- US Gov Printing Office
(Excerpts Given Below As Appendix )
In a world full of too many who manage to belie the "decent, simple and good wishing persons", one regrets to understand that the "highest representatives of the world's greatest country", are impaired by insomnia or amnesia on their own past resolutions and history!
This essay is complimentary to my . . book "The Genocide of Truth" (or Turkish version The Genocide Traders) and invites all readers to counter comment and prove if any of the excerpted references is untrue!
This study is reflected as another sincere effort in cooperation with several decent and truth defending persons (this blog) Armenians, Turks and other nationalities. Actually, the evidences are so immense and irrefutable that only biased ignorant may insist not to see and admit. the facts Those who need further references for the excerpts or quotes used in this message may please refer or download here
The readers may also glance through the various USA newspaper clips in the slide show: or introductory REVOLUTIONARY photographs:
This study is a close word or hair count scanning of the official U.S. Congress-Senate resolution dated 22.4.1922 under the title " NEAR EAST RELIEF REPORT" which you can directly go in the referred pages for seeing with your own eyes, what the persons who lived and ruled history, have resolved in this irrefutable document!:
Now, let us read this OFFICIAL REPORT page by page and comment on what catches the attention of a careful reader, which I herewith convey inquiring for any opposing remarks by anyone in this universe!
Page 1: Among some sixty names given as members of the Board of Trustees and Executive Committee, the following names, ring bells to recall some other references in this subject, to name only a few:
James L. Barton: Chairman of Board of Trustees and ardent representative of the Board of Missionaries as well as the Near East Relief Organization! Reputed for his all time, all-Turk antipathy; a staunch defender of "Armenians and Christians at all times and all cases, (example Book p.74, # 47)". Barton expressed his hatred about Turks in all talks or writings and did not even want to see Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) at the time General Harbord had visited and conferred with him while in Turkey in autumn 1919. Barton was not satisfied with the "neutral approaches" of the U.S. High Commissioner Admiral Bristol in Turkey, and had even asked for his replacement. James Barton's almost fanatic dedication to Armenians is evident in every single incident. Yet, it was the same Barton who made the following confession to Admiral Bristol in his letter dated 21.05.1921:
With reference to the false reports that come through reporting massacres of the Armenians by the Turks, there is no one who can deprecate this more than I do. But there is a situation over here which is hard to describe. There is a brilliant young Armenian, a graduate of Yale University, by the name of Cardashian. He is a lawyer with office down in Wall Street. He has organized a committee, so called, which has never met and is never consulted, with Mr. Gerard as Chairman. Cardashian is the whole thing. He has set up what he calls an Armenian publicity bureau or something of that kind and has a letterhead printed. Gerard signs anything that Cardashian writes. He told me this himself one time. Cardashian is out with his own people and with everybody else, except Gerard and perhaps one other leading Armenians who was in London a month ago, Pastermadjian! Not long since Cardashian came out with a pamphlet in which he charged the Near East Relief and the missionaries as being the greatest enemies Armenia has ever had, claiming that they in cooperation with President Wilson, had crucified Armenia and a lot of other matter of this character ?
(NOTES: For more details of this letter, please refer to book page 389-390. Barton was disturbed by such unfairness, after all that he had done for Armenians.
Cardashian, was employed first by the Turkish Embassy in early 1914 and was even sent to San Francisco to a fair, as the Ottoman representative. After the war started, he was caught spying, and was dismissed. Gerard is the previous US Ambassador in Germany and was pro Christian/Armenian. Pastermadjian, was one of the terrorists that raided the Ottoman Bank in 1896 and was let go with others overseas, unpunished! After deposition of Abdulhamit in 1908, he was elected as congressman of the Erzurum province in the Ottoman Parliament. When war started, he had already organized his volunteer rebel units by thousands and was one of the reputed leaders, code name Armen Garo. He was later to become ambassador of the Dashnak Armenian Republic in Washington. For full photographs and records of bravery or treachery, please Refer To This
Pastermadjian, Antranik, Dro, were among the leading Dashnakist gang leaders who dragged the innocent Armenians into disastrous wars and revolutions. But after they lost the war in early 1918, they all fled to Europe and USA, living the destitute compatriots behind!
General James H. Harbord: General Harbord was sent to Turkey by President Wilson to make a local study and evaluation for the intended mandate of Armenia under USA protection. Ref:
Readers are invited to read the ANNEX IV "Atrocities: at the bottom section and take notice of the sentence" first, that Armenians massacred Musulmans with many refinements of cruelty and second that Armenians are responsible for most of the destruction done in towns and villages?. Referred Relief Report makes no mention of this previous report in US National Archives 184.021/175, but neither refers to any hints of annihilation of Armenians by Turks, distorting sporadic reciprocal clashes, mostly with Kurds undeserving to be named as "a large scale genocide".
Henry Morgenthau: This very famous U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, during his service from late 1913 to early 1915 is known by his duplicity and distortions. He traveled only once out of Istanbul to Beirut, where he met Lord Bryce, ex-British ambassador to Washington, and agreed to furnish him copies of the reports sent by U.S. missionaries in Turkey to their Board in Istanbul. Morgenthau arranged these copies be sent in diplomatic bags to Lord Bryce, heading the Wellington House " the British Propaganda department". These were used by young Arnold Toynbee for drafting up the "Blue Book" published in 1916 to tarnish the image of the Ottomans and form a "humane justification for USA to participate in WW1. By now, the whole world knows that the famous book "Ambassador Morgenthau's Story", was drafted by his two Armenian secretaries he took with him to USA, Hagop Andonian and Arshag Schimavonian, and masterly penned by a reputed writer Burton Hendrick. Final corrections were checked by US Secretary of State Lansing, to serve as an "ethical cause for USA's participation in WW1".
One wonders as regards why Morgenthau did not contribute even one sentence from his famous book about Turkish atrocities and brutalities, and let this important report go by, without the slightest hint!
Z.A. Bezdjian: Head of the Armenian Evangelical (Protestant) Church! We see the signature of two Armenian Patriarchs in the section of Appendix on page 23, in a message of thanks to the Relief Organization, together with the Catholic Armenian Patriarch. Please recall the conversation of Bezdjian with Ambassador Morgenthau (P293, #82* of book) where he had said that the "Armenians were already settled down for business and were earning their livings in the Zor region, where they were relocated" and which is said to be a "desert". This document brings two old friends together in this report and again there is no mention of "any Turkish atrocities".
Now that we have introduced these key actors, and for the sake of logical evaluation, let us see what the Armenian population number was in 1914 before relocation, so that we subtract the number said to be annihilated by genocide, to bear proof of complete destruction.
The diverse figures given by various sources at different dates are listed in page 303 of my book. Among so many variations, the numbers that make sense to be close to reality are the followings:
a. 1905 Ottoman State Census 1.294.851
b. 1914 Encyclopedia Britannica 1.500.000
c. 1.3.1914 (Joint Land Distribution) Report by French & Armenians 1.280.000
d. 1915, Oct. "National Geographic" magaz. P.329, (All area including Russia, Persia) 2.000.000
If we are to estimate the number of Russian Armenians, since they had provided 150.000 or even 200.000 Armenian soldiers in the Russian Army, the total population including women, elderly and children should be estimated as 500.000 and over. Likewise, the Armenians living in Persia should be counted as about 150 - 200.000.
Henceforth we can conclude that before WW1 (1914) the total number of Armenians living on Ottoman Empire's lands was no more than 1.3 million or at most 1.5 millions.
Now let us surf every page of this report and indicate what catches attention of a careful reader.
p.2: Name of Henry Morgenthau is given in the Executive Committee; hence, he bears full responsibility for the truthfulness of this report. The many stories in his own book fail paradoxically, to this later full report.
p.4: In the upper part of the page, we conclude that no part of relief was ever given to any Moslem! Few lines below, we note that "the war has not ended and hundreds of thousands of refugees are still homeless".
Few lines below we conclude that about 300.000 of the refugees came from Armenia to settle in Cilicia after the 30.10.1918 Mudros Cease Fire, but in 1921 when the French Forces had to evacuate the area those who left with them (200.000 or 300.000) were homeless in Syria and not dead.
Few lines below we learn that 80.000 Armenians residents of the city of Adana , had a few hundred sick. We are also given a list of the various Turkish cities, in which Armenian orphans have been taken care by Turks, but who were moved to "international control zones" for better care. There is no mention as regards how much aid (if any) from relief sources were made to these orphanages under Turkish control, but we have definite evidence that not even one sack of flour was contributed to the kitchens of Armenian refugee camps run by Turks where famine, epidemics and deprivations equally prevailed for all regardless of ethnicity.
p.5: Reconfirmation that orphanages were under Turkish control-rule, but that 5.000 of them were served by American volunteer workers! We understand that Turks at no time hindered relief activities of foreigners!
In the first line of the bottom section, we are assured that at least 1.000.000 chiefly Armenians are alive at that date (31.12.1921). We are also told in the bottom lines of the page that 500.000 of them are dependent on relief (in Russian Armenia).
p.6: Many thousands of them died under Dashnak Government rule, (28 May 1919 to Dec.8, 1921) before relief reached them for starvation. According to P.M. Katchaznuni, the number that died under their rule is about 150.000! Soviet Historian Lalaian (Book p 502) gives a list of deaths for the same period, from which we conclude that Armenian population went from 885.000 down to 690.000 or 22% loss of population; for the same period, Turks were decimated by 77%, from 260.000 to 77.000 and Kurds by 98%. The figures given in the report greatly contradicts the local sources and records of Armenian historians.
(NOTE: One logical cause for living Armenians in high figures, was likely to "get more relief funds-donations" for so many!)
Few lines below we note that the Committee was withdrawing from adult relief work. We note that Relief kept about 40 hospitals and 60 clinics. Few lines below we note that most diseases are caused by malnutrition or in other words, the main cause of death is shortage of food and overall famine. (The report fails to mention that all Turkish ports were under British-French-Russian navy blockade and food could not be transported by sea. The blockade was lifted only for relief carrying ships.
Consequently, the Armenians fed in the camp kitchens had to share the fate of the Moslems, overall famine and acute shortage of food to the degree of eating grass, draft animals and even barleys in dung). We learn that in the winter of 1921, 6.000 children was transported from Kars to Alexandropol in trains without heating and shortage of fuel was so much that hot meals could not be served!
p.8: Under Par.5 relative to orphanage work, we learn that as of, 31.12.1921 there are 64.107 children in 124 orphanages (mostly in Turkey) and that another 50.000 are dependent on these orphanages for necessities. This adds up to 114.107 persons.
(Note: By adding given figures of living persons, viz: 300.000 + 1.000.000 + 114.107 we arrive at the figure of 1.414.107 alive on 31.12.1921. If we take the figure of 1.3 millions as alive in 1914, we have to understand that the population increased (?) by 114.000 and if we take a maximal estimate of 1.5 million, we have to conclude that death rate was about only 5% for Armenian deportees, whilst it was about 30% for Turkish soldiers dying in the army for reasons other than combat! .
p.9: Armenian Republic (Dashnak) Government is so impoverished that they limit free use of lands and buildings for destitute Armenians. We also learn that in Constantinople only there are 14.975 orphans, shifted to the control of local committees of Armenians, Greeks and Turks! So, we understand that despite the on going wars with Armenians and Greeks, Turks have not deported or stopped these persons from continuing living and working in Turkey.
In the middle part of the page we learn that from the about 200 - 300.000 Armenians fleeing from Cilicia with their own decision, 6.775 were children taken care by the Relief in Syria. The bottom paragraph is very interesting in so far that we learn that in the territories controlled by Kemal Pasha, there are orphanages maintained by American men. We are given a breakdown of the Anatolian cities and numbers of orphans, such as Ankara, (350), Caesera (3190), Harput (5176), Konia (813), Samsun (1.000), Sivas (1.368) and Marsovan (465). When we add up these numbers we arrive at the figure of 12.362 orphans. This proves that the after the armistice of 30.10.1918, Armenians who had mostly gone to Russia, came back to Anatolia and resettled again which will make us conclude that at least 50.000 adult Armenians were back in Anatolia. (Let us remember that the ones in the West such as Izmir. Constantinople were never touched).
p.11: Reconfirmation that Relief had free use of properties and equipment throughout Anatolia, Syria and they did not pay any rent.
p.13: In Par.4, we are given a list of cooperating organizations such as: all types of Christian Church and Associations, Sunday Schools, Public Schools, Fraternal business (Rotary, Lion, Kiwana, Cosmopolitan, Masonic, Knights of Columbus/Pythias, etc.)
We also note that Agricultural organizations had donated 8.000 tons of food, as well as contributions from Armenian and Greek funds of America, Canada and American and international Red Cross.
(NOTE: All these assistance went to Christians only, 90% Armenians, rest to Assyrians, Greeks! We should also remember that when the Russian army pulled out of Anatolia at the end of 1917 to join the Soviet Revolution, they left behind not only the arms and ammunition, but large stocks of food for their army. We can also remember that in cities such as Damascus, Aleppo, Beirut in the southern provinces where there was no war, about 10% of the people perished by starvation).
p.23: We note thanks by patriarchs Sayrgisian and Bezdjian for the relief to Armenians (only) which otherwise annihilated by famine and epidemics (they make no mention of any mass killings).
1- This report covers only the official U.S.A. state relief for the period August 1919 ? 31.12.1921 amounting to over $ 51 millions. Previous loan of $ 50 millions, relief works from various associations in U.K., France, Russia, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and others are apart. The total amount of contributions of benevolent Christians to the Armenian "revolutionary adventure" is not known, but we understand that it had reached staggering large figures, wasted mostly on arms, ammunition and even three air planes! Armenian treason and revolutionary activities are irrefutable and you can have further evidence by Armenian historians from below sources:
2- Referred documents prove that any allegations for an Armenian genocide is refuted even in the official U.S. Congress-Senate documents.
3- Allegations of any "intended mass annihilation" do not hold any footing for minimal basic legal evidences, to name but a few such as: cause, place, numbers, time, how, murder tools, mass graves, documents, neutral eyewitness, any investigation, official indictment, right of defense, authorized court, verdict under international laws! On the contrary, there is a multitude of documents proving the Armenian massacres on Turks, other than Harbord's Report:
Russian Colonel Tverdohlebov's Documents
4- Well, under such realities, one wonders what is the cause behind this genocide fanfare, coming into application around 1965 all of the sudden! The cause is MONEY, and holding the Armenian communities under control so that they are not assimilated to the countries they live in. The Armenians have set up too many philanthropic associations and are involved in many activities. For more see:
All these schools, camps, magazines, churches, foundations and people working on salaries for a living and a better life, need money! The ARF and ASSEMBLY have mobilized their professional skills and have setup a world wide network in which every Armenian is made to sincerely believe in this fabricated myth as if true,
to the extent that Armenian students at UCLA made symposiums and even planned how the jackpot prize, restitution from Turkey, was to be spent, making every living Armenian rich with money from a tale! Armenian communities have been very successful in supporting certain politicians, financially or electoral votes and could establish an unbelievable network where well to do Armenians willingly or forcefully pay and think "they support a just cause (of revenge or blood money)". This merry-go-round carousel or recirculation money pump has been kept turning since 1965 to extremities of Armenian terrorism acts of over 250, in which more than 70 innocent persons were killed and hundreds were wounded, over 40 being Turkish diplomats.
Unfortunately as one newspapermen prophesied back in 1915, most U.S. congressmen and politicians failed prey to these rascals in return of certain benefits, or brainwashed, because they have not spent time to learn the truth.
It is unknown if such politicians too are dragged into illusions of benefiting from any restitution prize, because such a prize cannot exist: Free-Consolation-Versus-Frail
5- Now let us recall a few lines from the article of the "Reno Evening Gazette, Oct.14, 1915" AMERICA and the ARMENIANS" (Page 662 " 663 in my book)
"the same agencies" reporting Armenian outrages which never had been committed are now trying to mislead Christian charity in America and Switzerland into furnishing funds for the relief of the supposed victims of the unspeakable Turk. " there is a danger that a self sufficient person like president Wilson will accept these stories of atrocities as truth, with no further evidence than the statements of Armenians who are directly interested in raising money for the support of themselves!
Professional beggar who have bled their own countrymen for years are now trying to induce kindly Americans to support them, not caring whether USA would or should be not be embroiled with Turkey and with Germany. Ambassador Morgenthau appears to have fallen a ready victim to the smooth rascals, that by apocryphal tales of outrages, have procured contributions from their own countrymen abroad and in this country and have lived in luxury on the proceeds for the past 30 years! (1915 ? 30 = since 1985!)
If this country, therefore, does not want to appear foolish before the whole world, it will refuse to be duped by impossible tales and will let the Armenians severely alone!?
Personal Note: President Obama has recently blamed the Boston Police for having acted stupidly by arresting an African American (Professor) who was trying to break-in the door of his own house! If he ever read this essay or open letter, I wonder how he would have described the U.S. Congressmen and Senators, still defending this worldwide act of swindling the good wishing believers!
Sukru S. Aya - Istanbul, July 27, 2009.
[110th CONGRESS House Bills]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access]
[Introduced in House]
H. RES. 106
Calling upon the President to ensure that the foreign policy of the United States reflects appropriate understanding and sensitivity concerning issues related to human rights, ethnic cleansing, and genocide documented in the United States record relating to the Armenian Genocide, and for other purposes.
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
January 30, 2007
Mr. Schiff (for himself, Mr. Radanovich, Mr. Pallone, Mr. Knollenberg, Mr. Sherman, and Mr. McCotter) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs
Calling upon the President to ensure that the foreign policy of the United States reflects appropriate understanding and sensitivity concerning issues related to human rights, ethnic cleansing, and genocide documented in the United States record relating to the Armenian Genocide, and for other purposes.
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This resolution may be cited as the ``Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide Resolution''.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
The House of Representatives finds the following:
(1) The Armenian Genocide was conceived and carried out by the Ottoman Empire from 1915 to 1923, resulting in the deportation of nearly 2,000,000 Armenians, of whom 1,500,000 men, women, and children were killed, 500,000 survivors were expelled from their homes, and which succeeded in the elimination of the over 2,500-year presence of Armenians in their historic homeland.
(2) On May 24, 1915, the Allied Powers, England, France, and Russia, jointly issued a statement explicitly charging for the first time ever another government of committing ``a crime against humanity''.
(3) This joint statement stated ``the Allied Governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold personally responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres''.
(4) The post-World War I Turkish Government indicted the top leaders involved in the ``organization and execution'' of the Armenian Genocide and in the ``massacre and destruction of the Armenians''.
(5) In a series of courts-martial, officials of the Young Turk Regime were tried and convicted, as charged, for organizing and executing massacres against the Armenian people.
(6) The chief organizers of the Armenian Genocide, Minister of War Enver, Minister of the Interior Talaat, and Minister of the Navy Jemal were all condemned to death for their crimes, however, the verdicts of the courts were not enforced.
(7) The Armenian Genocide and these domestic judicial failures are documented with overwhelming evidence in the national archives of Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, the United States, the Vatican and many other countries, and this vast body of evidence attests to the same facts, the same events, and the same consequences.
(8) The United States National Archives and Record Administration holds extensive and thorough documentation on the Armenian Genocide, especially in its holdings under Record Group 59 of the United States Department of State, files 867.00 and 867.40, which are open and widely available to the public and interested institutions.
(9) The Honorable Henry Morgenthau, United States Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1913 to 1916, organized and led protests by officials of many countries, among them the allies of the Ottoman Empire, against the Armenian Genocide.
(10) Ambassador Morgenthau explicitly described to the United States Department of State the policy of the Government of the Ottoman Empire as ``a campaign of race extermination,'' and was instructed on July 16, 1915, by United States Secretary of State Robert Lansing that the ``Department approves your procedure . . . to stop Armenian persecution''.
(11) Senate Concurrent Resolution 12 of February 9, 1916, resolved that ``the President of the United States be respectfully asked to designate a day on which the citizens of this country may give expression to their sympathy by contributing funds now being raised for the relief of the Armenians'', who at the time were enduring ``starvation, disease, and untold suffering''.
(12) President Woodrow Wilson concurred and also encouraged the formation of the organization known as Near East Relief, chartered by an Act of Congress, which contributed some $116,000,000 from 1915 to 1930 to aid Armenian Genocide survivors, including 132,000 orphans who became foster children of the American people.
(13) Senate Resolution 359, dated May 11, 1920, stated in part, ``the testimony adduced at the hearings conducted by the sub-committee of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations have clearly established the truth of the reported massacres and other atrocities from which the Armenian people have suffered''.
(14) The resolution followed the April 13, 1920, report to the Senate of the American Military Mission to Armenia led by General James Harbord, that stated ``[m]utilation, violation, torture, and death have left their haunting memories in a hundred beautiful Armenian valleys, and the traveler in that region is seldom free from the evidence of this most colossal crime of all the ages''.
(15) As displayed in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Adolf Hitler, on ordering his military commanders to attack Poland without provocation in 1939, dismissed objections by saying ``[w]ho, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?'' and thus set the stage for the Holocaust.
(16) Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term ``genocide'' in 1944, and who was the earliest proponent of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, invoked the Armenian case as a definitive example of genocide in the 20th century.
(17) The first resolution on genocide adopted by the United Nations at Lemkin's urging, the December 11, 1946, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 96(1) and the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide itself recognized the Armenian Genocide as the type of crime the United Nations intended to prevent and punish by codifying existing standards.
(18) In 1948, the United Nations War Crimes Commission invoked the Armenian Genocide ``precisely . . . one of the types of acts which the modern term `crimes against humanity' is intended to cover'' as a precedent for the Nuremberg tribunals.
(19) The Commission stated that ``[t]he provisions of Article 230 of the Peace Treaty of Sevres were obviously intended to cover, in conformity with the Allied note of 1915 . . ., offenses which had been committed on Turkish territory against persons of Turkish citizenship, though of Armenian or Greek race. This article constitutes therefore a precedent for Article 6c and 5c of the Nuremberg and Tokyo Charters, and offers an example of one of the categories of `crimes against humanity' as understood by these enactments''.
(20) House Joint Resolution 148, adopted on April 8, 1975, resolved: ``[t]hat April 24, 1975, is hereby designated as `National Day of Remembrance of Man's Inhumanity to Man', and the President of the United States is authorized and requested to issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe such day as a day of remembrance for all the victims of genocide, especially those of Armenian ancestry . . .''.
(21) President Ronald Reagan in proclamation number 4838, dated April 22, 1981, stated in part ``like the genocide of the Armenians before it, and the genocide of the Cambodians, which followed it--and like too many other persecutions of too many other people--the lessons of the Holocaust must never be forgotten''.
(22) House Joint Resolution 247, adopted on September 10, 1984, resolved: ``[t]hat April 24, 1985, is hereby designated as `National Day of Remembrance of Man's Inhumanity to Man', and the President of the United States is authorized and requested to issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe such day as a day of remembrance for all the victims of genocide, especially the one and one-half million people of Armenian ancestry . . .''.
(23) In August 1985, after extensive study and deliberation, the United Nations SubCommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities voted 14 to 1 to accept a report entitled ``Study of the Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,'' which stated ``[t]he Nazi aberration has unfortunately not been the only case of genocide in the 20th century. Among other examples which can be cited as qualifying are . . . the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915-1916''.
(24) This report also explained that ``[a]t least 1,000,000, and possibly well over half of the Armenian population, are reliably estimated to have been killed or death marched by independent authorities and eye-witnesses. This is corroborated by reports in United States, German and British archives and of contemporary diplomats in the Ottoman Empire, including those of its ally Germany.''.
(25) The United States Holocaust Memorial Council, an independent Federal agency, unanimously resolved on April 30, 1981, that the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum would include the Armenian Genocide in the Museum and has since done so.
(26) Reviewing an aberrant 1982 expression (later retracted) by the United States Department of State asserting that the facts of the Armenian Genocide may be ambiguous, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in 1993, after a review of documents pertaining to the policy record of the United States, noted that the assertion on ambiguity in the United States record about the Armenian Genocide ``contradicted longstanding United States policy and was eventually retracted''. (27) On June 5, 1996, the House of Representatives adopted an amendment to House Bill 3540 (the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997) to reduce aid to Turkey by $3,000,000 (an estimate of its payment of lobbying fees in the United States) until the Turkish Government acknowledged the Armenian Genocide and took steps to honor the memory of its victims.
(28) President William Jefferson Clinton, on April 24, 1998, stated: ``This year, as in the past, we join with Armenian-Americans throughout the nation in commemorating one of the saddest chapters in the history of this century, the deportations and massacres of a million and a half Armenians in the Ottoman Empire in the years 1915-1923.''.
(29) President George W. Bush, on April 24, 2004, stated: ``On this day, we pause in remembrance of one of the most horrible tragedies of the 20th century, the annihilation of as many as 1,500,000 Armenians through forced exile and murder at the end of the Ottoman Empire.''.
(30) Despite the international recognition and affirmation of the Armenian Genocide, the failure of the domestic and international authorities to punish those responsible for the Armenian Genocide is a reason why similar genocides have recurred and may recur in the future, and that a just resolution will help prevent future genocides.
SEC. 3. DECLARATION OF POLICY.
The House of Representatives--
(1) calls upon the President to ensure that the foreign policy of the United States reflects appropriate understanding and sensitivity concerning issues related to human rights, ethnic cleansing, and genocide documented in the United States record relating to the Armenian Genocide and the consequences of the failure to realize a just resolution; and
(2) calls upon the President in the President's annual message commemorating the Armenian Genocide issued on or about April 24, to accurately characterize the systematic and deliberate annihilation of 1,500,000 Armenians as genocide and to recall the proud history of United States intervention in opposition to the Armenian Genocide.