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17 December 2007

2246) Congresses Of Armenians: Excerpt From Esat Uras' Book

. . It is known that as a result of indirect encouragements, requests or invitations of the Armenian terrorist organizations, churches and some states, various Armenian congresses have convened in the historical process of the Armenian Problem, Armenian matter. The vast majority of these are congresses held by the Tashnak or Hinchak Armenian terrorist organizations. Without any time limitation, during the meetings participated by both their members and the relevant Armenians, representatives from churches that day's conditions, situations and capabilities and activities of organizations were discussed in a forum, the resolutions of which were mostly not applied and caused immediate splits and conflicts.

In the new period of Armenian terrorism between 1973 and 1985, meetings were held with the title "World Armenian Congresses" or "Congresses of World Armenian Organizations" in Paris, Lausanne and Sevres in 1979, 1983 and 1985, respectively. And, several efforts were made to convey various messages to the world public opinion, Armenian communities and members of the Armenian terrorist organizations. At the Congress held in 1985 under the chairmanship of the priest James Karnuziyan, a text titled "Armenian Constitution" was accepted. The main aims of the congresses held during the specified period were; to ensure unity and integrity among the Armenians, to make political demands and requests from a center and to combine the Armenian terrorist powers under one roof and to ensure the unity of power. The world public opinion was informed about the activities which aimed at using a big propaganda and psychological operation were prioritized. The objective was to ensure that the Armenians get influenced from the activities and that they establish ties through terrorism or other implementations. Another objective set at these congresses was to achieve harmony and development in the strategies of the Armenian terrorist organizations, though they were separate. All the terrorist acts and implementations would thus become the common requests of the whole Armenian world, and a unity of power and front, if required, would thus be ensured.

The common features of these congresses are as follows:

a. The armed struggle discussions were prioritized at all of the congresses. The discussions between those who are for and against these struggles caused splits in the Armenian terrorist organizations in time. ASALA did not participate or not allowed to participate in the congresses that followed Paris Congress in 1979.
b. It was resolved that all the resolutions taken at all congresses be sent to the international institutions and handled and discussed at international forums at varying levels, and possibilities were sought to achieve this objective.
c. The gathering and representation of Armenians under one roof became one of the important issues, however, no consensus was reached as to the way this could turn to reality, and a preparatory period was foreseen in the text called Constitution.
d. The number of the members in congresses gradually decreased.
e. The differences of views were clearly observed, however, concrete measures to overcome them were not taken.

1979 Paris Congress

The 1st World Armenian Organizations Congress was held in Paris between 3 and 6 September 1979. ASALA participated in this congress with a substantial power and played an influential role there. The Congress impacted on the Armenian revolutionist powers in France and especially, participation was ensured in the terrorist organizations. The objective of this congress may be summarized as gathering and organization of the all the Armenians in the world around one view, under one flag, and focusing on the territorial claims, by making use of the political environment.

The important proposals at the Congress were as follows:

a. Disputes in parties and sects must be ended, and a central committee must be set up.
b. Required measures must be taken for giving an end to the assimilation of the Diaspora Armenians.
c. The military theoreticians and strategists required during the acts and implementations must be provided.

The Resolutions taken at this congress are the following:

a. The pan-Armenian movement will be accelerated, the concept of being Armenian will be politicized within the framework of the Diaspora, and an Armenian power will be created in the world.
b. Possibilities will be sought in order for the Armenians in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to help overcome the Armenian problems, and efforts will be made to ensure that required contributions be made.
c. The territorial demands and claims will be directly made from Turkey.
d. The Armenian church will be given a national character.
e. Studies must be initiated for the foundation of an Armenian Bank.
f. Central Bureaus must be established, the possibilities for broadcasting and communication must be developed.

As a result of the Paris Congress, acts of violence and terrorism increased. ASALA was strengthened, by being provided with new bloods. Efficiency was observed in the unification efforts. Armed training activities were increased at various centers and places.

1983 Lausanne Congress

The Lausanne Congress convened as a result of important developments. The terrorism reached big dimensions, and the world public opinion gradually began to condemn Armenians and terrorists. In particular, the acts which grew to be a massacre became a matter of concern, especially for Armenians and also all the friendly, neutral and even allied forces. It was against this background that the Lausanne Congress convened with the aim of unifying the Armenian political views and enable them to take action in one direction. ASALA did not participate in this congress. Those advocating violence were in the minority. As a result of the Congress, splits were seen in Tashnaks and ASALA. The terrorist sub-teams and groups at times took action as uncontrolled, new organizations. And the bulk of them were liquidated, arrested and imprisoned.

The important items and motions submitted to the Congress are as follows:

a. A founding delegation must be set up, basic policies must be determined, views regarding the principles for the territorial claims must be identified, and this demand must be finalized.
b. A national liberation movement holding a nationalist and democratic view, must be formed.
c. These congresses must be given a democratic parliamentarian character similar to the World Jewish Congresses in nature and power.

The Resolutions taken at this Congress are as follows:

a. Preparations required for enabling the Congresses to have a democratic and parliamentarian character, will be made, and a Constitution will be prepared.
b. The founding delegation will not only make the Constitutional preparations but also add to this text the studies which will form the synthesis of various political views.
c. The studies conducted by the congress will be announced to the world public opinion with a declaration.

This congress ended with various discussions. A big disorder was seen. The moderates dominated the congress. However, they did not manage to make considerable progress. The conflicts continued following the congress, and the above-mentioned splits were started.

1985 Sevres Congress and the Armenian Constitution

At the congress called III. World Armenian Organizations held in Sevres between 7 and 13 July 1985, the main aim was to accept an Armenian Constitution in order that a Union be formed for the representation of Armenians worldwide.

The Armenian terrorist organizations did not participate in this Congress officially. The representation quality caused long discussions. ASALA was not represented in this Congress, either. It was subjected to violent criticisms.

The proposals submitted at the Congress were as follows:

a. Being Armenian in single sense, single aim, single struggle, single voice was proposed and accepted as a slogan.
b. It was claimed that the conditions laid in Sevres be valid, whereas those in Lausanne be invalid.
c. The proposal that ASALA not be supported, was accepted.
d. It was proposed and accepted that continuous war go on against Turkey.
e. It was proposed and accepted that the war waged by Greece and Greek Cypriots against the expansionist policy of Turkey.
f. The proposal that the Congress bear a feature similar to the National Council of Palestinians in exile, was accepted on the condition that the relevant developments be followed.

Resolutions of the Congress

a. The congress accepted the prepared text of the Armenian Constitution, which had been gained a Constitutional nature.
b. The Congress accepted that a multidimensional strategy be put into implementation to achieve the objectives. Accordingly,

* It was accepted that alliances be formed for the struggle against the Turkish imperialism not only between the Armenian and other peoples but also between the progressive and the revolutionary movements in Turkey, and that it be known that the struggle of the Armenian people inevitably depend upon the causes of other peoples under pressure.
* The World Armenian Congress have declared that they are not affiliated to any state or power, and also agreed that aids will be accepted from those who respect and support the struggle of the Armenian people.

c. The congress resolved to apply to the signatories to the Lausanne Agreement, United Nations, Soviet Union, Soviet Armenian Republic, U.S.A., European Council and Non-aligned movement for announcing that the Armenian people is the sole one which has not benefited from the removal of imperialism. And this resolution was put into practice.
d. With the belief that the way to save its territories will be opened in case that Turkey is compelled to accept the genocide in 1915 and that it is accepted, the Congress resolved to implement this intention, notifications were distributed to the required places, and the required applications were made.
e. The congress accepted a motion extending a gratitude to the Soviet Union for having helped preservation of the Armenian culture in the Soviet Armenia.

In this Resolution, the fact that the Soviets have accepted the genocide, and that Zrtisan published an article about this issue in Pravda in 1985, was mentioned with praise, and the U.S. Administration was criticized for not having ensured the passing of the genocide bill.

Armenian Constitution

In his presentation of the Armenian Constitution, accepted at the 3rd World Armenian Congress; the Chairman, priest James Karnuziyan was quoted as saying that many difficulties were experienced because of the splits of Armenians, and they had no other resort than forming a combined group to overcome these difficulties and achieve unity, and that the text called Constitution included all views to this end.

The unbiased observers explained that in case of the implementation of the Constitution, every kind of institution and organization struggle for the Armenian cause would assemble under the umbrella of the Armenian Congress.

The aims of the Armenian Congress, as stipulated in the Constitution, are as follows:

a. To unite the dispersed Armenians, and form a structure.
b. To ensure that the Congress be recognized by the world.
c. To use all the political and diplomatic means to save the Armenian soils (?) under the Turkish invasion.
d. To organize the return of the Armenians to their country and make preparations for it.

To achieve these aims, the congress will seek ways to ensure the participation of other organizations, casting by no means a shadow to autonomies. Actually, each group, the members of Armenian origin, and amounting more than twenty, had the right to representation in the congress with democratic principles, thus accepting the principle of broad baseline.

Under the Constitution, the congress center will be in Switzerland.

Traditional institutions like the Armenian National Council and institutes like General Assembly and administration Council will be created.

CONCLUSION

What are the realities revealed by the Armenian terrorism resumed between 1973 and 1985 in terms of the Armenian Problem-Armenian matter?
What are the lessons to be drawn from the terrorism brutally exercised by the Armenian terrorist organizations in a way not less severe than the former periods? Are there bright points of the impressions left from this period to be discussed for the future developments?

The bulk of this general research was based upon the published Armenian resources, and views stated in the books of the Armenian sympathizers. The above mentioned points may be responded under the title "Conclusions".

1.The views which have targeted the Armenian minorities within the Ottoman Empire for various interests, desires and expectations, and made these communities a problem-subject within the ottoman state in the past, are presenting an "ARMENIAN CAUSE" to the Armenians having an Armenian Republic within today's Soviet Union of Socialist Republics, and the Armenian communities living in various countries all over the world. Now, what is in question is the Armenian Cause which is desired to be accepted by the world public opinion, international organizations, parliaments and senates of some states, not the "Armenian problem-Armenian matter". The new period of the Armenian terrorism between 1973 and 1985, was undergone for propaganda purposes, by nature, for making people know and accept this cause by means of arms, murders, massacres and rebellions. With a clearer account, the massacres, murders, rebellions and other terrorist practices have a single aim: to introduce the Armenian cause, to explain the dimensions of this cause, and to take advantage of the interest to be created through terror of what would come next, and brutality.

2. There are many lessons to be drawn from the new Armenian terrorism during the period between 1973 and 1985 by the humanity and the Armenians who have nothing to do with the incidents, but became ill-reputable as terrorists before the world public opinion. However, the use of terrorism as a means of propaganda and a psychological operation is an issue that must be of concern to all states. The period between 1973 and 1985 must be assessed from this standpoint. The rooms of maneuver of the states that must obey legal orders and stay on legitimate grounds, against terrorism that recognizes no rules and justifies every means, have turned out to be both limited and inefficient. What is more important is that some states have encouraged and supported terrorism due to their geopolitical expectations. They did not calculate that they would be targeted on some day. One may state that this new Armenian terrorism is full of important lessons in this regard.

Still from another standpoint, the apparent differences, conflicts and splits among the Armenian terrorist organizations are entirely artificial in terms of principle and goal. A terrorist propaganda foreseeing the introduction of the Armenian Cause, has been used complementary to one another no matter what their form, breadth and extent were. And, many psychological operations experts came to realize that one of the various stages of the psychological operations was terrorism.

3. The future developments will occur and gain dimension, depending upon the approach of states, in particular of the international organizations, parliaments and senates of states which will build their geopolitical expectations on the recognition or rejection of the Armenian cause in their international relations.

The views which accept the "Armenian Cause", as presented, will be desiring an order that does not make do in advance with massacres, murders and rebellions, and long for bloody wars.

The development of the Armenian cause in the form of unity of language, religion, sect and culture, will always reject terrorism, and may be able to rescue the Armenian world from its already uneasy position. Otherwise, this community, too will be wiped out by means of gradually growing uneasiness and various willful looks.
This section is an excerpt from the ESAT URAS' Book titled "ARMENIANS IN HISTORY AND ARMENIAN DISPUTE"(P. 205-211)

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