19 August 2011
By Sukru Server Aya
(1830 First Trade Agreement of USA with the Ottoman Empire)
1860 – Armenians (Constantinople) publish their National Constitution
1862 – First Rebellion in Zeytoun
1863 – Robert College opens, Founders: Christopher Robert & Cyrus Hamlin
1872 – Foundation of secret society in Van “Unity of Liberation = Miyoutyoun”
1878 – Treaty of San Stefanos (Yesilkoy) Art.16, Christians under Russian care!
1878 – Berlin Congress – Treaty. Reforms to be under European supervision
1885 – Marseilles, France. Formation of “Armenakan Party”.
1885 – Van – Foundation of “Armenakan Organization”.
1887 – Geneva, Switzerland: Foundation of Henchakist Social Democrat Party
1890 – Tiflis, Georgia, Foundation of ARF (Dashnak Party) Arm. Revolut. Feder.
1891 – Hunchakist party spreads to Pontus, Asia Minor and Constantinople
1892 – Tiflis, First World Congress of ARF – Bylaws; Tabriz and Tiflis bureaus!
1894 – DROSHAK published in Geneva by Rosdom ..
1895 – NY Times, Aug. 23, Testimony of Cyrus Hamlin, on Armenian tactics
1896 – Aug. Ottoman Bank raid by 26 ARF fedayee, (12 Turks dead, 57 wounded)
1902 – July 2, Brussels: Pro Armenia, Opening – Intern. Congress- Armenophiles
1907 – Young Turk Congress in Paris – Agreement of cooperation with ARF – Battles of Armenians against Ottoman troops in Moush
1908 – Ottomans discover ARF’s main arms dumps in Van – many arrested. – July, new Ottoman constitution, solidarity between ARF and CUP
1909 – Varna, Bulgaria, Fifth ARF World Congress, new Ottoman policy
1909 – April: Abdulhamid II dethroned with aid of ARF (exiled to Salonica)
1910 – Copenhagen: Eighth Socialist Intern. Congress - ARF ready to revolt
1911 – Sixth World Congress of ARF held in Constantinople CUP Alliance
1912 – Constantinople, alliance of ARF 6th Congress with Young Turks broken
1913 – Erzurum/Garin, 7th World Congress of ARF, “Armenia Bureau” formed!
1913 – Nov. 27, U.S. Ambassador Morgenthau starts duty in Constantinople
1914 – February. Agreement with Russia signed to Start Reforms in 6-Vilayets
1914 – March 25 to May 1st, Morgenthau meets Lord Bryce, on Palestine trip
1914 – March 1st, Census by French-Armenian Commission to distribute land
1914 – April 19: St. Jean – Treaty, Britain-France-Russia agree Ottoman’s split .
1914 – May-June Arrivals Inspectors of Six-Vilayets, Col. Hoff & Mr. Westenek
1914 – Aug. 2, Secret German-Ottoman Treaty; borrowing 5 million Gold Lira
1914 – Aug. 8th World ARF Congress at Erzurum, CUP send large delegation to convince Armenians in Russia to revolt, those in Turkey to fight on the Ottoman side! Reward: Autonomy in 6-Vilayets – German guarantee! Offer rejected. When WW1 starts, most Armenian soldiers join Russia.
1914 – Oct.1: Ottomans abrogate Capitulations despite Super Powers resist.
1914 – Nov.2: Ottomans-Russia starts WW1. (Armenian revolts started in Oct.)
1914 – Late Dec.: Sarikamis: Turks’ Christmas-eve attack, turns into a disaster. About 60.000 die in 2-weeks! Reason: -30*C cold, ARF resist. & famine
1915 – Van: Internal revolution starts, about 120.000 Muslims emigrate west. April: Armenian revolution. Army conquer city give key to Russian army.
1915 – Late March: Allied fleet bombards Dardanelles, landing expected.
1915 – 24 April Istan. 235 Armenian leaders, arrested exiled towards Ankara
1915 – 25 April, French-British-ANZAC forces land in Gallipoli, severe fights
1915 – 26 April, London: Britain promises Italy Antalya region for joining WW1
1915 – 20 Hunchakists’ plot to assassinate Talat Pasha! All hanged in Istanbul
1915 – May 2: Allies send threat telegram to Ottomans for war crimes!
1915 – May 27: Ottomans issue “Temporary Relocation Law”, Armenian Families other than western part, forced to move to new settlements south on the Euphrates River. Families permitted to take animals, given about ten days to pack or sell or leave under care of State. Groups of about 600-800 persons start the strenuous trip. Guarding gendarmes are insufficient, few columns attacked by Kurdish, Circassian brigands. Where available travel by rail permitted, poor ones provided an ox cart. Road hardships, epidemics, food shortage about 10% of (600.000) sent die because of privations, etc. This measure, relieves the army from fifth columns sabotages; military goal achieved! Families of Armenians in service of state, not moved. After end of August, Protestant and Catholic Armenians exempted, permitted to return home and resettle
1915 – Aug.-Sept.: Turks re-take Van, about 300.000 Armenians go to Russia
1915 – Sept. 26: Zenop Bezjian, Protestant Patriarch returning from Der-Zor sees Ambas. Morgenthau: “they are settled for business doing well”
1916 – Jan.9: Allies evacuate Dardanelles front (60.000 dead + 150.000 wound)
1916 – Early February, Morgenthau returns to USA, his service end.
1916 – Feb.: Sykes-Picot Agreement, Britain-France-Russia (no Armenia) share
1916 – May: Russia and ARF take Van-Moush up to Erzurum region (see map)
1916 – Nov.: Britain and Italy agree, that Italy joins WW1 on Allies’ side 1917 – Lawyer Vahan Cardashian originally from Turkey, graduate of Yale Univ. was fired by Ottoman Embassy from his job on espionage charge. He sets an active lobby group ACIA (later to become ANI), takes James Gerard (Ambassador to Berlin), Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and Charles Evans Hughes (Supreme Court Judge); influence Turco-phobia
1917 – May: Communist Revolution, Russians start returning to Moscow, Gen. Antranik’s Congress in Yerevan – In November Armenian Communist Party is established in Tiblisi. Turkish front left only to Armenians.
1917 – Diplomatic relations USA & Ottomans cut because USA enters WW1
1917 – Armenians retreat from Erzincan-Erzurum, massacre of Muslims.
1917 – Dec.5: Armistice of Erzincan between Turks and SEYM Revolutionaries
1917 – Dec.29: return of refugees, organization of militia, land withdrawals!
1918 – March 3: Brest-Litovsk Treaty, Russia-Germany-Turks stop war, peace!
1918 – May 22; Armenian forces attack again at Igdir, Moush, (despite treaty)
1918 – May 26: SEYM Federation (Georgia-Azerbaijan-Armenia) breaks up, Georgia–Azerbaijan declare independence, Armenia follows on May 28!
1918 – June 2- Batum: Turks fight back retake lands, Armenia surrenders signs Peace ! June 8: Annexes signed, “Armenia” enters Turks protection Prisoners exchanged, bilateral most favored terms, return of all rights. PM Katchaznuni sends envoy to Istanbul to thank Sultan Vahdettin
1918 – Sept.6: Aharonian & Avetisian cable Erivan on warm Turkish friendship but despite treaty, Antranik-Dro continue killing Moslems in Baku area,
1918 – Sept. 29: Bulgaria surrenders ask for cease fire; WW1 end approaches!
1918 – Oct.30: Ottomans surrender to Britain, sign “Mudros Ceasefire”
1918 – Nov.1: CUP party dissolves, Nov.2, Talat-Enver flee to Germany
1918 – Mid November: Allied Fleet enters Bosphorus – start to occupy Istanbul
1918 – Nov. 30: Armenian Republic abrogate Batum Treaty, under protection of British Army in Persia, retake Kars-Ardahan, Turks evacuate Baku area. Large Armenian groups (300.000-from south) return, retake old homes.
1919 – January: British start searching Ottoman archives for evidence, some 144 Ottoman dignitaries arrested taken to Malta for future trial
1919 – Feb: Ottoman Government want to set a neutral investigation court, ask two judges each from: Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark, Holland
1919 – March: All four or five countries abstain from sending any judges
1919 – May 15: Greek Army supported by Allies, lands Izmir starts occupation
1919 – May 19: Gen. Mustafa Kemal sent to Samsun area to inspect if there are fights with local Greeks-Armenians. (Proof that many had returned)!
1919 – June: Mustafa Kemal starts a “National Resistance” he is called back, He resigns from army, later condemned to death in absentia for treason
July 23 – August 7, Erzurum Congress for Turkish National Resistance
Sept. 4 – 11, Second Congress in Sivas (National Resistance starts)
1919 – Sept. 9th Congress in Erivan “Nemesis” founded to punish Turks!
1919 – December 17: French Army (Armenian Legion d’Orient) land at Mersin; Atrocities of Armenians in French uniform, ignites people’s resistance
1920 – April 23: Nationalist Government of People’s Parliament, revokes Sultan
1920 – Year around Armenians (East & South) with Allies permit, grab lands
1920 – Aug.10: Sévres Treaty signed by Ottomans (refused by Nationalists)
1920 – Dec.2: Karabekir’s Army ends Armenian atrocities; Gumru treaty signed (ratified) later Armenia becomes Soviet, Moscow Treaty 16.3.1921 and Kars 14.10.1921 follows. Armenia now revokes these signed treaties!
1921 – Jan. & April, Nationalists earn victory, stops Greek advance to Ankara
1921 – May: French Government start Peace talks due to Nationalists’ victories
1921 – July: Greek Army attacks come close to Ankara, they lose 3 week battle
1921 – Oct.1: Armenian Liberal Ramgavar Party founded in Constantinople
1921 – Oct. 20: France signs Ankara Peace with Nationalists evacuates south! Turks ask Armenians who returned, to stay but they decide to go with French army and punish Turks! (USA records say 300.000 went themselves!)
1922 – Jan.: Armenians in Cilicia & East, all left with their own choice. French records say about 1/3 of Armenians in exodus, die due weather-roads
1922 – Aug. 26: Great counter attack on Greeks at Afyonkarahisar, Greeks lose
1922 – Sept. 9,:Izmir Liberated by Turkish Army (Greeks desert Izmir panicked!)
1922 – Sept. 11-13: Izmir set on Fire by Greek and Armenian arsonists
1923 – July: Lausanne Treaty signed new Turkish Republic border Recognized (Armenia forgotten - abandoned by Super Powers which pushed them)! USA does not sign Lausanne Treaty, since they were not in WW1 with Turks. Main reason was the pressure of Senator Lodge and lobby.
1923 – Dec.21: USA and Turkish Republic sign agreement for settlement of losses incurred during WW1 to US Citizens and properties.
1924 – July-Sept.: Mr. John Dewey advised by Mr. Crane, invited by Turkish Republic visits, recommends the elementary education program which was put into force 1926 to 1930
1927 – USA – Turkish Republic diplomatic relations established by Exchange of Letters (owing to resistance of US legislature)
1937 – Claims of loss and indemnity studied by joint commission beginning
1934 – Resolved a total payment of $ 899.308 including interests.
Accordingly USA and/or her citizens can claim no other indemnities!
Turkish Gendarmes in Istanbul put to guard the American Colleges against outsiders! .