being a poor winner.
Good thing all of this "Christian forgiveness" prevented the Germans from organizing for another war. How come, by the way, is only Turkey singled out for being "forever banished from Europe," along with other major territorial losses, as with Palestine and "Armenia"?
Armenians Go to Europe to Fight for the Allies
The Racine-Journal News, August 31, 1917
ARMENIANS GO TO EUROPE TO FIGHT FOR THE ALLIES
Word has been received by Mr. Armen Babian. 604 State street, this city that a group of 20 Armenian volunteers to fight for the allies in Europe, have arrived In Bordeaux, France. K. Hagopian, a former Racine tailor, has sent a postal card from there. As the above group only left Detroit Aug. 4 and the post card is marked Aug. 14, this is declared to be a remarkably fast trip considering present conditions.
Armenia Loyal to the Allies
The Racine Journal-News, November 22, 1918
ARMENIA LOYAL TO ALLIES
Archag Tchobanian in The Armenian Herald: The Armenian tragedy has become more than ever what it always has been — a somber and magnificent epic. By the infamous treaty of Brest-Litovsk the wretched Bolsheviks accepted, as is well known, to use their best endeavors to bring about the retrocession to Turkey, not only of all the territories of Turkish Armenia, which the Caucasian army with the help of Armenian volunteers wrested from the Turks after such hard fought battles and sacrifices, but also the retrocession of the districts of Batoum Ardahan, and Kars, the occupation of which placed at the mercy of the Turks Russian Armenia — the last refugee, the last citadel of the Armenian national life. No sooner was the treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed by the contracting parties than the Russian soldiers in tbe Caucasus withdrew from the front. The Turks took advantage of the favorable situation thus created for them, and again assumed the offensive. The Armenians, however, did not hesitate. They organized an army under the command of the hero of Armenian liberty, Gen. Andranik, who was ably assisted by two Armenian officers of the Russian army — Gens. Nazarbekoff and Bagratouni. They were soon joined by their neighbors, the Georgians. This resistance was accompanied under the most painful and unsatisfactory circumstances for the Armenians. The entire Armenian nation remained loyal to the cause of liberty and to the allies. Armenian volunteers who fought in France, Palestine and in the Oriental legion were made up chiefly of Armenians from America. The allied nations will not forget the sufferings endured and the heroism displayed by Armenia in the course of this conflagration, and will restore to resuscitated Armenia her freedom and her independence to which she is entitled.
Emphasis above is Holdwater's.
Armenians Recapture Erzerum After a Battle with the Turks
Bridgeport Telegram (Connecticut — "New England's Greatest Manufacturing City"), April 5, 1918
ARMENIANS RECAPTURE ERZERUM, AFTER A BATTLE WITH THE TURKS
Natives, in Revolt at Massacres, Fight Oppressors
London, April 4.— Erzerum, the principal city of Turkish Armenia, is reported in an Exchange Telegraph despatch from Moscow to have been recaptured from the Turks by an Armenian corps, aided by a detachment of Armenian volunteers.
The Armenians are reported, to be holding other territories in the Erzerum district.
After the conclusion of peace with Turkey, Russia evacuated Turkish Armenia which the Turks re-occupied. They began a fresh series of massacres and the Armenians undertook the organization of an army to defend themselves.
(Also on the cover, the headline: "1,000 French Men & Women Send [sic] to Slavery by Huns," a report claiming that French civilians from occupied northern France were sent to Russia by Germany to perform hard labor, "according to information obtained by Baron Cochin, formerly a member of the French cabinet." They were initially offered for exchange with "Alsatians who have escaped to France.")
Holdwater: on the same day, there was the totally contradictory report below in another newspaper, attesting to the Turks' having taken Erzurum. In addition, although the Russians were out of the war, and peace held sway between the Turks and the Russians, we learn the Soviets socked it to the Turks.
Oakland Tribune, April 4, 1918, front page
LONDON, April 1— Erzerum. the principal city of Turkish Armenia. is reported in an Exchange Telegraph despatch from Moscow, to have been recaptured from the Turks by an Armenian corps, aided by a detachment of Armenian volunteers.
(On the same page, in "UKRAINE-HUN FORCE BEATEN BY RUSSIANS...Turco-German Ships Driven Back by Slavs," it was reported: "Turco-German forces have been thrown back from the Erzurum-Kars line" (by "the soviets"); "Erzurum is 110 miles south of Batum and was recently recaptured by the Turks.")
Armenians Seek Original Country & Independence
Janesville Daily, Jan. 27, 1919
ARMENIANS SEEK ORIGINAL COUNTRY AND INDEPENDENCE
Map shows Armenia which wants peace conference to restore original boundaries and grant its independence.
Armenians are looking to the peace conference to restore all of Armenia to its people and make it a separate state, says Dr. James L. Barton, president of Euphrates college. Armenia, for nine years, and now secretary of the Armenian board of commissioners for foreign of Turkish, Russia and Persian missions. Armenia now consists Armenians. The population totals principally Armenians.
Holdwater: Of course, the English is not the only mixed up part of the above caption.
Turkey has a Greek Peril
The Dallas News, Nov. 18, 1914; thanks to Asli for having transcribed the following two articles.
TURKEY HAS A GREEK PERIL
"Idea" Behind Hellenic Policy Is Retrieval of Byzantine Empire.
All Greek policy is founded upon and guided by one deep-seated resolve, known as the "great idea." Now the great idea means the reunion of the whole Greek race in a "Greater Greece," which shall revive both the glory of ancient Hellas and the power of the medieval Byzantine Empire. As such it involves not only the taking of Constantinople (where the Greeks are today almost as numerous as the Turks), but also the conquest of Asia Minor. Where a million Greeks form an almost continuous ribbon of population along the coasts and headlands, thickest on the western Egean shore, but extending north and east along the Black Sea cost well beyond Trebizond and almost touching the Russian transcausasian frontier, writes T . Lothrop Stoddard in the North American Review.
Furthermore, this Greek population is growing rapidly in both numbers and prosperity. Protected by foreign influence from Moslem violence, the energetic Greek farmer is steadily supplanting the easy-going, overtaxed Turkish peasant, and is pressing up the river valleys toward the inland cities where the keen-witted Greek merchant is wresting from the half-ruined Armenian his former commercial supremacy.
It is these things, perhaps, far more than wounded vanity which has made the "Young Turk" Government obstinately refuse the cession of those large islands just off Asia Minor's Egean shore, for it must be perfectly clear to any competent observer that if these islands form part of that victorious Greece already supreme throughout the Egean Sea, the dense Greek population of the mainland will be stirred to such a pitch of irridentist fervor as must lay Asia Minor open to a perpetual menace of rebellion.
And these facts acquire further significance when we remember that Turkey must at all cost keep unbroken hold of Asia Minor, since the Anatolian plateau is the home of the real Turkish race —that great block of 10,000,000 genuine "Osmanli" which is the very bone and sinew of the Empire. No finer peasantry exists than these folk — frugal, good-hearted and infinitely patient albeit long impoverished and declining in numbers — since Turkish peasantry has been conscripted to death for endless European wars and taxed to death for the support of a prodigal court and a corrupt officialdom.
Holdwater: What? Aren't we told it was only the Armenians targeted for over-taxation?
What a nice and rare reporter, writing about Turks without the usual hatred. But now note, from the same newspaper, three years later:
The Dallas News, Jan. 1, 1918
ONE MILLION GREEKS MASSACRED IN TURKEY
GERMAN EFFICIENCY HAS MADE NATURAL BRUTALITY OF TURK WORSE THAN EVER.
New York, Dec.31. — At least 1,000,000 Greeks, men, women and children, have perished as the result of organized massacres and deportations by "the Turco-Teutons" in Asiatic Turkey, according to a statement by Lazaros George Macrides, son of a leading merchant of Trebizond, made public though the Armenian and Syrian relief committee here today. Macrides, who recently arrived here, says he was one of a party of 2,000 Greeks which was rescued by the Russian fleet that bombarded the town of Ordou late last August and took the refugees abroad. He had been taken to Ordou, he said, when the Turks raided Trebizond and seized his fathers' store along with those of other Greek merchants.
"Those of us who were between the ages 16 and 60 were drafted into the Turkish army." said Macrides. "Our women and children and the older men were placed temporarily in homes and orphanages until the opportunity offered to dispose of them in the approved Turco-Teuton fashion, which, in this instance, turned out to be very wholesale drowning.
"The unfortunate survivors of deportation were towed out for several miles into the Black Sea and then calmly dumped overboard just like so much garbage. None of them survived. Germany efficiency has simply organized the natural brutality of the Turk and made it many more times effective than ever before. I should think that at the most conservative estimate at least 1,000,000 of my fellow-countrymen have perished miserably through the organized cruelty of this Turco-Teutonic alliance. The future lies in America."
Holdwater: What is this bozo telling us? All of the Greek men were drafted, and instead of leaving their families in their residences, the genocidal Ottoman government actually booted them out and placed hundreds of thousands of Greek-Ottoman women in mysterious "homes," and the children in orphanages that the bankrupt government then would have had to take care of and feed until " the opportunity offered to dispose of them." Furthermore, this shameless liar asserted as his "most conservative estimate" that "at least 1,000,000... perished miserably." Since we learned in the previous article there were one million Greek-Ottomans to begin with, "zero" Greeks must have survived, making this "genocide" even more successful than the Armenians' famous "annihilation."
It is entirely unsettling that so many Greek and Armenian people feel no compunction whatsoever in making the most untruthful statements, at least in their relations with Turks. Where does this "en masse" dishonesty derive from? Mind-boggling.
Armenians in Revolt
Evening Gazette, Oct. 21, 1919
ARMENIANS IN REVOLT
CONSTANTINOPLE, Oct. 21.— Severe fighting is in progress in the vicinity of Zanghizur, in the Russian Caucasus, between the Armenians and regular troops from Azerbaijan province.
(A revolt recently broke out in the Persian province of Azerbaijan, the population of which is almost entirely Turkish, which was ascribed in some quarters to protest against the generally recently concluded Anglo-Persian agreement.)
The regular troops from Azerbaijan province, it is stated, opened the hostilities.
Holdwater: Who "stated" that?
Armenian Newspaper Coverage — Miscellaneous
The bigoted American and Western press naturally depicted "The Armenian Question" almost entirely from the perspective of Armenian and WWI propaganda. But even with some of these articles, the inconsistencies of the genocide tale slipped through; sometimes the newspapers even released accounts of the Armenians' belligerence.
This page will feature some of these accounts, as well as others of interest, from the 1920s forward.
Many thanks to Gokalp.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1) Turks not Inclined to Remain Quiet
2) Assassination Revived
3) Ex-Armenian General Is Rich U. S. Merchant
4) Leader Of Revolutionists New President Of Republic
5) Druse Tribe Revolt Spreads
6) Death Claims Famous General, Antranik
7) Armenian Leader Says Communism Fight Will Go On
8) Loving Look at a Dashnak Leader in 1951
9) Antranik Made Mikoyan a Communist
10) 30 Armenians killed in helicopter drowning
Turks not Inclined to Remain Quiet
Dunkirk Evening News, September 1, 1920, p. 7
TURKS NOT INCLINED TO REMAIN QUIET
Fighting Broke Out After Return of Commissioner From Moscow Where Treaty Was Concluded.
Constantinople, Aug. 31— Mustapha Kemal, leader of the Turkish nationalists was shot in the leg during an anti-national demonstration In [Tokal], according to advices received here today.
In the same rioting Bekir Samir who recently returned from Moscow where he concluded an alliance with the Bolshevik was shot dead. His assassin was arrested and executed.
French troops have recaptured Urfa from the Turkish Nationalists after hard fighting. The French were reinforced by Armenian volunteers.
Reno Evening Gazette, Jan. 26, 1921
THE ATTEMPT in Paris to assassinate Avetis Abrounian, delegate for Armenia to the nations' conference now in progress, makes one familiar with Armenian politics ask whether the Hunchakists are still active. This was their method of silencing their enemies within and without their organization. The reign of murder covered two continents. In London, where the society's headquarters once had an office, there were attempts to kill the leader. "Again there was an attempted assassination at Lausanne. A little over fifteen years ago New York police found a Gregorian priest dead in one of the hotels, victim of a murderer; and great mystery surrounded the case, but in the end it was Unraveled. The priest was an agent of one of the Hunchakist factions and had brought papers and important information for members of his faction in Massachusetts. Agents of another faction had slain him to prevent him from carrying out his mission.
It was only a youth today who tried to kill Abrounian, but it was youths who were employed in the dangerous work of the Hunchakists twenty years ago and later. The Armenians should be warned. This is no way to win the respect of the powers and without it they can never hope to stand alone.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
THE IMMIGRATION QUESTION
THE STATEMENT of Anthony Caminetti, United States commissioner of immigration, that all records for immigration into this country will be broken this year, should stir the two houses of congress into something like activity. Something must be done to prevent this nation from being swamped by the foreign tide. Even fifty years ago the nation could easily have taken care of a million or more new arrivals, because they would naturally have been distributed throughout the states. Today it is different. The alien arrival gravitates not to the fields of the West and South but to the crowded quarters of the great cities where the Latin hears his native tongue spoken and sees himself in merely a Latin city transported across the ocean, where the European of other races finds a similar experience and where the process of Americanization has been choked.
We are facing a real danger. The millions of men and women of foreign birth and education — such as it is — who have arrived within the last ten years, even, have not yet been assimilated into the American nation. If millions more shall be added to this mass, they never will be assimilated, never become a real part of America. Instead, American institutions will be threatened with attack by persons who do not understand them and never will.
Permanent barricades against good material for citizenship from foreign lands are not wanted, but the nation needs a rest.
Holdwater: How do you like that warning to the Armenians in the first article, to ixnay on the murder and mayhem, otherwise the powers won't give them the time of day? Think it was effective?
The targeted Armenian was Avetis Aharonian; the name has been misspelled.
Regarding the second article, can we think of one ethnic group where their huddled and masses were always welcomed into the United States, even though they have had the greatest trouble with assimilating, obsessed as they were with the old country?
Ex-Armenian General Is Rich U. S. Merchant
The Charleston Gazette, Oct. 11, 1924
Ex-Armenian General Is Rich U. S. Merchant
How did he get rich so fast?
General Sebouh, a former general the Armenian insurgent army, has been found in Boston. Mass. as a prosperous merchant. He came to the United States in 1921.
"A Remembrance of General Sebouh," by Nerses Maranjian, from The Armenian Weekly Online, September/October 2003 tells us Sebouh (Arshag) Nersesian (1872-1940) joined the Hunchaks in Istanbul in 1889, only two years after their formation, only to ditch them for the Dashnaks in 1894, four years after their formation. In Sasun, he was a leader of the "1904 insurrection." (Does that mean "revolt"?)
As Hairenik put it in September 4, 1940, "In 1914-1915, Sebouh took part in the battles of Khoy and Dilman with General Andranik. He was also part of the Armeno-Russian forces which liberated Garin. At the head of the Dashnaktsakan formation, he took part in the decisive battle of Sardarabad and later went on to help the Armenians besieged in Baku." That means this Ottoman-Armenian betrayed his nation well before the "genocide," and no doubt went on to participate in the mass murders of non-Armenian Ottomans. He would write an autobiography, Echer Im Housheren (Pages From My Memories), and would remain an active Dashnak until his death.
Leader Of Revolutionists New President Of Republic
Olean Evening Times, June 25, 1925
Leader Of Revolutionists New President Of Republic
Paris, Jum 25.- (I. N. S.)- The Michalacopulos government was deposed and General Pangalos, leader of the revolutionists, was proclaimed the new president of the Greek republic, the newspaper L'Independent of Salonika announced today, according to advices to La Liberte.
The army and navy co-operated in overthrowing the government, the dispatch added.
The Greek government has been facing a political crisis for several weeks, there having been three new cabinets within a period of two weeks.
The political situation came to a head June 10 when General Kondylis resigned as minister of the interior. General Kondylis has a strong following in Greece as had [M.] Michalacopulos, who was premier until today. Kondylis. In resigning, pledged the support of his party to the Michalacopulos regime, but dispatches today would indicate either that he began an offensive against Michalacopulos or that he was not able to control his followers.
The resignation of Michalacopulos followed an incipient revolution of Armenian and Greek refuges in Greece June 7. The refugee settlement committee had been building camps at Pedarades, Byron and Kokkinea to care for Greeks and Armenians expelled by Turkey. The Near East Relief, conducted under American auspices, has been feeding the refugees.
On June 7 these refugees, then billeted in public buildings, rushed the camp and took possession of all uncompleted buildings.
The refugee settlement committee reported the matter to General Kondylis but he declined to take action. Appeal was carried over his head to Premier Mlchalacopulos who promised the committee to restore the camp buildings to the commitee. General Kondylis then submitted his resignation.
The people of Greece voted April 14. 1924, for the establishment of a republic.
Druse Tribe Revolt Spreads
Indiana Evening Gazette, Aug. 13, 1925
DRUSE TRIBE REVOLT SPREADS
CONSTANTINOPLE, Aug. 13.- (INS)-The revolt of the Druse tribes against French occupation of Syria has spread to alarming proportions according to a dispatch from Adana, Asiatic Turkey today.
Following their recent successes against French troops, the Druses defeated a battalion of 500 Armenian volunteers. French official circles fear that other tribes will join in the movement of independence.
Reinforcements of native troops from Algiers were reported in a state of mutiny at Beirut, the principal seaport of Syria.
Death Claims Famous General, Once Of Fresno
The Fresno Bee, August 31, 1927
Death Claims Famous General, Once Of Fresno
General Antranik Ozanian, famous
Armenian military general, former
resident of Fresno, who died to-day
at Richardson Hot Springs near Chico
following a long Illness. General Antranik,
the idol and hero of the Armenian
people, was engaged in many battles
against the Turks, and rendered
special services to British Army in
Mesopotamia during the world war.
DEATH to-day claimed. General Antranik Ozanian, a former resident of Fresno, whose colorful military career made him the idol and hero of the Armenian people throughout the world.
Ozanian, better known as General Antranik, leader of the Armenian military forces during the world war, died early to-day at Richardson Springs near Chico. He left Fresno last February to reside in San Francisco in an attempt to regain his health.
General Antranik's picturesque career reads like a romance of the medieval knights. He was born about sixty years ago in the province of Sivas in Armenia.
Leaving his trade of carpenter in 1891 he joined the revolutionary forces in defense of his country against the persecution inaugurated by Abdul Hamid. He was arrested and made his escape and resumed the warfare against the Turks.
The indomitable will of Antranik was still unbroken after years of steady fighting, and his name became a terror to the Turks and the Kurds. Eventually, he was elevated to a first lieutenancy in the Bulgarian Army, and decorated with the Order of St. John.
Fought Turks Only
Foreseeing war between Bulgaria and Serbia, Antranik disbanded his men, for he would only fight against the Turks. He retired to a village In Armenia, living there as a farmer until 1914. Receiving word, that under the Russian command, 00,000 soldiers would concentrate on the Turkish front and that he should recruit Armenian volunteers, Antranik raised an army of 15,000 soldiers.
Given the rank of major general in the Russian Army, he rendered important services in the Caucasus. He was praised by General Allenby of the English forces for his work in the Palestine drive during the world war.
General Antranik came to Fresno after the war and directed a campaign in which he raised $500,000 for the relief of Armenian war refugees. Going back to Europe, he was married in Paris, and came to Fresno with his bride in 1922.
Lenders of the local Armenian colony are preparing to hold one of the largest funerals In the history of the city in honor of the famous general, they said to-day. Arrangements for the funeral and burial will be made following the arrival here of Mrs. Ozanian.
Holdwater: There was no "Armenia" where the general retired to, until 1914. He was in the Ottoman Empire as an Ottoman-Armenian. Come 1914, he betrayed his nation, as he had done many times in the past. And certainly his name was a "terror" to defenseless Turkish and Kurdish villagers, knowing that Antranik was so good with his ethnic cleansing campaigns.
Armenian Leader Says Communism Fight Will Go On
The Fresno Bee, Dec.20, 1948
Armenian Leader Says Communism Fight Will Go On
Assurances the fight against Communism, which has been under way since 1920, will continue in tiny Armenia yesterday were given an audience of nearly 1,000 by General Dro Kanayan, a leader of the Armenian Revolution Federation.
The general, a hero to the Armenian people, was given an ovation when he appeared at a mass meeting in the auditorium of the Fresno High School and declared:
"We, the Armenian people, resent oppression from any country or idealogy [sic], and will continue to fight until we are completely free."
Seeks Help in US
The former head of the military in the Armenian Republic is in the United States seeking support in the continuing fight of his countrymen against both the Communists and the Turks.
He recalled how he signed an Agreement with Russia in 1920 for peaceful entry of Soviet people into Armenia. Instead, he said, they violated the agreement by sending an army. Three months later the Armenian people revolted.
"As a result," General Dro said, "the Communists sent into exile hundreds of our intellectuals. As leader, I was taken to Moscow as a political prisoner and stayed there for nearly five years before I was able to escape."
He related how he spent several years in France, Romania and later In Egypt directing his countrymen's fight against the invaders. Russians, he said, still are in control of Armenia.
Former Official Speaks
S. Vratzian, a former prime minister of the republic, also spoke. He said more than half of the 400,000 Armenians in the United States are active members and sympathizers with the cause of the federation.
Vratzian and General Dro will be guests of the Fresno federation at a dinner in the Hotel Fresno Wednesday at 7 PM which will mark the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the group.
Yesterday's meeting was jointly sponsored by the local federation, the Armenian Relief Society and the Armenian Youth Federation. Hasadoor Khederian was chairman.
Holdwater: So the mass murderer was leading a comfortable life in the USA, "seeking support in the continuing fight of his countrymen against both the Communists and the Turks." What fight was this against the communists? And where exactly was this fight with "the Turks"? What a phony little man.
The Record, Troy, Feb. 22, 1949
HOLD DINNER — The Troy-Watervliet Chapter of the Armenian Federation of America held a dinner Sunday at Ihe Masonic Temple. The guest of honor was Gen. Dro Kanayan, an outstanding military leader in the short-lived Armenian Republic of 1917 to 1918. Shown left to Tight are John Mardigian, Michael Avakian, Vahakn Kermoyan, Gen. Dro Kanayan, Manoog Deratzian Jacob Kozegian and Andrew Markonian.
Holdwater: The years for the Armenian dictatorshi... that is, republic were actually 1918-1920/1921.
Loving Look at a Dashnak Leader in 1951
The Vidette Messenger (Indiana), May 31, 1951
As Othman Sees It
By Frederlck Othman
WASHINGTON. — This day I have spent in a dimly lit Spanish restaurant operated by an Armenian named Mihran Mukkasnian, plotting with some patient revolutionists.
They've been revolting now for 1,500 years against one tyrant or another, without much luck, but they have not given up. I mean the Armenians.
May 28 was their big day. It marked the date of their first successful revolution, when they chased out the Turks in 1918, So they set up a republic, complete with a congress, which lasted for two years. Then came the Bolsheviks.
In 1921 the Armenians got rid of them too, and set up another democracy. which lasted for two whole months. The Russians returned with more troops and that was the end of Armenia as an independent nation. so the Armenians hadn't much to celebrate on this anniversary.
Moment Is Near
Mark Keshishian actually served in the
Ottoman army, under Jemal Pasha!
(Does that mean not all Armenians
who served were disarmed? Hmmm!)
A loving web site by one of his sons,
fairly free if prejudice, may be accessed
I was doing my plotting with Mark Keshishian, who is president of the Armenian revolutionary federation in this district. He is also a dealer in oriental rugs. The Armenian revolutionists have been in business for hundreds of years, but they never got around to starting an official lodge until 1890. The member in Armenia long since have gone underground. They're waiting for the proper moment to hold another revolution. Keshishian is sure that moment is on the way.
My own part in the revolution was simple. Keshishian said all he wanted from me was a little help in reminding the 250,000 other Armenians in the United States that some day they're going to have a homeland of their own again.
So we got to talking about other things, such as why his distant cousin, Mihran, should run a Spanish restaurant here, complete with tamales, flam, enchiladas and other Latin delicacies. Keshishian said that there were so many Latins in Washington that it looked like a good idea. It must have ben this Armenian contina has been popular for 31 years.
I wanted to know, of course, why the Armenians had a monopoly on the rug business. Keshishian said they used to, because the best rugs were made in Armenia, and his ancestors sold them all over Europe. Lately many others have gone into rugs and carpets, too, and the problem now is the price of wool.
Up 400 Percent
This has gone up 400 percent since 1948 and a lot of people who had saved up to buy rugs find they didn't save enough. Many synthetics are now going into carpeting. Fact is, Keshishian at the moment is carpeting the entire house of a prominent Washingtonian with cotton. This looks luxurious and it didn't cost nearly as much as wool, but Keshishian wishes he'd been able to talk the man's wife out of it. He's got nothing against cotton for carpets, you understand, but he figures the lady may fret when she discovers how hard it is to put a rug 30 feet long into a washing machine.
Wool is best, say's Washington's top revolutionist. Wool rugs made in Armenia are best of all. This is because they are tied with gordian knots. The harder they're pulled the tighter they become.
One other thing. The Armenians in America are celebrating their 60 days of independence with picnics, featuring lamb roasted in grape leaves.
"Very modestly," said Keshishian, "as befits a very modest kind of revolution.
Later on, maybe, he hopes, the revolt of history's most patient revolutionists will get rid of those communists, who have been oppressing his native land now for more than a quarter of a century.
Holdwater: Note how in the "Dro" article above, the Armenians in the USA numbered 400,000 in 1948. Here, in 1951, the number has dropped down to 250,000.
Antranik Made Mikoyan a Communist
Sunday Gazette Mail, Apr. 18, 1965
Sharp Slap Said Reason Mikoyan Now Communist
By David Lancashire
BEIRUT, Lebanon —UPI— Anastas I. Mokoyan, president of the Soviet Union, became a Communist because of a slap in the face 50 years ago, according to Simon Vratsian, last prime minister of independent Armenia.
Vratsian headed the committee which commanded Armenian volunteers, allied with the Czarist Russians in World War I, and Mikoyan for a time was his personal aide. Mikoyan in those days was a member of the Armenian Dashnag Revolutionary party, a nonleftist nationalist group.
"I remember Mikoyan very well because he worked directly under me for several weeks in 1914 or 1915," Vratsian recounted in an interview. Mikoyan would have been 19 or 20 then and "He did all sorts of odd jobs, even carrying messages for me."
"Mikoyan was a good boy — very bright and intelligent, and very calculating.
"Then I sent him off to the front to fight against the Turks with the Armenian volunteer group led by Ozanian Antranik.
THE ARMENIANS were forced to retreat and during the retreat — for reasons I don't know — Mikoyan and Antranik began to argue. Antranik beat him — slapped him in the face.
"Mikoyan quit the Dashnag movement on the spot, left the volunteers and enrolled in a seminary at Etchmiadzin, and then went to Baku where he eventually joined the Bolsheviks.
"The Bolsheviks sent him to Stalin, who saw that he was good material and had him trained as a Communist. I never saw Mikoyan again.
"But I know Mikoyan isn't a good boy any more. Nobody who worked under Stalin for years could emerge as a good man."
Antranik, the partisan leader whose slap changed Mikoyan's political convictions, was a legendary Armenian leader who led the 1st Armenian Battalion in Russia and died in California in 1927.
Vratsian, who told the story, is now an 83-year-old school teacher and principal in Beirut. His memories and historical works are used internationally as text books on the Armenians.
30 Armenians killed in helicopter drowning
The Capital, March 4, 1992
30 Armenians killed in helicopter drowning
AGDAM, Azerbaijan (AP) — Police say they have recovered the bodies of 120 Azerbaijanis killed as they fled an Armenian assault in Ngorno-Karabakh, and commonwealth troops have halted their pullout from the disputed region.
In the mounting violence, 30 Armenian women and children died late yesterday in the downing of a helicopter evacuating them from Stepanakert, capital of the mostly Armenian enclave inside Azerbaijan, Armenian officials said.
Armenian officials in Moscow yesterday denied as a “gross exaggeration” a claim by Azerbaijan’s president, Ayaz Mutalibov, that 1,000 Azerbaijanis were massacred in the Armenian assault last week on Khodzhaly.
The town of about 7,000 where the alleged massacre occurred is a few miles from Agdam, an Azerbaijani city on the border of Ngorno-Karabakh.
Videotape broadcast yesterday by commonwealth television and ABC-TV showed the bodies of dozens of victims, including women and children, scattered on hillsides outside Khodzhaly.
Azerbaijani men with Kalashnikov rifles slung over their shoulders sobbed as they collected the bodies, some of which had been mutilated.
A police official who would not give his name said yesterday they were among 120 corpses recovered from the rolling hills in Nagorno-Karabakh.
Holdwater: Note that even though the accent is on the Azeri victims, the headline stresses Armenian losses; the biased writer even chooses to use the word "alleged" to describe the massacre, when the news footage provided hard evidence a massacre had occurred. In addition, the number of massacred Azeris indeed totaled close to a thousand, and such an estimate was no exaggeration, gross or otherwise; what was gross was the Armenians' attempt to cover up their hideous crime.
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