2961) Summaries Of Papers Presented At The Emergency Of Armenian Nationalism In XIX th Century & Policies Of Great Powers Symposium

© This content Mirrored From  http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com Erciyes University - Nevşehir University
2nd International Social Studies Symposium (EUSAS-II)
22–24 May 2008
Kayseri 2008
  1. Russia’ S Influence To Creation Of Armenian Problem
  2. Collapse Of Ottoman Classical System And Its Effect On Seperatist Movements: Case Of Armenians
  3. Eastern Question Factor On Emergence Of Armenian Issue
  4. Effect Of Relations Russia And Etchmiadzin On Ottoman Armenians
  5. Documents About Armenian Nationalism Which Were Found Armenians Home And Effects Of This Over Seperation Of Armenian Nationalism In End Of Xix Century
  6. Nationalist Movements Among Armenians And Its Reflection On Armenian Literary Works
  7. Activities Of Turkish And Armenian Intellectuals In Establishment Of Constitutional Rule In Ottoman Empire
  8. Ottoman Armenian Press In Xixth Century And A Striking Discussion Relating With Regime
  9. Role Of First Armenian Propaganda Film In Development Of Armenian Nationalism And Extraordinary Shift Of Münİr Süreyya Bey, Charge D’affaires Of Bern
  10. Training Of Anti-Turk Personnel Among Armenian Intellectuals In Russia
  11. Impact Of Ottoman Education System On Awakening Of Armenian Nationalism
  12. Transformation Of Armenian Nationalism In Context Of Usa Foreign Policy
  13. Policies Followed By Germany Towards Armenians Within Context Of East Problem -Analysis And Critics Of Arguments Of Tesse Hofmann-
  14. 19th Century Russian Formula In Armenian Nationalism
  15. British Diplomacy And Ottoman Armenians: Role Of British Consuls Living In Otoman Cities On Armenian Question
  16. Usa Policy Toward Ottoman Armenians
  17. Born Of Armenian Nationalism In Frame Of Armenian Committees’ Activities
  18. Armenian Workers And Nationalism In Ottomans
  19. British Policy Towwards Caucasus And Great Armenia Project
  20. American Effect In Creation Of Armenian Natİonalism In Xix Th Century
  21. Problem Of Armenians Migrated To Russia And Effect Of This Problem On Armenian Nationalist Movements
  22. British-Armenian Relations According To Ottoman Archives Documents (1845-1893)
  23. American Missionary Schools And ir Impact On Armenian Independence Movement
  24. According To Western Press British Prime Minister Gladstone And Armenian Question
  25. Under Light Of International Developments Russian’s Look To Armenian Matter Throughout 19. Century
  26. Role Of Armenian Minority Schools In Rising Of Armenian Nationalism
  27. Impressions On Sivas (1873-1899) Of Abcfm Missioners: Albert And Emma Hubbard
  28. Russian State Official’s Provocative Activities Against Armenians In Ottaman Provinces
  29. Ottoman State’s Policy Towards Armenians Related With Regulation Of Armenian Nation
  30. Great Powers And Armenian Issue In 1890s: Perspectives Offered By Western Scholars In Comparative Framework
  31. Armenian-Turkish Relations In Armenian Media
  32. Iranian Role In Appearance Of Armenian Nationalism And Armenian Activities In Iran (1880 - 1908)
  33. Mekhitar From Sivas (1676-1749), Mekhitarists And His Contributions To Armenian Nationalism
  34. Turkish Factor In Establishment Of Armenian National Identity (Culture, Geography And Religion)
  35. Usage Of Armenians In French Policies Towards Turkiye And Jewish Roles In It
  36. Political Arena Or Armenia
  37. Armenian Place In Russian Foreing Policy
  38. Efforts For Molding Public Opinion In Favour Of Armenian In West And Administration And Works Of Matbuat-I Ecnebiye
  39. Roles Of Charity Organizations And European States In Formation Of Armenian Nationalism -According To American Archives-
  40. As Western Problem Rising Of Armenian Nationalism: Economic Couses
  41. Role Of Western Powers On Population Movements Of Armenians In Balikesir (Xixth And Xxth Centuries)
  42. Turk And Armenian Relationships In 19th Century In Concept Of Religion And Religious Institutions
  43. Conflict Between Gregorian And Protestant Armenians And Role Of England
  44. Armenian Question In Russian Sources Of Xix Century
  45. Role Of France In Rising Of Armenian Nationalism In 19th Century And Struggle Of Pİerre Loti
  46. Missionary Activities In Zeytun
  47. Armenian Pawn Of Imperialism Karabet Tomayan
  48. Armenian Question And British Armenian Policies
  49. Armenian Nationalism And American Missioners In Ayintab County During Last Quarter Of Xixth Century
  50. Armenian Activities In Kilis Sub-Province At End Of 19th Century
  51. Role Of Usa And Amerİcan Missinoneries On Armenian Problem
  52. Project Which Was Gave By Armenian Committee In London To Lord Salisbury About Circumstances Of Ottoman Armenians
  53. Project Of Pertaining To Ottoman Armenian And Other Groups Which Was Prepared By Extraordinary Plenipotentiary Of England Lord Salisbury
  54. Project Of Pertaining To Ottoman Armenian And Other Groups Which Was Prepared By Ambassador Of England Layard
  55. Protestant Activities In Adiyaman And Establishment Of Protestant Armenian Church
  56. Birth Of Armenian Issue And Europe According To Hans Barth’s Turk: Defend Yourself!
  57. Economic Causes Of Birth Of Armenian Nationalism: Kayseri Case
  58. Muslims And Armenians On Truths On Armenia By French Traveller P.B.Daloh
  59. Roles Of Abcfm Missionaries
  60. Armenian Schools And Creation Of National Identity
  61. Armenian Question In Foreign Policy Of Russia
  62. From Living Together To Seperation: Socio-Psychological Basics Of Armenian Question
  63. Armenian Propaganda Activities In Europe And United States Of America
  64. Idea Of Independency İn Armenİan Psychology
  65. Reaction Of Armenians Towards American Missionaries
  66. Regulation Of Armenian Nation Related With Disintegration Of Millet System In Ottoman Empire
  67. Role Of Armenian Committees In Armenian Nationalism: Case Of Hinchak Committee
  68. Approach Of Germany Towards Armenian Problem During Reign Of Abdulhamit II
  69. Rise/Development Of Armenian Chauvinistic; Sociological A Ligh/Outlook
  70. Anglo-Armenian Relations (1890-1900)
  71. Usa And Armenian Problem (Role Of Usa In Armenİan Problem)
  72. Influence Of American Missionaries On Armenian Nationalism In Armenian Schools In Ottoman State
  73. Christian Union Project And Ermenians At End Of Seventeeth Century
  74. Role Of England In Occurrence Of Armenian Rebellions And Its Reasons
  75. Reform Movements Held In Eastern Cities In Framework Of British Policy Towards Ottoman Armenians
  76. Propaganda For Armania Of William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister Of Britain, And Evangelism
  77. Answer To Claims Of Historan Nikolay Hovhannisyan On Armenian Problem
  78. Identity Evulation Of Alaçam Armenians Since Last Decades Of 19th Century
  79. In Light Of Internatİonal Petroleum Challenge, French Middleeast Policy And Armenian Concept
  80. Relations Between Armenian Nationalists And Young Turks On Rising Of Armenian Nationalism
  81. Armenian-French Relations 1879-1918 In Ottoman Documents Published By State Archives
  82. Religious-National Elements And External Connection In Formation Of Armenian Terrorist Organization
  83. Role Of Russia In Rise Of Armenian Question
  84. Armenian Question In Internationasl Treaties And Congresses According To German Sources: (San Stefano, Berlin And Lausanne)
  85. Armenians Who Were Westernized Early
  86. Anglo-Armenian Association

Russia’ S Influence To The Creation Of Armenian Problem
Abbasova AYGÜN
Sumgayıt State University

At the present moment living neighborhood of the Azerbaijan Republic a few Armenian is not local population of these territories and they created their Armenia Republic in our historical Azerbaijan lands. The land of the new created state was former Turkish land, and the capital of the state was Ravan that was the city of Azerbaijanis. Azerbaijanis have lived there for centuries. Majority of the population consist of Azerbaijanis in Ravan. Relying on a great supporter the idea to realize their disgusting pretentions formed in XIIIth century. At the beginning of XIII – th century a few Armenians were living in our land (we must noticed that the majority of Armenians were former Albans). Appling to the Russia palace they wanted from the King to liberate poor Christians from the cruel Moslems.

As the Caspian Sea was a short and useful way to the Russia’s seas and India. Russia king was interested in Caspian Sea shores. Of course, Armenia’s idea to help Christians was useful cause to attack these provinces. At the Russian palace Armenians talked that Christians lived under hard conditions, Turks hurt us in South Caucasus. But at the same time they informed the king Petrov the first that they had enough financial and military abilities to help them. In this information some Azerbaijan cities were informed by them as the living place of Armenians.

No state and nation utilized them for their own aim as the Soviet Union, the Russia Kingdom and Russians. Russia did not want strength rival states in the region. That’s why the Russia constantly supports the Armenians’ protentions and did their best on the way of creation Great Armenia. The creation of the USSA intensified the Russians in the Caucasus. They did not solve the problem of Nagorny Karabach deliberately, they played political card to each nation. Diasporas of Azerbaijan and Turkey must talk about the national struggle of Azerbaijan Turks impressible and influential. According to the historical facts, there were not Armenians in present Armenia lands, the subjects used in the imperialist policy of the Russia Kingdom are as important as Nagorny Karabach problem.

We must do our best to inform the world about Karabach problem. The world must know their desire to absorb the lands of their neighbours. We can say that today’s problem of Azerbaijan is not only a problem of Nagorny Karabach, this is an Armenian problem.

The Collapse Of Ottoman Classical System And Its Effect On The Seperatist Movements: The Case Of Armenians
Prof. Dr. Abdullah SAYDAM
Erciyes University, Faculty of Education

Non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire were given the status of Zimmi, and they were treated separately within the millet system. The Ottoman government usually death with the zimmis of all denominations as a member of a community (millet), not as individual. The Ottoman millet system forms the historical background of different people both in the Balkans and the Middle East. The term millet reflects membership of a religious group in the Ottoman society. Thus, the millet system was based on membership of a religious group, not of an ethnic or linguistic group. As it was pointed out by many scholars in their respected fields that this system was a unique development in history. It protected the religious identities of groups living in the different parts of the Empire.

The Ottoman administration did not have such an ethnic oriented problems for the early modern periods. Having said that, however, one unquestioned development in the Ottoman Empire following the second siege of Vienna is the clear-cut emergence of the problem of nationalities. Additionally, the European enlightenment, Industrial Revolution and the ideas of France Revolution in 1789 forced this multi-ethnic Empire for re-considering it classical way of administration on the non-Muslim subjects.

Financial weakness, the rise of nationalism and the decline of the Empire caused some irreversible problems. So, non-Muslims start to talk about their nationalistic demands increasingly. At the end they were nothing for them to gain by staying as a part of the Empire, but to get their own independent state.

In this paper I will attempt to examine the Ottoman decline and the “new world order”, and its effect on the nationalist movements with particular references to the Armenians.

The Eastern Question Factor On The Emergence Of Armenian Issue
Prof. Dr. Abdülkadir YUVALI
Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

No subject in the historical process can be explained by only one dimension and factor.

Many reasons affected the emergence of Armenian issue, as well. We do not intend to include all of those reasons causing Armenian issues in this study.
In fact it is impossible to explain all of them.

In the same way, the eastern question is not related to Armenian issue directly but it should be examined in the relations that started with the conquest of Anatolia by Turks and has continued until nowadays. The main subject of the study is not Eastern Question as well.

Renaissance, which is the common name of the changes started in almost all subjects related to humanity, firstly in religion, thought, science and art, is in fact an issue of modernization. Because while The Western World renewed the ancient science, art and thought in a way to be used by 16th century people, it also started the reform movements in Christianity which affected all these values during 800 years. As a result Christianity was not a crucial element for values such as science, thought and art any more, and it continued in its main way. As a result of the new, very prominent and successive attempts that were the outcome of this movement which started in the West, the very dimensional changes in the western world sometimes influenced the Eastern World negatively.

In this study, we will explain the fact that the Armenians, who had important places in all stages of Ottoman State and were wealthy, became rebellious and murderer by formal or informal eastern interventions into Ottoman Empire.

The Effect Of The Relations Russia And The The Etchmiadzin On The Ottoman Armenians
Assis Prof Dr Adem ÖLMEZ
Harran University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Armenians was initially a society that they have doctrine of Rome Church. But in fifth century, they found own church due to disagreement among the Christian. After this date, The Armenians given shape to own church in point of main of own faith. İn this frame, Etchmiadzin Church went on to be unique spiritual representation of the Armenians. After Mongol occupation, The Armenians started to form different spiritual centers in Anatolia. After Ottoman conquered the Etchmiadzin in 1585 catholicos, head of Etchmiadzin Church was appointed by Ottoman Sultans until Russian occupation of Etchmiadzin in 1828. Russia started to be interested in Etchmiadzin Church from period of Czar Petro I. İn the nineteenth century, Russia started to benefit from the Armenians as political. After the Persia-Russia War, 40. 000 Armenians were migrated by Russia. İn 1828, Russia reorganized Etchmiadzien Church and completely controlled it by Türkmençay Agreement which signed with Persia. After from 1828 Russia incited Armenians who lived in the Ottoman State against their state. Thus the condact of Russia with the Armenian Churches started Armenian terrorism in the Ottoman State.

The Documents About The Armenian Nationalism Which Were Found The Armenians Home And The Effects Of This Over The Seperation Of The Armenian Nationalism In The End Of Xix The Century
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet HALAÇOĞLU

Until the half of the XIX th century, the Armenians, lived in the Ottoman Empire, have got no problems with the Turks. Later, the intervention of the Great Powers in to the Ottoman Empire caused the Armenian Problem. However, until that time it was not mentioned hostility between the Turks and the Armenians. So, Who did create the Armenian Problem?

Two political and economic changes in the word are the answer of this question. One of them is imperialism which is the result of the Industrial Revolution, the other is the nationalism which is due to the the French Revolution. These two important developments were used by the Great Powers to sovereign over the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, the effects of the French Revolution, the Armenian Church, the Armenian revolutionary movement, missionaries, the intervention of the Great Powers caused the creation of the Armenian Problem. All these effects caused the hostility between the Turks and the Armenians. Especially, the Armenians wanted to establish independent Armenian State, but they forget to have majority in Anatolia. In this research the Armenian Issue will study to depend on effects of the Great Powers.

Missionary activities and the foreign schools due to the creation of the Armenian Question. Armenian graduates from these schools went to Europe, especially America and took lessons about equality, nationalism from universities. Then they returned the Ottoman lands, immediately organized the rebellions in order to independent Armenia.

At the end of the XIXth century, the Armenian idea was changed by the activities of the European Powers and the religion man to the Ottoman Empire. To establish the independent Armenia, the Armenian rebellions were broken out by the Armenian brigands. After 1890’s there were almost 40 Armenian rebellions in Anatolia. In this research, publications, which were caused the Armenian nationalism and the effects of this nationalism over the Turks?

The Nationalist Movements Among Armenians And Its Reflection On The Armenian Literary Works
Prof. Dr. Ahmet KANKAL
Nevşehir University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

This study, in essence, is based upon the Armenian literary works such as novels, stories, diaries, essays, research studies and memoirs published in Turkish language up to the present. In brief, it will be assessed whether or not the idea of nationalism was present among the Armenian Community in the works penned by Armenians, whether they be the citizens of the Turkish Republic or not. The study will also stress how the theme of nationalism and nationalist movements are treated in a simple novel, story or in other literary works. If idea of nationalism was present, then it will be examined whether it is the Armenians themselves or the Ottoman administration or the Imperialist Powers that is responsible for the rise of this idea. What are the opinions of the Armenian authors or people on this subject, and if there are any accusations, who is considered guilty? The questions of how the rise of nationalist movements and the events within this period are examined and how they are presented to the reader will be evaluated. The study will also examine if there are any differences in the points of views of the Diaspora Armenians and the Armenians of Turkey. Afterward, the Armenian nationalist movements and the measures taken against such movements, and the counter-movements and their consequences will also be evaluated and will be placed to the attention of the researchers.

Activities Of The Turkish And Armenian Intellectuals In The Establishment Of The Constitutional Rule In The Ottoman Empire
Assist. Prof. Dr. Ahmet OĞUZ
Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

When the Ottoman Empire became weak and entered into disintegrating period, the Turks and the other minorities, including the Armenians, became aware of their national identities. Along with this, administrative method started to change in the Empire. Here we explain two details: the First and Second Constitutions.

Before the declaration of the first constitution, the opposition of the Young Ottomans against the government, more precisely against Grand Vizir Ali Pasha, created a new way of administration. Because of their use of media and harsh opposition, they were exiled and had to escape into Europe where they met with the Armenians. As we will see, many Turkish Armenians had worked in the process of the First Constitutional period.

In the coming of the second Constitutional period, the Armenians also played the same sorts of roles. Armenian intellectuals openly worked with the Union and Progress members as they had done with the Young Ottomans. These Armenians even went further to defend Armenian nationalism. Because of animosity towards the Abdulhamit II’s rule, both the Armenian and the Committee of Union and Progress members came together. The CUP used media to reach the public. One of the newspapers was the Ottoman Gazette. In short, the Turks and the Armenians had worked to develop a constitutional regime in the Ottoman Empire. In this way, the Turkish nationalism as well as the Armenian nationalism showed their faces in the political arena. Yet, towards the end of the Empire, the Armenian nationalism developed a different path that led to create hostility towards the Turks.

Ottoman Armenian Press In XIXth Century And A Striking Discussion Relating With The Regime
Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali BUDAK
Yeditepe University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

After the Tanzimat (Reformation) many Turkish magazines, journals and newspapers have been published with the Armenian letters. Mecmua-i Havadis, one of them, have become very prominent and it had the Turkish readers even. There had been a discussion or polemique between the Mecmua-i Havadis and Ruznâme-i Cerdîde-i Havadis, first daily newspaper of the period, on December of 1860. This polemique had given an illuminating idea pertaining with the social life and the understanding of journalism for the mentioned period as well as the arising identity problems of the Armenians as the Ottoman subjects or citizens. The first time in the Ottoman history the categories of dominant/ sovereign nation (millet-i hâkime) and the subjected/ruled nation (millet-i mahkûme) had been separated before the public opinion. The parts of this discussion are Vartan Pahsa (Mecmua-i Havâdis) and Münif Pahsa (Ruznâme-i Cerîde-i Havadis) as the representatives of these two different categories.

In the presentation, this polemique, which realized before the upheaval of Armenians approximately 25 years ago, has been elaborated with details and a panoramic look has been focused on the Armenian pres.

The Role Of The First Armenian Propaganda Film In The Development Of Armenian Nationalism And The Extraordinary Shift Of Münir Süreyya Bey, The Charge D’affaires Of Bern

Since the Cinema appeared (1895), the directive impact of its visual, auditory, and fictive structure has led this art to be an effective means of propaganda in spreading, being adopted,and moulding public opinion of an idea, a doctrine,an ideology,or a belief. The use of Cinema by Bulgarians, Armenians, (the minorities of The Ottoman Empire) in the direction of their own political aims also happened soon after the Cinema invented.Bulgarians were those who took action first on this issue. The Bulgarian Princedom, who itself created the problem of Macedonia, making use of this power of the Cinema,had a propaganda film made called The Ottoman Cruelty to receive the support of Europe on this problem.The second step was taken by Diaspora Armenians in the U.S.A in 1919.

The Diaspora Armenians in the U.S.A, in order to form a public opinion in both the U.S.A and Europe, which would support their claim and to strengthen the Armenian nationalism, began to studies of a film which would create an hatred on its viewers against the Turks.This first propaganda film known as Armenia crucified or The Souls on Auction was completed in 1919. The film was adapted from a journal of an Armenian girl called Aurora Mardiganian which was later written by M.I.Gates as Armenia trespassed: Aurora Mardiganian who saved from the big massacre. Diaspora Armenians, in order to redound the authenticity of the film, included Henry Morgenthau (Former U.S.A Ambassador in the Ottoman Empire) in the supporting cast in the film. This film whose finance was provided to Armenians ans Syrians by American Aid Committee (American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief) and which was made to in Seling Studio was released first in the U.S.A and later in Europe.

The underlying fact why the film was shot and released in 1919 was political.At that time Armenian committees had been putting pressure on the U.S.A for taking Armenia to its mandate.For the same purpose, American Committee for Independence of Armenia had been founded by Vahan Kardashian and James W.Gerard.The aim of the committee was to include a part of Caucasia, Eastern Anatolia and Çukurova into Armenian Republic of which capital was Yerevan by the assistance of the U.S A. Namely,the support of American public opinion which would be acquired via the film would have been used as a means of pressure on The Senate and House of Representatives The impact of the film on American public opinion resulted beyond the expectations as regards both economically and politically.

The film, as was in the U.S.A, also attracted a lot of attention in Europe, especially in Switzerland.The release of the film was tried to be obstructed by Münir Süreyya Bey, Ottoman Charge D’Affaires of Bern. Despite all the difficulties displayed by the Swiss Government, as a result of Süreyya Bey’s insistent attitude and his shift, the release of the film was banned after a short time.However, this prohibition increased the interest towards it.

The film The Souls on Auction was the first early period propaganda film which was made by Diaspora Armenians.It set an example for the films which would be made later on.Besides,it contributed with the development of Armenian Nationalism and the increase of Armenian supporters in Europe.

Training Of Anti-Turk Personnel Among Armenian Intellectuals In Russia
Ali Huseyin SHAMIL
Azerbaijan National Scientific Academy

Turkish-Armenian relationship which had long history and joint heritage was damaged in the end of XIX century. The main reason which created such damage was the collapse of Ottoman Empire and foreign powers that led way to it. Russia had its own role in this collapse by expanding its borders in the south, occupying Ottoman lands and weakening the empire from the inside. Christian unity was carrying out a planned activity under the name of helping Armenians.

Russia was planing to form so called country for Armenians who were moved out of Ottoman state and this so called government was planned to be formed near the borders of Ottoman Empire. For this reason Russia was preparing personnel who would realize these plans. Many young Armenians were accepted to Russian universities later on becoming state officials and bureaucrats.

Young Armenians who were graduated from Russian universities played a huge role in breaking Turkish-Armenian relationship. They seemed to be helping their nation with the intellectual darkness. But in the reality the true activities of Russian officials were camouflaged with benevolent intentions of Armenians.

The ashugs in Armenian lands were singing in Turkish language for centuries. The sources inform that more than 300 Armenian ashugs were reciting poems in Turkish. Even Armenian children and old people could not keep themselves from crying when ashugs were telling folk stories in Turkish, singing songs and bayatis (folk poem).

Russian officials put responsibility on Armenian intellectuals to make Armenians forget Turkish culture and language. Hajatir Abovyan started writing poems in Armenian language in the form of Turkish ashug poetry. Tens of writers started writing works on history. The publish of newspapers, journals and books in Armenian language were motivated.

All these activities led to the creation of anti-Turk ideas unconsciousnessly which resulted in the formation of wrong ideology of Armenian chauvinists.
The thesis deals with the Russian anti-Turk policy under the name of helping Armenians with the investigation and propagation of their national history and culture.

The Impact Of The Ottoman Education System On The Awakening Of The Armenian Nationalism
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ayten SEZER ARIĞ
Hacettepe University,
Atatürk’s Principles of Research and Implementation Center

Education had not been a state affair until the 19th century in Ottoman Empire. It had been handled by religious sects. The educational programs of Ottoman schools established by foundations (Vakıflar) had been usually determined by those sects.

The Ottoman society consisted of different ethnicities from various religions. This variety also caused difference in educational systems. Both this difference and the capitulations given by the Ottomans played an important role on the awakening of the nationalist movement among ethnicities in Ottoman teritories.

This study examines on the structure of Ottoman education system and analyses how internal and external groups that facilitated this structure affected the Armenian nationalist movement.

Transformation Of Armenian Nationalism In The Context Of Usa Foreign Policy
Res. Assist. Aytül TAMER
Gazi Üniversitesi, Faculty of Communication

From 19th to 20th century, imperialism/empires, the key of wars, exploited small and landless nations for its own ends by means of promises of liberty and establishment of nation-states. World War I, which is the greatest sharing struggle of the world, drew the borders and determined the countries. The period of World War I, was the first step of USA to participate into the sharing struggle of imperialism. W. Wilson’s Fourteen Points became the main source of USA foreign policy after the World War I.

This paper is aimed to examine the transformation of Armenian nationalism in the context of USA foreign policy towards Turkey and Middle East. The transformation will be examined on the Armenian’s journals which were published by Armenian Diaspora of USA. In addition to political articles, epic stories, memories and visual materials–photograph, map-, which are effective to create the national memory, will be analyzed in three Armenian journals: Armenia (1904–1907), The New Armenia (1908-1929) and The Armenian Herald (1917-1919). According to Anderson, map is the important instrument for construction of nation and nation-state. Therefore, visual materials of Armenian journals give some clues on the transformation and profile of Armenian nationalism. In this study, transformation of Armenian nationalism and publishing policy of journals, alteration/revision of view of visual materials will be examined in the context of USA foreign policy.

Policies Followed By Germany Towards Armenians Within The Context Of The East Problem -Analysis And Critics Of The Arguments Of Tesse Hofmann-
Lect. Dr. Barış ÖZDAL
Uludağ University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

The East Problem, which was first brought up in the 1815 Vienna Convention and which was an artificial problem created by the bigger states upon the sharing the land of the Ottoman Empire among themselves during the development process of imperialism in Europe, arose with its all dimensions after the 1853 Crimean War and 1856 Paris Convention. After establishing its national unity under the leadership of Prussia in 1871, Germany became a party of the east problem with its Drang nach Osten policy.

When the policies followed by Germany within the context of demands of the Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire for independence are privately analyzed, one can see that Germany’s approaches and policies, different from other states, were at first based on principle of not getting involved, although these approaches and polices changed in the course of time. Speaking more generally, Germany followed a policy supporting the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire, since it had realized its national unity later than the other states and since it had taken its place as a powerful actor within the international system in general and within the East Problem in particular.

Within the context of this policy, Germany changed its approaches and policies in accordance with its interests during the First World War and started to intervene (and involve) and to guide the Ottoman–Armenian relations. After this change in policies, 1915 Displacement and Relocation Law, which was enforced on the grounds of military security, was alleged to put into force due to the guidance of some German officers and administrators.

As an answer to these allegations, at first, Der Todesgang des Armenischen Volkes, which was written by Frank G. Weber LEPSIUS in 1916, was quoted as a resource. However, after the Andonian documents, which had been shown as the fundamental resource in this work, were proved to be fake in 1984, Tessa HOFMANN published Deutschland und Armenien 1914 – 1918, which was another work of the same author, in 1986.

In accordance with the information stated above in a general and abstract way, this study will examine the allegations and theses of famous German sociologist Dr. Tessa HOFMANN, described as the new LEPSIUS or LEPSIUS, II., starting with Der Völkermord an den Armeniern vor Gericht – der Prozeß Talaat Pascha (The Case of Armenian Genocide – Trial of Talat Pasha), which he had written together with Soghomon TEHLIREAN in 1980 and then will analyze the policies followed by Germany towards Armenians within the context of the East Problem.

The 19th Century Russian Formula In Armenian Nationalism
Bilal Dedeyev
Qafqaz University; Department of Political Sciences

In fact the formation and activity history of Armenian nationalism dates back to the early of 19th century. Imperialist countries (Russia, England, France, and USA) started to take advantage of Armenian nationalism in the early19th century. Armenia naturally made use of that opportunity. Russia was one of the countries, which exploited the Armenians for profit.

Russia started to expand during the reign of Peter I (1869-1725) and became one of the most powerful countries in the world. Her ambition to reach the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean sea was no secret. One of Russia’s the targets was the occupation of Istanbul. Russia had to occupy Caucasus and then Iran and the Ottoman Empire. For that reason Russia, after occupying Tiflis in the last quarter of the 18th century to feed Armenians with nationalism.

Russia promised them to create a country in this region, even had the thought to create “small Armenia” uniting the regions in Nagorno Karabakh, but it could not then reach its target.

Russia evaluated the situation of Azeri Khans’ lack of unity in the early of the 19th century, occupied all Caucasus. Besides, cooperating with Armenians applied for other ways. Russia gathered Armenians from neighbouring countries and regions to create a state in Azerbaijan which was unprotected. This migration process finished in the early of the 19th century, especially completed after 1928. Even an article was put in the treaty of Turkmanchay and Edirne about migration. As a result one million Armenian in the late of the 19th century was settled in Azerbaijan‘s Yerevan and Karabakh, partly in Ganja and Nakhchivan from Ottoman and Iran regions. This “settling policy” came true by the planned preparation of (Russia and Armenia) both sided. The validity of expressed figures is displayed clearly in Russian and Ottoman documents.

Russia could have two aims in making this settling policy. First, by helping migration policy to change the ethnic structure to have a long lasting sovereignty. That’s why non-Muslim class brought from out of Caucasus settled in this region, so Muslim class was ensured to be directed easily. Second, using Armenian power to occupy neighbour countries in the future. Hence Russia created nationalist-chauvinist Dashnak party that could organize all the Armenians in the region of Tiflis. If you realize bloody incidents outburst both in Azerbaijan and Ottoman regions and lasted during the 20th century.

Consequently after these historical facts that mentioned above, social and political balances were disrupted in Anatolia and Azerbaijan. The influence of the above mentioned incidents led to create a so-called Armenian-Genocide and Karabakh conflict.

British Diplomacy And The Ottoman Armenians: The Role Of The British Consuls Living In The Otoman Cities On The Armenian Question
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bülent ÖZDEMİR
Turkish Historical Society

Diplomatic representation of Britain in the Ottoman Empire goes back to the end of the 16th century. From the 19th century onwards British diplomatic representation in the Ottoman dominions was progressively expanded and new consulates were established in the big cities of the empire. Before the early nineteenth century, British trade and representation in the dominions of Ottoman Empire were monopolized by the Levant Company. However, when Britain became a power in the Mediterranean, the British parliament decided to dissolve the Levant Company which was considered ill-equipped to meet Britain’s new objectives and interests in the region. In the early nineteenth century, British both political and commercial interests for the extension of British trade in the whole area demanded the extension of a consular service within the Ottoman Empire. Consequently, British consuls were officially appointed to the Ottoman cities by the Foreign Office.

The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of the British consuls who lived in the Ottoman cities and interacted with the Ottoman society and to try to find out their relations with the Armenian subjects of the empire during the 19th century until the World War I. There is no doubt that British consuls played and important role in the process of the internationalization of the Armenian question. Therefore, this study is going to look at their positions, attitudes, prejudices and political activities in the Ottoman cities regarding the Armenian question.

Usa Policy Toward Ottoman Armenians
Assist. Prof. Dr. Bülent UĞRASIZ
Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In general, it is assumed that Armenian question started with the emergence Ottoman-Russian War which is followed by Ayastefanos and Berlin Treaties in 1877-1878.

Ottoman Empire was seen as a country to be colonized by the European imperialist powers in the 19th century. Each of them had their own economic interests and their own policies toward Ottoman Empire. Especially after French Revolution which is followed by the nationalistic movement, the imperialist powers adopted the policy of making use of the separatist non-Muslim minorities in Ottoman Empire in order to deteriorate the position Ottoman Empire negatively.

Armenians were within the non-Muslim community in Ottoman Empire during these years and they were also affected by the nationalistic movement. Armenians were suffering from the strict rule of Orthodox Church until the declaration of Armenian Constitution in the Reorganization Period of 1939. After the arrival of American missionaries in 1819, they considered Armenians as the only non-Muslim minority in Ottoman Empire that can be converted to the Christian Protestant sect.

This study aims to investigate US policy toward Ottoman Armenians in the 19th century. Today some of the events in Turkish-American relations can be observed as prototypes of events within the two countries in the 19th century. Therefore, it is important to understand the 19th century US policy toward Ottoman Armenians to make a comparison.

Born Of Armenian Nationalism In The Frame Of Armenian Committees’ Activities
Instruc. Cengiz KARTIN
Erciyes University,
Atatürk’s Principles of Research and Implementation Center

Nation is the most common definition, which means the unity of tradition, custom, language and culture that a group of human formed with a common background. Until the broke out of French Revolution in 1789, imperial managements seen all around the world changed into national governments because of the developments happened in those days. Ottoman Government was one of the most affected states in this respect.

Ottoman Government went into a rapid recession period and had quarrels with its public because it could not produce right policies in order to stop this wicked goings. Armenians were one of the communities that multi-national Ottoman Government had quarrel with, and in this quarrel, between the state and its depended Armenian community, the main reason seems as Armenians’ idea of establishing their own state in the frame of nationalism feelings come out as a result of French Revolution. But, in fact, it was the policy of Western Governments which aimed to use this community as a cat’s paw to protect their own profits in this country.

Western Governments were in effort of using national feelings in Armenian community to make them revolt against the state. They used lots of instruments in order to enliven Armenian nationalism with this effort. Armenian committees were one of these instruments.

Committees’ works to gather Armenian community both in Ottoman country and, in Europe and America especially by using newspapers are another point of our topic.

In order to discuss this topic in that frame, we will mention about Western Governments’ points of view about the Armenian committees in our rescript.

Armenian Workers And Nationalism In Ottomans
Assist. Prof. Dr. Cevdet KIRPIK
Erciyes University, Faculty of Education

Some Armenian workers along with some Armenians were trying to have an independent Armenia in the end of XIXth century and in the beginning of XXth century. These workers were employed in important sectors in the country. There was a significant foreign investment in various sectors such as railways and ports towards the end of XIX. century. Armenian workers, just like other non-Muslim workers, were preferred over Muslim workers by foreign investors and local non-Muslim entrepreneurs. On the other hand, there were jobs that traditionally associated with Armenians. There was a continuing supply of Armenian workers to Istanbul from the East of the country towards the end of XIX. century. Many Armenian workers did not only come to Istanbul; they went abroad particularly to the USA and Russia.

Some of these workers, no matter stayed in the country or went to abroad, either gave their supports or took part personally in actions against the country. Those stayed in the country gave their support to Armenian nationalism ideologically and actually. Some of those who went abroad, after earning money, came back to the country with weapons. Some others did propaganda and provocation against Ottomans in their respective countries.

Some Armenian workers cooperated with Hınçaklar that was an organization based on socialist principles. Those workers were allied with this group in terms of workers’ unions and some illegal actions. The interesting point here is the fact of nationalist socialism approach of Hınçaklar. Although Hınçaklar were based on socialism that theoretically against nationalism, they were defending Armenian nationalism. In doing so, they thought that they could obtain the support of socialist public opinion in Europe. Thus, socialism was seen as a mean in the road to independence.

These activities of Armenian workers caused the State to get suspicious of them in time. Some Armenian workers employed in State establishments were laid off and new ones were not recruited. Armenian employers also particularly preferred Armenian workers. Traveling abroad were tried to be prevented by the State. Thus, those activities that harm the unity will be prevented. In conclusion, Armenian workers had a considerable affect to sprout hatred seeds planted in Ottoman country. The issue will be predominantly examined in the light of archive documents.

The British Policy Towwards Caucasus And The Great Armenia Project
Assist. Prof. Dr. Coşkun TOPAL
Karadeniz Technical University,
The Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

The roots of the Armenian question lie in the San Stefano and Berlin Treaties signed at the end of the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-78.With Berlin Treaty which replaced the San Stefano The Ottoman Government accepted to implementations of in provinces with an Armenian population. The Ottoman Government also accepted to inform about these reforms to the major powers which were signatories to the treaty, and approved for supervision of the implementation of these measures by the major powers. In reality, The Armenian Question was a dimension of the 'Eastern Question' which projects of the Great Powers had developed with the purpose of making the Ottoman Empire collapse and disintegrates. For this aime, The Great Powers had used minorities and separatist movements. When the Russians invaded and defeated Turkey in 1877-78, Britain adopted a new policy. In 1878 Britain took control of the island of Cyprus, and in 1883 occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal. British interests in Caucasia led that state to promote Armenian rebellions. Especially following the 1917 Revolution, the Russians began to withdraw from the Caucasus. Causcasus acquired more importance for Britain. Because that it was possible for the Ottomans to expand towards Central Asia through the Caucasus and, on the other, revolutionary movements had appeared in the Turkish regions in the Russian Empire. These developments could provide the realization of Pan-Turanism. The oil fields in the Caucasus were important but also the awakening of Turks could also affect the British Commonwealth of Nations. As a result of these developements The British planned to partition the regions to a number of small buffer states between the Bolshevik Russians and the Middle East.

The American Effect In The Creation Of The Armenian Natİonalism In The Xix Th Century
Dr. Dilşen İnce ERDOĞAN
Dokuz Eylül University,
Atatürk’s Principles of Research and Implementation Center

It is known that the United State is the second multi-national and cultural state. The emergence of United State was celebrated 230th aniversary in 2006. World conditions have changed and the ınfluence of the United State changed accordingly. Inspite of changing the world conditions, the United State depend on the Monreo Doctrine, but ıt joined the separation movement of the Ottoman Empire with the Great Powers. XIX th century, the Ottoman Empire was weakened by disintegration and war. The first Americans to make contacted with the Ottoman Empire New England ship captains who commenced trading at Smyrna in the 1780’s. Trade grows up so slowly until 1800. The United State maintaned commercial investment in Turkey. It struggled with the Great Powers to economic and political privilages in the Otoman lands. The missionary movement was a major factor the relations between the United State and the Otoman Empire. The Otoman land was the most important mission field of the American Board. The organization enjoyed a vitual monopoly of Protestant missionary activity in that country. The Ottoman officials thought them of aiding the Armenian rebellions, because young Armenians had been learned about intellectual freedom, social justice and especially nationalism by the American missionary to establish independent state in Anatolia. It will be mentioned not only missionary movement but also activities of the American consulates. The American Board Annuala Reports, American Conculs Reports and the documents of the Ottoman Archives will be used in this investigation Key Words: America, Consulate, Armenian, and Missionary

Problem Of Armenians Migrated To Russia And Effect Of This Problem On The Armenian Nationalist Movements
Instruc. Döndü Sena ARSLAN
Bozok University,
Atatürk’s Principles of Research and Implementation Center

Although Armenians attracted Western Country’s attention during the Berlin Conference, they couldn’t reach their aim like an independence or autonomy.

They began to revolt in 1890’s to reach their desire with armed struggle exactly like in the Balkans. They revolt in Erzurum, Sason, Zeytun, and Van.

The rebellions made the Western countries were interested in Armenians and caused establishing investigations commissions. But on the other hand the Armenians came face to face with the Muslims because of the rebellions. Not only because of this condition so many Armenians migrated to Russia due to the precautions which was applied by Ottoman State and geographic proximity of Russia.

Russia wanted to send back the Armenians whose account was rising day by day. Since Russia was anxious that the thought of independence could attract the Russian Armenians. However important part of the Armenians meddled with the revolts so that Ottoman State didn’t accept the Armenians emigrants.

In the last of 1899 Russia gives up sending back to Armenians. Because of financial profits which was obtained from Ottoman and directing the Armenian nationality towards the Ottoman frontier. By this way Russia would breathe fret again. Due to this attitude Armenian nationality used as a trump against to Ottoman and Armenian approached the Western states more than Russia.

This article will mention Russia’s politics on the emigrant Armenians and the effects of this politics on the Armenian nationality under the light of the documents which were ensured from the Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives.

British-Armenian Relations According To The Ottoman Archives Documents (1845-1893)
Assist. Prof. Dr. Durdu Mehmet BURAK
Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Education

After the treaty of Kuchuk Kainardji in 1774, the Ottoman Empire has lost being a European state specialty. The Russia interfered the Ottoman rulers and seen the Empire as an ordinary state. The United Kingdom did not want to allow the Ottoman empire to the initiative of Russia. In order to get maximum advantage from the declining Ottoman’s the United Kingdom managed to get provoke the Armenians against the Ottomans rulers.

Western states that aiming to devastate the Ottoman State supported the groups’ rebellions in Caucus and Slovenes Christians. And also supporting Armenians rebellions against the Ottoman states in Eastern Anatolia. After this developments Russia has in charged the Armenians protector upon the Ayastefanos treaty article 16. And with the treaty of Berlin article 61 the situations of Armenians have carried to the international arena. The Ottoman rulers have taken necessary measurements to improve the situations of Armenian in the ottoman territory and also have been in charge to inform the western sates on the development reforms on the Armenian situations. The main aim of the Armenians is to get the self sovereignty from the ottomans and to form its own organizational structure. The Russians intensions to intervention to the eastern Anatolia by using the Armenians have disturbed the Britons. Britain has decided to form an independent Armenian state for her own interest.

The Armenians committees established in Van 1885, Dacha in Tiflis 1890 and Hınchak in Sweden 1897 have played important roles to support the rebellions. The rebellions began in Erzurum in 1890 and continued in Adana province in 1909 exceeding thirty rebellions in the different provinces in The Ottoman territory aimed to divide the Ottoman state in to the separate states. These rebellions have been organized and supported by the British authorities until the end of the World War One. And a number of innocent civilians have been murdered; a huge number of villages and towns and so many other facilities have been destroyed by the Armenians with the support of British authorities.

The above studies have been examined in the light of archives documents.

American Missionary Schools And Their Impact On The Armenian Independence Movement
Assist. Prof. Dr. Emine DİNGEÇ
Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In the 19th century, the United States began to be seen as the new player in the Ottoman theatre. Missionary activities provided very good opportunities for the US to know and to involve in the Ottoman affairs. Missionary activies were seen as the humanitarian activies, however, they have some socio-economic aspects and were used to penetrate in the foreign societies. The US government used missionaries which mostly dealt with both education and health in the Middle East.

In these missionary schools, Armenians and other ethnic groups were tought to become a nation and how to decide their own fate. This stimulated the Armenian national consciousness. Schools played their role best and the friutfull results were started to be seen soon. Conseption of fatherland, nationality, ethnicity, independence was turned out to be rebellion, uprising, treachery and betrayal for the Ottoman Empire.

The purpose of this paper is to find out how far the American missionary schools effected the Armenian independence movement before the WWI.

According To The Western Press The British Prime Minister Gladstone And The Armenian Question
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Enis ŞAHİN – Res. ASsist. Mustafa SARI
Sakarya University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Armenian Question developed in the last quarter of 19th century and settled the agenda of Europe and World as one of the international questions. England was the leading state which conveyed the issue to the world agenda. The political and economic connections of England by the Near East and Middle East resulted that Armenians were used as a trump especially against Russia. The predominant British statesman on this subject was William Ewart Gladstone. Gladstone, who lived in England between years of 1809 and 1898, became prime minister four times and showed a special interest in Turkey and the Armenian Question. He joined the aim of the British Foreign Policy with his especial interest on the Armenians, and so he followed a hostile policy towards the Ottoman State.

In the last quarter of 19th century, the assuming of England the security of Mediterranean against Russia and the abandonment of the Ottoman territorial integrity aggravated of the Ottoman Foreign Policy conditions. Gladstone’s Foreign Policy on the Ottoman State became too aggressive, sometimes filled up breeding comments. Gladstone often became aggressive as saying the statements like the necessity of clarify of Turks from the world. He affronted Turks as the huge examples of inhuman of civilization. Sometimes, he described Turks as the contemptible butcher flock and said that they must be driven to Central Asia. On the other hand, he acted tenderly on the Armenians; he said the servicing for the Armenians is the servicing for the Civilization. Consequently, the efforts and policies of Gladstone brought about the formation of image of atrocities Turk-blameless Armenian and the revolt of Armenians, which were called devoted citizenship, against the Ottoman State. In this proceeding, according to the British and American Press, the approach of William Ewart Gladstone on the Armenian Question and his converting this question into the state policy of England in the last quarter of 19th century will be explained.

Under The Light Of International Developments Russian’s Look To Armenian Matter Throughout 19. Century
Res. Assist. Esma SARAÇ
Süleyman Demirel University,
Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

It’s understood that while studied at historical process; the interest of Russian about Armenian had taken progress with “go to warm seas policy” of Russian synchronously. Beginning from Czar I. Petro Russian had been devoloping some policies which had taken Armenian to the center for had been a great state and could have been making force struggle with big powers of that period like England and France.

Czardom Russian, which began to be effective on Orthodoxies in Ottoman geography with Küçük Kaynarca Agreement (1774) and Edirne Agreement (1829), had gained a protection right on Armenian with 16th item of Ayestofenos (Yeşilköy) Agreement wich had signed after 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian War. Because of the opposing of England’s and France’s thesis which claimed that it will had been demolished the power balance between Near East States could not have been put on practise, it was important had been first agreement about Armenian Matter.

According to the 61th item of 1878 dated Berlin Agreement which takes place of Yeşilköy Agreement, Otoman State had been accepted ‘to make reforms which necessitated local requirements in states which the folks are Armenian’. This condition caused to decreasing of Russian and increasing of England influance on Armenian and to result in interference right of foreign forces about the Turkish-Armenian relations.

Russia tried to enlarge own influence area on Armenian, which had taken before with different agreements, by some religious and culturel practices. For this aim Russia, had opened Lazarian Instutite at 1816 in Moskova, Nersessian School in Tiflis and Gevorgian Academy in Emciyazin. Throughout 19. Century a lot of Armenian youths who had been educating with revolutionary ideas became the actors of independence movements’ againts to Ottoman State.

The aim of this study, to examine the Russian’s look to Armenian Matter throughout 19. Century. In this direction, firstly, the historical backround of Russian’s policy intended for Armenian will be investigated. After than, the political, economical and religious factors, that underlying this Moscow’s policy will be presented.

The Role Of Armenian Minority Schools In The Rising Of Armenian Nationalism
Ministry of Education, Theacher

In the Ottoman Empire, since the period of Mehmet II, the minorities had been classified and governed in a system that is called Nationality (millet sistemi) depending on some certain Islamic rules which are according to the essential approach of religious thought. The minorities were accepted Ottoman citizens and had living rights in their congregation under the authority of religious head leader known as Ruhban. Those religious head leaders had the authority and responsibility for administering the educational and cultural foundations, churches and hospitals of their own congregations. It is observed that Armenians as a group of minority in the Ottoman Empire took advantage of those mentioned possibilities especially about education offered by state. Armenians’ congregations started to establish new educational foundations known as congregation’s schools especially since the beginning of the 18th century. Like the other congregation’s schools, those Armenian schools trained people on religious subjects at the beginning but later on the character of the training at these schools changed and they became schools where national educational policy was implemented. Especially since the last quarter period of the 18th century they aimed to instruct Armenian students the idea depending on Armenian nationalism and liberty. In this point it can be alleged that in emerging Armenian nationalist and separatist ideology in the Ottoman Empire Armenian schools were effective as well churches.

On the other hand another reason decreasing the Armenian nationalism is related to the great western states’ missionary policies on Armenians. Those western states (Russia, England..) thought Armenians as such an instrument to make their own political targets true in the Ottoman State. According to the Ottoman state system education were not accepted the duty of state till Tanzimat era for both Muslims and minorities. With the decrease in number and activity of schools Ottoman state started to take some precautions which were not effective on Armenian nationalists properly. Armenians didn’t accept such precautions and contrarily with the advocacy of the great western states accelerated nationalist activities. Eventually Ottoman state couldn’t succeed at struggling against Armenian harmful thoughts properly.

In this article, through which methods Armenian minority schools effected the occurring and the rising of Armenian nationalism will be explained by ottoman archive documents.

The Impressions On Sivas (1873-1899) Of Abcfm Missioners: Albert And Emma Hubbard
Assist. Prof. Dr. Fatih Mehmet DERVISOGLU
Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Education

American Protestant missionary association, The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) founded in 1810, Boston had became the biggest missionary association on the world in term of its opportunities and breadth of the field of activity, in a short time.

Albert and Emma Hubbard had lived in Sivas, their first missionary place, until dying. Since they had worked at Sivas n the period of that Armenian case had been flaming, their missionary reports, private letters and observations are so significant.

The fact that Protestants were considered as “nation” in Ottoman State had expanded the scope of American missioners and deepened the sect conflicts among Armenian people.

However Hubbards had a Protestant church founded in 1851 at Sivas when they came to Sivas for working and living, they did not have any religious difficulties because they had met a little group of people outwardly adopting the Protestant.

Anatolia and Middle East are among the sphere of interest of missioners because of geographical, political, religious and economical issues.

Missioners had planned launching to a reform in Armenian church by encouraging to educational institutes and their own churches. Their main plan was to make those over Muslims but they thought the situations were not ready for a reform and should strengthen the East churches in order to affect Muslims.

This study will be on the impressions of ABCFM Missioners, Albert and Emma Hubbard on Sivas (1873-1899) and those locales: Sivas station and seven related stations to main station Gürün, Darende, Divriği, Zara, Karahisar Mancınık and Tokat. And it will be made an evaluation of religious, political and economical issues on Armenians, Turks and the period in this study.

Russian State Official’s Provocative Activities Against The Armenians In The Ottaman Provinces
Res. Assist. Fatma İNCE
Bozok University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In the begining of the foundation of Ottoman Empire we see Armenians in the East Anatolia, Caucasia and Cilicia. They had Kingdom, public and some of them lived dispersed in different areas under different states.Armenians and Ottamans firstly met in the period of Osman Qâzi. In the periods of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, Yavuz Sultan Selim and Kanuni Sultan Süleyman there were some holy wars and after them Armenians were under the Ottoman domination. Under the domination of Ottoman Empire, Armenians were called faithful people.(Millet-i Sadıka)the Armenians who lived freely,spoke their own language,prayed in their churhs and kept up their culturalactivities for 600 years emerged as a part of European imperialist forces plan to divide ottoman Empire.Russia was one of this countries.Russia began to interested in Armenians during the reign of Petro 1 in the early years of the 18th century. The first plan Russia claimed was that is was the protector of Greek Orthodox and Armenians to reach its historical desires. Furthermore, Russiamade use of Armenians in the Russia-İran war between the years of 1826-1828. They signed Türkmençay treaty and as a result of the agreement Armenian province was founded.

Between 1828-1829 Ottoman –Russian war , there were a lot of Armenians who registered into the Russian Army to fight against Ottoman Empire and the same disloyalty was seen in 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian war. Besides, documents in the archive have proven that some Russian commanders have been inciting the Armenians living in Diyarbakır, Sivas and Edirne. In addition to these, Maksimof, the interpreter of Russian Embassy has been protecting Russian Armenians who are members of “Armenian FESAT Committee”. All this data indicates that in the activities of Armenians against Ottoman Empire, Russia, as many other western Imperialists, played an important role. In this document, Russia’s subversive and provocative activities in the Ottoman areas will be handled which was based upon the archive documents.

The Ottoman State’s Policy Towards Armenians Related With The Regulation Of The Armenian Nation
Assist. Prof. Dr. Fehmi AKIN
Afyonkarahisar Kocatepe University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The regulation called Nizamname-i Millet-i Ermeniyan (Regulation of the Armenian Nation), which reinforced the situation of the Armenian community in the Ottoman Empire in 1863, and which granted some additional privileges and autonomy concerning their self-governance, became effective. According to the Islahat Fermani (Firman of the Reforms) this regulation, which included some new provisions, that were additional to the present rights, was a reward that was granted to the Armenians, who were considered as the most loyal citizens of the state. The Armenian Patriarchate Assemblies prepared this regulation taking the consent of the Ottoman Government. With this regulation, immense privileges were granted to the Armenians.

This can be expressed as a State in a state; governance in governance.

The Great Powers And The Armenian Issue In The 1890s: Perspectives Offered By Western Scholars In Comparative Framework
Prof. Dr. Fuat BOROVALI
Doğuş University, Department of International Relations

That the Great Powers were responsible for a good deal of what transpired during the 1890s in the form of Armenian uprisings, is quite-known to many historians, some IR scholars, and few interested laymen, but beyond that there seems to be a thick-veil of ignorance...

Equally unknown to most {apart from a few experts of the issue and/or the period}, is how various scholars --mainly in the West-- have treated the thorny question of Great Power involvement --- the duplicity, the machinations, manipulations...

...not only the more obvious players --such as Britain, Russia and France, but Austria and post-Bismarckian Germany as well...

Having taught Diplomatic History, over the years at various levels, primarily using Norman Rich’s Great Power Diplomacy, 1814-1914 ‘as textbook, I have been pleasantly-surprised to discover how objectively Professor Rich [of Brown University] approaches the matter, and what a sound observation he conveys to his readers... It is this discovery that led me to develop the idea of engaging in a comparative analysis of scholarly rendition of events -- in this case, that of the 1890s diplomatic machinations, as pertaining to the Ottoman Armenians...!

The 1890s should be equally well-known by the public at large as its famous / infamous period-cousin == 1915 and beyond...! The wel-versed historians already know that ... But Western scholarly analysis our-policy the period, particularly from an IR-policy perspective, should be brought to the attention of the specialialists and the general publıc alike...

This is what this paper sets out to do, and hopefully it will provide a sound contribution to not only the scholarly literature {in International Relations}, But to the promotion of Turkey’s Rightful theses, as well..

Armenian-Turkish Relations In Armenian Media
Baku State University,
Head of Armenian Studies Center,
Editor-in-chief of New Eurasia newspaper

Studies of history of Armenian-Turkish relations primarily reveal that these two peoples did not have any problems with each other by the end of XIX century. Armenians comfortably and peacefully subsisted with their neighbours under Selchuks and Ottomans. Armenian historians also confirm this fact. Then why relations between armenians and turks worsened and what caused quarrel between them?

Answer to the question is easy to find in Armenian media publiashed at the end of XIX and in the beginning of XX century in Turkey, South Caucasus (Russia) and European countries. Armenians preferred printed publications to publicize national armenian thinking and managed to change it to a propaganda tool. Armenian nationalism appeared on mass media thanks to Russian patronage with defeat of Turkey in their struggle against Russia in 1877-1878, as well as due to San Stefano and Berlin treaties. Open threats against state first apperaed on pages of newspaper Armenia in regard with Armenakan party and then in newspapers such as Hncaq and Droshak that belonged to dashnaks. These publications played an important role in armenian uprising that took place at the end of XIX century. Armenians established media network in large geographical territory starting from Eastern Anatolia.

Armenian publications in South Caucasus exceeded the newspapers of georgians twice and turks-muslims by three times. “Banvor” (The worker), “Dzayn” (Voice), “Murc”(Hammer), “Kayıs”(Spark), “Nor Xosk”(New Word), “Mşak” (Farmer), “Horizon”(Rainbow), ”Azatamart”(Freedom fight), ”Hayrenin”(Homeland), “Hayastan”, “Arev”(Sun), “Yerkir”(World), “Azq” and other newspapers. Main backbone of these newspapers was idea of gaining Armenian independence. Armenian nationalist media first proposed the idea of “Great Armenia”.(“Garmir Droshan”(Red Flag), “Communist”, “Sovetakan Hayastan”(Soviet Armenia) and others.). Armenian and pro-armenian media particularly fabricated “Armenian genocide” idea .

Modern Armenian media keeps Turkish-Armenian relations on the agenda and 80% of Armenian press publish hostile articles and researches against turks. More than 20 nationally broadcasted TV channels, publications such as “Irarunk” (Justice), “Azg”(Nation), “Haykakan jamanak”(Armenian time), “Yerkir”(World), “Chorord Ishkhanutyan”(The forth power), “Hayastan” and other political newspapers pay enormous attention to Turkish-Armenian relations and frequently publish analytical articles on this topic. Their desire is acception of fabricated “Armenian genocide” bu Turks. They are convinving people that if that happens Armenians will get 6 provinces of Turkey and more than 300 billion USD compensation for material damage to Armenian people in 1915. Aremnian press is abundant with preconcieved, biased, false articles. Media remains as a propaganda tool against Turks in Armenia.

The Iranian Role In Appearance Of Armenian Nationalism And Armenian Activities In Iran (1880 - 1908)
Res. Assist. Gökhan BOLAT
Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Of the Armenian matter which emerged in Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century, it has been much discussed about the effects and the activities of the Western states. However, both in the period when this centuries-long matter came out and within the following processes, Iran has been ignored as a strategical and logistical actor.

In the last quarter of 19th century, the Caucasus became a remarkably dynamic field of struggle among the Russians, the Ottomans and the Iranians.

Within this age, Russia was quite efficient in Iran. Therefore, Iran showed a high degree of tolerance towards the Armenians within its own boundaries and allowed their all kinds of activities. Moreover, Iran backed them in various ways, such as giving them passports and providing some assistance and patronage of Iranian consulates in the other countries where they made some researches against the Turks.

Due to these support given by Iran to the Armenians, the Armenian organizations in US even congratulated the Shah by having sent him a document of gratitude. As a country which was constantly among any alliance with the others against the Turks, Iran has still kept this historical attitude. The current relations between Iran and Armenia are clear indicator of what is mentioned above.

Throughout this paper, as a country which continuously alters its political stance between Russia and the Western powers, the significance and the effect of Iran in the Armenian issue has been discussed. Especially the Armenians activities in Iran and their perception of Iran as a base of movement and education have been elaborately considered.

Mekhitar From Sivas (1676-1749), Mekhitarists And His Contributions To Armenian Nationalism
Assist. Prof. Dr. Gürsoy ŞAHİN
Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Arts and Sciencess

It is generally accepted that Armenian problem appeared in 19th century. This is true in some respects but in our opinion, the origins of this problem should be searched in the preceding periods. In this paper, there will be information about Mekhitar’s, who was born in 1676 in Sivas and then became an Armenian priest, and his students’ studies for the formation of Armenian national identity and also their contributions to the appearance of the ideological origins of the Armenian problem. Thanks to the academy formed in 1715 on St. Lazar Island in Venice, Mekhitar and Mekhitarists priests who were the members of his congregation (tariqa) had extremely effective services in national conscious’ arise in Armenian society and the spread of Armenian language and culture to the world.

Besides, Mekhitar, who undertook the role of a bridge between Europe and Armenians, attracted the attention of the West on Armenian people who dispersed after staying far from their country. As a result of Europe’s standing as a protector to Armenians and Mekhitar’s and his students’ literature, publication and education activities, Armenians began to have confidence and they started to act more independently. At the same time, Mekhitar also assisted in the protection and development of the Armenian culture, inheritance and language. As a result of all of these studies, Mekhitar and Mekhitarists, who assisted in Armenian political movement not in the field of action and terror but in the field of idea, let themselves get carried away by the Armenian political movement.

The Turkish Factor In The Establishment Of The Armenian National Identity (Culture, Geography And Religion)
Deputy Chief of Analitical Information Department of Milli Mejlis Apparatus of Azerbaijan Republic

It is a weak possibility that Armenians who have lived under the Turkish rule (the Seljuk and the Ottoman Empire) for nearly a thousand year did not benefit and adopt this dominant cultural value. The Turkish factor has left a permanent mark on the establishment of Armenian national identity especially since the beginning of the 19th century. In parallel with the weakening of the Ottoman Empire the Armenians, who received the political support of Christian states, defined the Turks as the “other” and such definition has become more stratified in negative terms. The period of nationalization and the production of nat ional culture still continue. Among Armenians living in various countries in the world there are some similarities and differences in this period. Being of an Asian, Oriental and Christian is one of the effective elements in the establishment of the Armenian national identity.

The literature written by the Armenian intelligentsias besides the propaganda of the Church have been effective in the establishment of such anti- Turkish psychology.

The Church and the Armenian intelligentsia blame the Turks for all difficulties and troubles Armenians have lived for last 200 years. Thenceforth the events erupted in the First World War these claims have been systematically and constantly uttered by the Armenians.

The Usage Of Armenians In The French Policies Towards Turkiye And The Jewish Roles In It
Assist. Prof. Dr. Hatice ERDEMİR - Assist. Prof. Dr. Halil ERDEMİR
Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The European Imperialist powers used the Osmanlı State’s religious and ethnic minorities for their own national interests. France was/is one of the European countries who efficiently used Osmanlı Armenians, Jews and Arabs for French interests. The French usage methods and systems of the Armenians were almost identical with the usage of other minorities. The French usage of the Jews is similar to the usage of Armenians. The methods were carried out by the French authorities was carefully adapted to their policies accordance to the Ethnic and religious minorities’ own interests.

France allowed the Jews to establish an institution, Alliance Israélite Universelle, in Paris for the usage of achieving their Zionist aims. France was able to collect intelligence materials which were used for French influence on the Osmanlı State’s internal matters as well as many other states through this institution. French language was largely used by this institution in its schools and daily life of Jewish people which paved the way to spread out French culture and civilisation. As in the same way, Armenians were used for the French aspirations in the Osmanlı State. Carefully chosen young idealist Osmanlı Armenians were sent to France for educational and other training. Those returned Armenians with the dream of an independent state created disturbances and crimes within the Osmanlı State. Most of the crimes were committed by the encouragement and support of the French authorities by their secret Armenian organisations. Armenians thought that the French authorities were supporting to materialize their aspirations by influencing Osmanlı internal matters; in fact France was expecting such opportunities to use for years.

There are many reasons for France to be the leading country that bring the Armenian issue into world politics. There are historical reasons as well as the Armenian population who were/are potential votes for the usage of the French politicians to obtain seats in their parliament. Moreover, the Armenian issue was continuously used against the accession negotiation of Turkey into the EU as well as to press Turkey to take part in a possible Mediterranean cooperative organisation which is expected to be leaded by France. There are many institutions as well as personalities who are using the Armenian issues for their own benefit. These people were/are working within the state organisations as well as academic and media institutions. Most of those people who benefits from the Armenian issue are not Armenians. The role of Jewish organisations’ and Israel’s usage of the Armenians and emergence Armenian issue needs to be analysed by the international relations’ perspectives and expectations. There are political, religious and particularly economic matters in the conflict between the Jewish and Armenian communities starting from the 19th century to the Republican period. The Armenian related activities and its relations with the Jewish broad interests needs to be researched which were used to influence of Turkey and Turkish politics.

The subject will be elaborated by looking primary and secondary sources in the conflicts between Armenians and Jews and its usage in the French politics towards Turkey. How the French authorities used the Armenians and Jews in the methods were carried out towards to politics created against Turkey, and the Turkish authorities’ counter reactions to the French approach needs to be discussed.

A Political Arena Or Armenia
Assist. Prof. Dr. Hatice ERDEMİR - Assist. Prof. Dr. Halil ERDEMİR
Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arst and Sciences

It is known by all human races that many states of the world battled for Asia Minör at different times of the history. For its geographical, strategic, economic and political importance, Asia Minör, wanted to be owned or to be controlled by other states. Nowadays as well Mediterranean and its environment attracted the dominant powers of the world as happened in the past who now originated a new political mechanism to realise this aim. In the last century as a result of new “accusation” tradition in the international relations, the Western powers brought up the so-called Armenian genocide scheme on the basis of human rights. It is observed that they discussed the issue in their assemblies as well. This study aims to analyse the groundless issue of Armenian problem by taking an attracting example from the early history of Asia Minör and comparing it with the contemporary one. This paper can also reveal that the real idea of the Western powers in Anatolia is to break the social unity and uniformity in order to create chaos.

Armenian Place In Russian Foreing Policy
Assist. Prof. Dr. Hayri ÇAPRAZ
Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arst and Sciences

Ottoman Armenians became one of the main concerns of Great Powers’ foreign policy at the second half of nineteenth century. They followed a policy in which Armenians would become independent in order to be able to put themselves in an effective position in the Middle Eastern politics. In doing so, however, rivalry among the Great Powers was one of the main reasons of raising the tension in the district where Armenians had been living. Particularly, Armenian policy of Russia played a determining role in political development in the region.

Efforts For Molding Public Opinion In Favour Of The Armenian In West And Administration And Works Of Matbuat-I Ecnebiye
Selçuk University, Faculty of Education

French Revolution, industrial revolution, change in transportation roads and emergence of new focus of powers that attempted to made room for themselves within the existing world order caused more increase in international competition on Ottoman territories since the seconf half of XIX century.

Based on development of mass media, this period is also the beginning time of development for freedom of intelligence and speech. This situation led to change in the form of international struggle. In response to works previously carried on in battle areas by soldiers and behind closed doors by politicians, now it became compulsory to persuade large mass. In order to reach their purposes, the Great States make broadcastings that’ll disturb peace and and rest on the one hand and they needed to orient their public opinion in the direction of their government policies on the other hand.

And Ottoman Empire established the administration of Matbuat-ı Ecnebiye against negative Ottoman image that was attempted to be created with very inaccurate news in Western public opinion both in order to better its image and follow happenings in Europe. Successful works of these organizations that was perceived as the censor of Abdulhamit II by many intellectuals of the time brought results in a short period of time. One of the subjects that the organization set its signature is the Armenian Question. Public opinion molded against Turks was tried to be turned in favour of them and important successes were obtained.

The Roles Of The Charity Organizations And The European States In Formation Of Armenian Nationalism -According To The American Archives-
Assist. Prof. Dr. İbrahim ERDAL
Bozok University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In the process of the Ottoman disintegration accelerated after the Tanzimat, the Armenians as one of the important minority groups in the Empire began to activities for establishment of a national state. In this frame, the missionaries and so-called social aid organizations in the region played a significant role in development of the Armenian national conscious. Russia increased its activities in the region in this context. The American embassy and consulate attachés in the Ottoman Empire prepared reports on these activities and they also aided to some organizations. In this study, the roles of the missionaries and the charity organizations and the European states in formation of the Armenian nationalism will be evaluated on the basis of the American archival documents.

As Western Problem Rising Of Armenian Nationalism: Economic Couses
Assist. Prof. Dr. İrfan KALAYCI
İnönü University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

In the world all nation-states or nations which don’t have states have unique nationalism. But common parts of all are creating themselves, maintaining their existence, protecting their production factors from others, bartering their goods and services as profitable as possible and thus becoming wealthier and more powerful.

Armenians, a part of Ottoman society, are also affected by the nationalism movement which was boosted by the Industrial Revolution. The birth of Armenian nationalism has a few economic reasons and these are arised from the 19th century world and Ottoman economic conjunctures. Armenian bourgeois class used to represent the capital accumulation of developed western economies in Ottoman Empire. Armenian bourgeois composed of the successful merchants, industrialists, handworkers, bankers, and dealers of gold, etc. Moreover, they possessed powerful intellectual capital. Therefore, Armenians weren’t regarded as an ordinary minority by Ottomans.

In the process in which Ottoman became sickman almost all nations began to wake up and minorities’ independence movement gained speed. Awakening of Armenians wasn’t different from the others since nationalism was contagious, in other words it spattered as fire. The independence movement of this nation was distressing the central administration of Ottoman Empire because Ottomans wanted to become a western country and to accumulate capital.

One of the properties of Armenian nationalism is in the further stages its conversion to a Western problem having USA - Europe axis, which arised as an Eastern problem. As it is known, Westerners originated the modern nationalism. But the handicaps caused by the nationalism which moved from economic independence to economic imperialism have become the common concerns of the world.

The Role Of The Western Powers On The Population Movements Of Armenians In Balikesir (Xixth And Xxth Centuries)
Assist. Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı MERCAN
Balıkesir University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Armenians who lived in Balıkesir were the largest non-muslim community after Rums. Armeniens famous for their craftmonship contributed to the trade and economy of Balıkesir. In this context, it’s possible to see some Armenian merchants who gained great power by getting huge capitals. Like other seaports, the population dynamism was a characteristic for Balıkesir, too.

At the beginning of XIXth and XXth centuries, it’s clear that Bandırma, Erdek and Edremit County’s population rose evidently. One of the most important reasons is some Rum-origined subjects moved to the mentioned places after Mora and Greece riots.

In Balıkesir, the central town of the region, the same situation was valid and the population rose there, too.

In fact, the relationship between Turks and Armenians started with the Turkish soldiers used for state services and settled in Avasım and Suğur areas under Abbasi rule. The most considerable event improving this relationship was that Basil II, Byzantine emperor (976-1025), transferred certain Armenians to middle of Anatolia and Sivas in order to protect the empire’s east borders and spread toward Islam lands. Then after the conquest of Anatolia by Turks, some Armenian was settled in Cilicia again.

When Armenians first settled in Balıkesir is still an issue open to discussion, yet it’s a known fact that 2000 Armenians lived in Balıkesir du the ottoman times had been settled here

Turk And Armenian Relationships In 19th Century In The Concept Of Religion And Religious Institutions
Prof. Dr. İsa YÜCEER
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Theology

Relationships between Turks and Armenians were being maintained with religious identities as Turks were Moslem and Armenians were Christian. This structure had not prevented creation of a tolerating environment in the past and the parties had peacefully maintained their interest to their own religions as followers and this difference had not caused an obstacle to dialogues.

But foreign powers initiated the problems between these two communities by benefiting from the religious unity with Armenians and maintained them. Here, the emphasis must be put on the fact that when religions are left alone in their natural concept they are not causing any problem between different sections of societies but when the religion is abused and made a fool of interests it may cause various problems. In the statement it will be clarified that though Moslems have not abused the religion and maintained good relationships with followers of other religions, their counterparties, namely the Christians, have used the belief of people in order to realize their bad intentions in the concept of relationships between Turks and Armenians. The subject is also interested in the relationships of Moslems with followers of other religions. The idea of Christian unity or togetherness of religious community forms the main theme of relationships.

Religion and religious institutions are available in order for the happiness, tranquility, and peace of people, confidence of society, and earthy and afterlife prosperity of human. They do not cause trouble but find and create solutions to existing ones. People follow a religion and obey its rules as a result of their internal emotions. People are not only happy thanks to religions but also plan to be a mean of happiness for their surrounding.

However religions, particularly some religious institutions, could be used as a tool of religious interest by malevolent people. These people would be revealed in the concept of religion. A confident person has to believe in peace. Believing a religion requires dialogue with people. Differences in beliefs cannot be interpreted as being opposite to peace. Followers of different beliefs have maintained the peace by protecting their differences. However those that are substituting peace with hostility have benefited from religions and beliefs. Therefore religion can be a significant factor both for peace and termination of peace.

Though there might be a religious difference between the parties, Moslems had not taken this difference to their hearts and protected such differences. Such tolerating and benevolent attitude of Moslems has ensured that all sections of the society lived in an environment of tolerance. Although provocations have converted friends to enemies in time, these are not caused by Moslems but their counterparties. It is clear that in case of an initiative for a peace initially the religious authorities must appreciate and internalize such initiatives. Instead of provoking people by abusing the belief, the religion can have a constructive role and be the main factor of diffusing goodness among people.

Conflict Between Gregorian And Protestant Armenians And Role Of England
Lect. İsmigül ÇETİN
Bozok University, Faculty of Arst and Sciences

Commercial relations between the Ottoman Empire and England began at the end of the 16th century. Ottoman land didn’t become important for England until the end of the 18th century; England had been interested in America and West Europe. After England lost her colonies in America and she settled in India, the British government attached more importance to the Middle East. England had to compete with Russia and France for sovereignty of the Mediterranean. Therefore, England supported integrity of the Ottoman Empire instead of a possible Russian or French sovereignty in this region. England didn’t have a considerable influence on the Ottoman Empire until that period and she planed to constitute protestant congregation in the Ottoman country in order to pressurize on the Ottoman government. For this aim England dwelled upon missionary activities in the Ottoman Empire. Missionaries’ most important target was to influence the Armenians. A protestant congregation was constituted as a result of activities of the English Church guided by England government, and the American Protestant Societies.

Beforehand Catholicism and Orthodoxy had spread among the Armenians. Therefore, the Gregorian Armenian community had split. The Armenian community faced with another break up because Protestantism was spreading among the Armenians. Thereupon Gregorian-Protestant conflict began inside of the Armenian society. First reaction came from the Armenian Patriarch towards Protestant missionaries and Protestant Armenians. Protestant Armenians had been excluded from their societies; they suffered from maltreatments by their race. Certainly England was protecting Protestants and was using them to put pressure on the Ottoman Empire.

This article will mention conflicts between Gregorian and Protestant Armenians and England’s role in these conflicts.

Armenian Question In Russian Sources Of Xix Century
Prof. Dr. Kamil Veli NERİMANOĞLU
Chirman of Azerbaijanian Eurasian Strategic Researchs Center

Russian Empire had been established a new strategy towards East ve after the occupation of Caucasus Armenian people were immigrated to under Russian control territories.After Berlin Victory of 1877-78 and Berlin Memorandum Armenians had became instruments on the Russia’s occupation policy in East. To establishment of paramilitarist Hıncak (1887) and Taşnak (1890) parties opened a new era in the history of Armenian nationalism with Russia.Armenian militarist movement.The Russian missioner, occupation and imperialist policy was a quarantee of the new Armenian nationalism.

Role Of France In The Rising Of Armenian Nationalism In 19th Century And Struggle Of Pİerre Loti
Ministry of Education

It is very well known that Russian worked much in the appearance of Armenian problem. Moreover historical documents show that also France played very important role directly or indirectly in these events by propagandizing Catholicism among the Armenians. France started to strenghten its position in Ottoman State to patronize its own sects in the region by taking the advantage of 1840 affairs in Ottoman State. Especially, French missioners undertook a very important role to destroy the friendship in the area

Pierre Loti tried to display and criticize the vandalism and massacres of imperialist countries for the sake of imperialism which reached its peak in 19th and 20th centuries. Loti gained the love of Turkish people by advocating Turks in their hard times. Pierre Loti says France is cruel and slaughtering country. And Armenians conspired against Turks in 1846 events in İstanbul. After Loti explained Armenian gangs assaults and traps, he asked that Turkish people must be showed understanding.

He described Armenian Revolutionist Party and its cruelty and bloody assaults of Armenian Gangs which intended to burn the city, to bomb the Ottoman Bank, to conspire against political persons and showed their intent clearly. During these times those gangs continued to kill innocent people in some streets. According to Loti, Armenian bombs killed even many Ottoman soldiers in public streets. Is it possible for a government not to response these assaults? This question was argued in Ottoman Palace even in Friday which was very important for them and it shows they wouldn’t want to fight with Armenian citizens but also they had to protect the other people from the assaults of Armenian gangs.

Armenians misleaded European press. Loti’s bold writings disturbed Armenians and Armenians began to send threat letters to him. But Loti continued his writings about the real face of events.

Missionary Activities In Zeytun
Erciyes University, PhD Student

One of the devices of the christian world use -allying to collapse ottoman empire and to get this goal - was missionary and missionary activities. To come this in true, missionaries coming from aparts of Europian States organized almost everywhere of Otoman Empire especially, from 19th.centuary on in the area of minoraty.They put their activites in force by founding schools,hospitals and orphanage.

Missionary activities to Armenians, who were the most faithful nation of the Ottoman Empire and got the high position in the Ottoman institutions, played a great part in growing up the Armenian nationalism. From the late 19th on, one of those places which were engaged in by the Catholics and Protestants was Zeytun –a district of Marash-and its circle. That had to be suitable area for missionary activities from demographic angle. In Zeytun which was mountainous area, the missionary institutions became the center of rebellion against the state in a short time. Here, the Armenians who were demographically more than Turk were attracted by missionaries. The Missionaries who supported these Armenian rebels and led these were discharged with the European States went between .European ambassadors didn’t openly avoid to show their support to Armenian rebels by visiting.

Both material and spiritual aids came to these missionaries from the four continents. Armenian committees cooperated with these people. Missionary schools in Zeytun cooperated with nearby missionary associations. Here the meetings were held about what to do.An education was given which encouraged Armenian nationalism in the schools with banned puplications and kept the guns belonging to the secret societies. The students who graduated from these schools caused to establish new schools and also played a great part in these rebellions. The Missionary aids for Zeytun Armenians lasted during and after migration.

The Armenian Pawn Of Imperialism Karabet Tomayan
Prof. Dr. Mahir AYDIN
Marmara University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

When the American missionaries decided to make an intense and widespread Protestant Work, they established a college in Merzifon, named: American Anatolian Protestant College. The college building, which was set up without permission in 1864/65, is like a military barrack and was enlarged by several times. The college management is dependent to America directly. It’s educating the Armenian children according to a program which has no permission by the government for nearly 30 years.

Karabet Tomayan, who is the sun of Ohannes, is from Merzifon, too. He was 40 years old, during the 1893 events. He stayed in Switzerland for a while and he married to Lucy, who was the daughter of a Protestant priest. Then, Karabet and Lucy Tomayan family turned back to Merzifon.

Karabet Tomayan, set up The Revolution Committee of Merzifon in 1887 and got the presidency while he was a teacher in American college. In that manner the Committee of Hınçak was set up in Switzerland.

Karabet Tomayan, who was preparing for a revolution in Merzifon and its surroundings, came into action in 6th of January, 1893. The Armenian people from Yozgat, Kayseri, Çorum, Merzifon and Gümüşhacıköy hung bills in public offices, streets and the places wcih was used commonly by public. These bills, which was printed in college and signed by The Committee of the Patriot Moslems, had the invitation for jihad against the Armenians. After that, the disorder came out and 1800 people were arrested.

After the first interrogation, 58 accused people were found guilty. The written records and evidences were sent to High Court of Ankara. The trial began in the 20th of May and ended in 12th of June. All suspects, except a few, adopted their guilt. Finally, Karabet Tomayan and his 16 friends took place in the concept of 54th Article of Penal Code: The people, who make an armed activity to divide the Otoman country, will be punished with the death. Other suspects were suspenden a prison sentence of 15, 10 or 7 years.

This situation gathered huge reaction in Europe. It was England who interfered on judgement. 160 English parlamentarians wanted Karabet Tomayan to have granted a pardon. Even France, USA, Italy and Germany declared the same opinion after. England also went ahead. “If Karabet Tomayan wouldn’t set free, then the Egypt, which was occupied since 1882, will have the freedom”. Whereupon this, he was granted a pardon in the 4th of July, 1893, in condition of not returning back.

Karabet Tomayan, who came to İstanbul from Ankara by train, in 7th of July, arrived to England in the 20th of July. He was welcomed by the people from Armenian Committee and journalists, first Daily News, in Victoria Station. And he would give conferences with the name of Professor Tomayan, and work to gain English support for the Armenian Genocide Scenario which was tried first in 1895.

The Armenian Question And The British Armenian Policies
Assist. Prof. Dr. Memet YETİŞGİN
Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Faculty of Arts and Sciencess

The second half of the nineteenth century meant continuing collapse for the Ottoman Empire. In this, the Armenian question played a role of accelerating the collapse. The same period is a golden age for the English who had had world hegemony and especially had the strongest sea power in the world. Furthermore, in this period a new imperialism occurred in Europe, which forced the great powers to struggle with each other. The Armenian question became a part of big state struggles.

As a multi-national and multi-religious state, the Ottoman Empire had suffered separation of many minority groups because of both internal dynamics and external effects. The Armenians was the last largest minority group who openly showed its interest in separation from the Empire. In this goal, they had close relations with big powers—especially with Russia and Great Britain. Because of their interests in the region, the big states worked to win the Armenian minority group in their side.

In this respect, while the Russians used the Armenians to reach the warm waters, the Mediterranean, the British wanted the Armenians to keep the Russians away from the warm waters. In this work, the British policies towards the Armenian minority will be discussed.

Armenian Nationalism And American Missioners In Ayintab County During The Last Quarter Of Xixth Century
Lect. Mehmet Ali YILDIRIM
Kilis 7 Aralık University, Faculty of Arts and Sciencess

The American missioners, who rustled to break the social and cultural interrelations between the Muslim Turkish folk and the Armenian folk of Anatolia, played a considerable role at preparing the background of Armenian civil insurrections. The missioners did their best to indoctrinate the separatist opinion to the Armenian community, particularly in the regions where the Armenian community lived in majority, by establishing some schools and churches where the social communication was very strong. Actually, Ayintab County with a 20 % Armenian population during the last quarter of the XIX. Century was among some Anatolian cities where the missioners who were the greatest supporters and inciters of the separatist Armenians were considerably strenuous.

Hiding behind the powerful support and aid and comfort of their country; this missioners taking action under the disguise of piety, put all sorts of instruments into action to incite the Armenian community into insurgence. Afore mentioned missioners inoculated some passionate nationalism in their schools by instructing Armenian history lessons, and have given separatist sermons to the Armenian community without looking at their denomination. Furthermore, all kinds of material support has been brought to the county by the mentioned missioners and handled for inciting the Armenian community to a rebellious way of acting.

Armenian Activities In Kilis Sub-Province At The End Of 19th Century
Assist. Prof. Dr. Metin AKİS
Kilis 7 Aralık University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Sub-Province of Kilis was founded at the first quarter of 16.th century and, depended to Aleppo Province. There were no disagreements between Armenians and Muslim people in city during long centuries. New deportations from nearby places of Armenians to city increased the number of minorities. There were some rebellions after Berlin and Ayestefanos treaties. Armenians of city took up arms raided and sacked. These rebellions become possible with supports and missionary activities of western countries. These rebellions gave important damage to social and economical life of Kilis. Conspiracy activities in the city and rebellion activities in country made with connection of Aleppo and Ayntab Armenians. Western countries also supported Armenian organizations in district.

The Role Of The Usa And American Missinoneries On The Armenian Problem
Assist. Prof. Dr. Metin KOPAR
Giresun University, Faculty of Education

For his own advantage, in Eastern Anatolia where there were few American citizens the USA tried to mandate this region thank to the power of the missionaries. The USA disregarded the rules of the Ottoman State by naturalizing the Armenians, and tried to enrich its power by forcing the Ottomans to put its own priciples into the Ottaman constitution. As the Ottomans precautions, they threated them by sending warships. American governments allowed all kinds of anti-Türks propaganda in their lands and supported the Armenians that themselves by ranging themselves on the side of the Armenians, who revolt against the Ottoman, they came to put themselves against the Ottomans. Incidents between the Turks and Armenian were always exaggerated in the missionearies or promissionarian publications. In these publications, they always claimed that the Christians in the Ottoman lands were tortured. The Armenians took heart from this to aid the Armenians, lots of money was collected in the USA, and sometimes the media supported these campaigns. These collected money was given to the Armeninan “Komitas” instead of the Armeninan people. This problem has been kept fresh in the mind of people in order to put the Turkish State into a diffucult position. In this paper I will give some information about there problems that were mentioned above.

A Project Which Was Gave By Armenian Committee In London To Lord Salisbury About Circumstances Of Ottoman Armenians
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhittin ELİAÇIK
Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Problem of Armenian which appeared in war 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russia as a result of competition was considered in pacts, congresses, gatherings, projects. Ottoman State which was defeated in war 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russia accepted improvements connected with Armenian in Ayastefanos Pact and Berlin Pact; thus problem of Armenian come from a interior problem and become a appliance of interference by England and Russia. Armenians that were endeavored between Ayastefanos Pact and Berlin Pact wanted a state of independence which was seen too in the Balkans. Nationalism of Armenian too accelerated generally after these events. About this problem was presented by grand states many pragmatist suggestions; this too delayed a little collapse of Ottoman State.

Ottoman State generally positive regarded approach of England to problem of Armenian and followed balance politics to Russia. In this announcement will be studied and increased a project dated 1888 about circumstances of Ottoman Armenians; this project was gave by Armenian Committee in London to lord Salisbury that attend with problem of Armenian in State England. Again will be analyzed attitudes of Armenians in this project. This project was published in Times Newspaper. Armenians in this project have been backbiting their country and society although were lived in Ottoman Empire tranquil and comfortably.

A Project Of Pertaining To Ottoman Armenian And Other Groups Which Was Prepared By Extraordinary Plenipotentiary Of England Lord Salisbury
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhittin ELİAÇIK
Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Problem of Armenian which appeared in war 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russia as a result of competition was considered in pacts, congresses, gatherings, projects. Ottoman State which was defeated in war 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russia accepted improvements connected with Armenian in Ayastefanos Pact and Berlin Pact; thus problem of Armenian come from a interior problem and become a appliance of interference by England and Russia. Armenians that were endeavored between Ayastefanos Pact and Berlin Pact wanted a state of independence which was seen too in the Balkans. Nationalism of Armenian too accelerated generally after these events. About this problem was presented by grand states many pragmatist suggestions, this too delayed a little collapse of Ottoman State.

Ottoman State generally positive regarded approach of England to problem of Armenian and followed balance politics to Russia. In this announcement will be studied and increased a project dated 1293 which was prepared by extraordinary plenipotentiary of England Lord Salisbury. In this project suggestions was proposed about Ottoman Armenians and other groups.

A Project Of Pertaining To Ottoman Armenian And Other Groups Which Was Prepared By Ambassador Of England Layard
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhittin ELİAÇIK
Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Problem of Armenian which appeared in war 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russia as a result of competition was considered in pacts, congresses, gatherings, projects. Ottoman State which was defeated in war 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russia accepted improvements connected with Armenians in Ayastefanos Pact and Berlin Pact; thus problem of Armenian come from a interior problem and become a appliance of interference by England and Russia. Armenians that were endeavored between Ayastefanos Pact and Berlin Pact wanted a state of independence which was seen too in the Balkans. Nationalism of Armenian too accelerated generally after these events. About this problem was presented by grand states many pragmatist suggestions, this too delayed a little collapse of Ottoman State. Ottoman State generally positive regarded approach of England to problem of Armenian and followed balance politics to Russia. In this announcement a project which was transmitted in 1888 by Layard that attend with problem of Armenian in State England to Lord Eranvil that the Minister of Foreign Affairs of England will be studied and evaluated. In this project have been discussing also problem of Armenian relations of Ottoman-English, in accordance with Berlin Pact East Trakia, problems of Bulgaria, Greece, Karadağ, Albania, Kurd, and reform and autonomy.

Protestant Activities In Adiyaman And The Establishment Of Protestant Armenian Church
Res. Assist. Murat Gökhan DALYAN
Adıyaman University, Faculty of Education

19th century was the golden year of missionary works in Europe and the world. The Ottoman Government also got its share of the missionary activities that became a world agenda intensively in 19th century. The Ottoman Government became a target of missioner groups and missioners enterprised missionary activities in many cities that included minorities in the Ottoman Government. As a result of their activities, they engendered the dismemberments and conflicts among the minorities. Missioners, also, negatively affected the relationships between the Armenians and the public in the region that Armenians lived and they caused the suspicions and seclusions of the public that had been living altogether for centuries.

Beginning from the second half of 19th century, American Protestants enterprised the mission activities in the southeast of the Ottoman Government. For this purpose, they became organized in regions like Malatya, Urfa, Elazığ and established station centers. In the late of 1850s, American Protestants, that are active in Urfa, started to make the Armenians in this region Protestant by switching their activities to Adıyaman region. As a result of these activities, they succeeded to establish a Protestant Armenian Church in Adıyaman’s center county in 1870s. Again, beside these churches that are dependent to themselves in Adıyaman and Besni, they also established schools to educate Armenian children. By courtesy of these schools, they inoculated Armenians their own creed and beliefs and they attempted to agitate to the disadvantage of the Ottoman Empire. The schools that the Protestants established in the regions were also the separatist seeds. These separatist ideas that agitated the Armenians were occurred thanks to the publications sent from Malatya Protestant Armenian schools. These kind of publications are captured in Adıyaman and they were agreed to be sent from Malatya.

In Adıyaman district, these endeavors of American Protestants engendered a distance between societies and caused this distance to turn into suspicion. This distance caused conflicts among the societies in the course of time. Before the acts were expanded, the notables and administrative authorities prevented these. Until the period of World War I, Armenians in Adıyaman continued their Protestant activities.

The Birth Of Armenian Issue And Europe According To Hans Barth’s The Turk: Defend Yourself!
Assist. Prof. Dr. Mustafa ÇOLAK
Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Hans Barth claimed that the Christians declared a new Crusader against Turks; in his work called Türke, Wehre Dich! which was published in Leipzig in 1898. According to Barth, one of the most important weapons of this propaganda was the Armenians who were the first Christian nation of the east. For this reason; the First Chapter (which consists of 136 pages) of the 236-pages-book is composed of the basic subjects such as; The Birth of Armenian Issue, The Role of Germany and England in the Birth of Armenian Issue, The Armenian Propoganda in Europe and the Hıncak Terror . This work is translated into Turkish under the name of Türk, Kendini Savun.

In our work, we’ll evaluate the parts of the book which give us information about the Armenian Issue. Therefore; we’ll try to show how the Armenian Issue emerged and how the strong governments incited the Armenians according to a foreigner.Besides, we think that we can contribute to the researches about the Armenians.

The Economic Causes Of The Birth Of Armenian Nationalism: Kayseri Case
Prof. Dr. Mustafa KESKIN
Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The 19th century was accepted as the century of nationalism by jurists, sociologists and historians of politics and culture. Although the French Revolution is considered to be the source and beginning of nationalism, it is mentioned that this feeling, at least untreated, exists in all human societies.

Thus, we can say that in every human society, the feeling to prove its existence, to survive, to be a shareholder in the world it shares and to compete for this, and finally with its independent identity and characteristic features to show itself off in human family is always present. Although nationalism, in sociological sense, had existed since creation, the scientific and systematic appearance of this had been possible in an advanced stage of human societies.

Thus, it is necessary that many natural and artificial feelings (emotions) such as having the ability or skill to found a state, being well-informed and cultured, gaining economic independence, having perfection in every aspects of art, being conscious of saving for capital, considering dependence disgraceful and proving oneself should set or be set into action.

The Ottoman Empire, 150 years after its foundation, developed as a world state, and its capital, Istanbul, became the center of three celestial religions; Islam, Christianity and Judaism. All these communities belonging to these religions and also some other communities belonging to some other beliefs had lived in this state and under its flag in peace and harmony until the 19 th century. The belief that every nation should self-determine its future began in France and the spread of this belief to all over Europe through Napoleon Armies was after that, and the Ottoman Empire underwent this influence.

The Progress and Union, found in the Ottoman capital a hundred years after the French Revolution, would become the center to save the state on the one hand and to complete the state by the separatist nationalists on the other hand.

Kayseri and its vicinity was a center in which Armenian population was noteworthy, and the possibility and capability that the Armenian subjects had here were enough to form the foundation of separation.

Muslims And Armenians On The Truths On Armenia By French Traveller P.B.Daloh
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mustafa OFLAZ
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In the 19th and 20th centuries various travelers from the west visited Anatolia and Ottoman lands. Few of them wanted to meet Ottoman people.Unfortunately some of them were sent by their national administrators.Their aim was to learn social, ethnical, economical and religious structure and to prepare reports in order to give their political leaders. Sometimes the travelers wrote about imaginary facts .So they had difficulties to determine the relations between Muslims and Armenians.

P.B. Daloh, a French traveler visited Ottoman lands in the beginning of 20th century. Daloh just wanted to examine the situations of both Muslims and Armenians in the eastern Turkey. Then, He wrote a book, called The Truths on Armenia, later translated into Ottoman Turkish NİN 14 B. 1313/ December 1895, now in The Prime Ministery Ottoman Archieve in Y.PRK.TKM separation. In this study, the book will be examined.

The Roles Of ABCFM Missionaries
Assoc Prof Dr Mustafa OFLAZ- Res Assis Neşe TOZKOPARAN
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In emperialistic period, leaders of western states wanted to have economic and political bases in different countries instead of sending armed forces; they sent missionaries to realize their national economic and political interests.

Missionaries from various nations were sent to the Ottoman lands after 18th century regularly .They wanted to spread the Christian religion at first. Then they acted as if they were ambassadors of their own nations.

In Van, a missionary station of American Board was estalished by Protestant missionaries, worked in different areas especially in private schools and health ınstutions. They played important roles in the spread of separatist Armenian movements, then in the revolt of 1915. In the study their activities are examined.

Armenian Schools And Creation Of National Identity
Assist. Prof. Dr. Mustafa MURAT ÖNTUĞ
Uşak University, Faculty of Education

Armenians who lived in Ottoman Empire community educated their children in their own schools as the other communities. Beginning from XVIII. Century, rich Armenians and churches leaded to open schools. After “Islahat Ferman” non-muslim community got the unlimited rights to open their own schools. At that time Armenian Schools appeared all around the country. Fast extension of these schools brought some difficulties to control the books and the staff. Armenian teachers wanted to emphasis their identity and national autonomy in the schools. The books used in schools stressed nationalism to keep apart the Armenians from Ottoman Empire. Also, imperialist countries started missionary actions to raise national Armenian identity. So that, Armenians became strangers in Ottoman Empire in every aspect. This situation bothered Ottoman Empire that used to live together with many communities on their soil. This study shows how Armenian nationalism was born and spread; the role of the teachers, schools and books to create national identity by introducing original documents.

Armenian Question In Foreign Policy Of Russia
Prof. Dr. Mustafazade Tofiq TEYYUBOĞLU
Azerbaycan Sciences Academy, Institute of History

Peter I (1682 1725) accession to the czardom in the end of the XVII centuries planned large seizure with purpose to make Russia World Empire, for this purpose had been undertaken significant steps, in all directions including Azerbaijan and Turkey.

Despite of the Caucasian Albanian origin armeniazian man by name Izrail Ory arrived to Peter I even more spark his aspiration to conquer east. Izrail Ory deceitfully assured Peter I that the most part of the population of Southern Caucasus is Armenians ready to oppose Moslems and expecting only an opportunity for this purpose. Ostensibly in case of if Russian tsar will act with an army to Caucasus that the Georgian and Armenian troops will join with him.

In the beginning of the XVIII centuries Safavid state experienced a profound crisis became this opportunity for intrusion of Russia. In June 1722 Peter I with 100 thousand army marched from Astrakhan to Azerbaijan, and on August, 23 occupied Derbent. However faced with the sharp protest of Ottoman empire and for other reasons he forced to return with a main part of army left in Derbent only small garrison.

All the subsequent governors of Russia continued policy of Peter I, and played the Armenian card in their east policy. In 70-80 years of the XVIII century Catherina II in common with her secret lover prince Potemkin who supervised over all foreign policy of Russian empire decided to create the buffer state on Caucasus between Iran and Turkey. In the territory of northern Azerbaijan decided to create dependent on Russia “Albanian state”. The governor of this state should be grandson Catherina II Konstantin Pavlovich. Moreover with it was planned creation and other toy states in the territories of Irevan khanate of Azerbaijan and other parts.

Taken advantage of easing of influence in the region of Iran and Turkey of one side, and for strengthening own influence in the region Russia begun mass eviction of Azerbaijani and resettlement of Armenians in this region. At once after capture of Irevan and Nakhichevan khanates here was created Armenian province. However frightened of efforts Armenians to creation of the independent state here soon liquidated this province (1840).

At this time the Russian tsar Nicholay I aspired to draw on his side of Armenians liveing in Turkey and Iran by means the Catholicos of Echmiadzin and with their help to draw on his side of all Armenians. With this purpose in 1836 Russian senate published the decree about recognition the Catholicos of Echmiadzin as the Catholicos of all Armenians. In 1844 under the insisting of the Russian ambassador in Istanbul patriarch Matevos for the first time said a name of Catholicos of Echmiadzin. From this time Russia started to incite openly Armenians against Turkey.

Though the Turkish government did not accept any actions against Armenians.

As you know an overall objective of inclusion of Russia in the First World War there was a capture of the grounds of Ottoman empire. During military actions Russia what to facilitate capture east Anatoly again lifted the Armenian question.

Research of numerous primary sources help to ascertain, that hopes of Armenians for Russia and European the countries were vain. As it were not interests of these countries creation of the independent Armenian state. Inflating of Armenian question was necessary for intervention in internal affairs of Turkey, and a question about Armenian independence was only a change in this big game.

From Living Together To Seperation: Socio-Psychological Basics Of Armenian Question
Assist. Prof. Dr. Necmettin ALKAN
Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Armenian question remains as a phenomenon for historians and public opinion. Although the Armenian question was studied as historical matter in many researches, socio-psychological aspects of the matter were not studied in detail. In fact socio-psychological reasons have a strong effect in such massive social events. In spite of such socio-psychological reasons are in the basic elements of social events, they rarely emphasized as in the case of Armenian Question.

As known, historical events occur in two dimensions as vertical and horizontal. In horizontal dimension, sub-structure of events appears and in vertical dimension they take their last shape and become a social event. Many times the first stage of this process can’t be realized and occur secretly. In the last dimension, an event can be seen by everyone and takes its last shape.

From this point of view the Armenian Question can be studied in two stages. In the first stage and long term process, there is a preparation periods of substructure of events. The other stage is seen side of such long term socials events. In this context, the sub-structure of the Armenian Question in vertical dimension, began in 1890’s, consisted long before. On the other side events of 1890’s formed socio-psychological reasons of 1915 Armenian Deportation.

Armenian Propaganda Activities In Europe And United States Of America
Dr. Instruc. Nejla GÜNAY
Gazi University

It is pointed out that in point of Berlin agreement in 1878; a revelation had been done in places which lived Armenian people. After 1878 European and American press made some news in order to practice this agreement.

This news published in Times, Reuters, Daily News, Manchester Guardian etc. announced to kill some Armenian people by the Ottoman government.

Armenians made propaganda by the way of this newspaper, in addition they used to their own newspaper.

After the built up Armenian Committee, these press activities increased highly in Europe and United States of America.

System of this committee worked like this in Anatolia Armenian attack to Muslims were not be in news although proposed to Muslims defense attack wrote in this news a big news.

Missioner in Ottoman government (Anatolia) worked as a interviewer of this newspapers to serving Armenian purpose.

The campaign of assistance to Armenian organized by the agency of this press.

The Idea Of Independency İn Armenİan Psychology
Res. Assist. Onur ÇELEBİ
Bozok University

On the Turkısh side,it is stated that,the subject addressed to as Armenian issue and as a result of all the studies carried out within the frame of this subject,the issue continues in the direction of interest of great states such as Europe(England-France) and Russia.The issue which needs attention here is ,as this subject addressed to as Armenian issue takes place,whether the Armenians under Ottoman nationality takes a so-called role of (flock of sheep),acting continuously as a pawn of external forces or take an active role in this issue with a psychology of independence from time to time. Here, I would like to deal with the relations of Russian-Armenian in view of this subject.

Reaction Of The Armenians Towards American Missionaries
Prof. Dr. Ömer TURAN
Ortadoğu Teknik University

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions which was the biggest Protestant missionary organization in the United States and the world in the nineteenth century, commenced its missionary activities in the Ottoman Empire in 1820. The American missionaries established missions aimed at the non-Muslim population of the Ottoman Empire, and tried to convert them to Protestantism. One of the non-Muslim communities which the American missionaries paid attention to was the Armenians.

The American missionaries opened schools, published books, tracts and periodicals, and erected hospitals in order to propagate Protestantism. Finally they created a Protestant Armenian “millet” among the Armenians of the Empire in 1850. By raising Armenian children and publishing millions of pages in the Armenian language, the American missionaries contributed to the progress of the Armenian community and elevation of the Armenian national conciousness. Thanks to their semi-political status, they also protected the Armenians during the conflicts in the Empire. Moreover, their one sided information about Armenian revolts to the United States caused the image of “barbar Turk, innocent Armenian” in American public opinion.

However, from time to time some Armenian groups were opposed to those missionary activities towards the Armenians. The Armenian Patriarchate disputed with them because the missionaries were trying to convert their own Orthodox people to Protestantism. Some Armenians evaluated missionary activities as a threat to their national identity and unity. Some atheist-socialist groups were against them because they were propagating a religion. Some Protestant Armenians, who had been created by those missionaries also complained about their dominant position to their community and churches. After briefly describing the American Protestant missionary activities among Armenians, in my paper, I will focus on the above mentioned groups’ complaints in detail.

Regulation Of The Armenian Nation Related With The Disintegration Of The Millet System In The Ottoman Empire
Assist. Prof. Dr. Özen TOK
Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In 1839 Sultan Abdulmecid proclaimed the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane, an imperial edict declaring the equality of all Ottoman subjects regardless of race or religion and guaranteeing security of life and property for all. Discrimination between Moslems and Christians was abolished. The edict of 1839 had opened the way for development of the Armenian millet.

The regulation finally drawn up after lengthy discussion and argument in general assemblies held in the Patriarchate in 1857, 1859 and 1860, included articles of great importance and advantage for the Armenian community. This was, in effect, the beginning of a new era in the political and social conditions of the Armenians in Ottoman, and was of great importance in demonstrating the favorable attitude adopted by Ottoman government towards them.

The powers and privileges granted the Armenians by this regulation, instead of being employed for future progress, were allowed to become the source of the most tragic developments, with the Patriarchs taking advantage of their freedom to engage in political and nationalist activity.

The Role Of The Armenian Committees In The Armenian Nationalism: Case Of Hinchak Committee
Res Assis Özlem KARSANDIK
Ankara University, Faculty of Letters

From the beginning of the 19th century, nationalism began to expand among the nations that constitute Anasır-ı Muhtelife (the Ottoman People). Some of these nations found convenient exterior support and social circumstance. Some of others such as Armenians inclined nationalism issue under compulsion by the conjunctural effects. Lately influenced by these circumstances, Armenians were organized and began rebellions all over the Ottoman Empire.

Established in 1887 in Cenevre, Hınçak Association accelerated the Armenian nationalism, as a nationalist organization, appearing socialist.

Considering The Ottoman Empire as the main area of activity, The Hınçaks believed the necessity of the Europen support for achieving their ideal that they regard as holy. Because of the circumstances of the age, that association was established as an illegal organization and could frequently apply armed methods of propaganda. The famous Armenian rebellions were arranged for supplying the support of Europe. Yet, the organization lost the ability of representing the Armenian society and weakened in a large measure, due to the divisions in the organization and illegallity of the ideal they desire.

Also The Ottoman Empire tried to prevent the activities of the Hınçak and the other seperater Armenian organizations under the interference of the Europen countries.

Approach Of Germany Towards Armenian Problem During The Reign Of Abdulhamit II
Prof Dr Ramazan ÇALIK
Selçuk University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

This study evaluates policies and approach of German, which completed its unification and attempted to enlarge its territories in accordance with its imperialist goals, toward the Armenian question.

The reign of Abdülhamit II signifies an era in which Germany, turning its attention to the East, developed its relations with the Ottoman Empire. In fact many Germans began to work in the Ottoman lands in those years. Therefore, the observations and memoirs of the Germans who were living in Anatolia at the time on the Armenian incidents are important. Related to the issue, Germany was trying to develop its relations with the Ottoman Empire and thus to obtain privileges for its imperialist goals while it was also attempting to be sensitive to the Armenian question due to the public pressure at home.

Nevertheless Germany holds imperialist powers fort he Armenian incidents in Anatolia.

Rise/Development Of Armenian Chauvinistic; Sociological A Light / Outlook
Assist. Prof. Dr. Recep CENGİZ
Dicle University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Turkish-Armenian social relations had their roots in the Seljuk Empire in Anatolia before the Ottoman Empire. Therefore we can talk about friendly social relations, which lasted for eight centuries, between the Armenian and the Seljuk, the Ottoman Empires in the Eastern Anatolia and in the Caucasus. Social interior dynamics have shown that the Armenian component in history had an inferior position in the Ottoman social structure.

The “deportation” is taken as the basis for the Armenian question Nowadays the United States and European Countries blame the Ottomans for the deportation and presume the Armenians innocent and forget that the Ottomans had to protect themselves against the political revolt of the Armenians. Therefore the Armenian question became an important matter firstly in sociology and many other scientific eras.

The so-called genocide assertions which are contested by means of communication in great alliance in Europe, the United States, in some other countries, in Armenia and the Armenian Diaspora. All information given on this matter is in favour of the Armenians and against Turkey and forms an anomic situation. In research, Silvan/Diyarbakır is adopted as workspace and hundred questionnaire are appled

The study will be made of two units: 1) method, 2) institutional framework, 3) findings. The research will be made of findings made by questionnaires and informal interviews and their junction and comparison to sociology and historical records.

Anglo-Armenian Relations (1890-1900)
General Directorate of State Archives

Britain, for her own self-interests, concerned about Armenians and tolerated and encouraged especially Armenian actions in Britain and tried to influence the British public opinion in favor of Armenians. Concerning that unification of sects would be effective, she also worked for making Protestantism widespread among Armenians. Most of all the British consul in İstanbul and consuls in Anatolia, treated Armenians with excessive indulgence by supporting them in almost every matter with or without secrecy and contributed to the spread of separatist ideas among them against the Ottoman Empire.

After every incident that took place in Anatolia, the British pretended to be their protector, and oppressed the Ottoman Empire on legal, administrative and political issues.

Armenians that were operative in Britain manipulated the British public opinion, besides they established various associations and published newspapers there and worked for British newspapers as news source. Through having good relations with members of the British Parliament, they also persuaded some parliamentarians to support claims of Armenians.

USA And Armenian Problem (Role Of USA In The Armenian Problem)
General Directorate of State Archives

The Ottoman Armenians, whose independence tendency was encouraged by the St. Stephano and Berlin Treaties that had been signed after the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-78, carried their political organizations to the United States, as well.

Armenians, backed by the missionaries and the churches they supported, were organized in America as in Anatolia and carried out political activities against the Ottoman state. The Armenian revolutionary committees like Hinchak and Tashnak that were found in Tbilisi and Geneva, established their branches in New York and Boston in a short period. Number of the Armenian associations that was realizing remarkable activities in order to gain supporter and sympathy was increasing day by day in those days. There were declarations supporting Armenians, released by the American churches in various times.

Activities of associations and organizations together with leaders of churches that were sympathizers of the Armenians were not limited with releasing declarations, they campaigned to collect fund for the Armenians as well. Role of the protestant missionaries could not be ignored in this process. As a matter of fact, the protestant missionaries, who were engaged in building an ethnic and political identity for the Armenians after the 1820s, voluntarily participated to the Armenian cause, as well, without complete consent of their headquarters. Due to the public sympathy to Armenians that supported by the protestant missionaries, the revolutionary committees and parties reached into remarkable financial opportunities.

Influence Of American Missionaries On Armenian Nationalism In Armenian Schools In The Ottoman State
Prof. Dr. Remzi KILIÇ
Niğde University, Faculty of Education

Controlling and governning various communities together for centuries, the Ottoman State did show a peaceful and tolerant approach to those societies having different ethnic roots, religions and cultures. The otoman State that sheltered the members of various religions and nations did not only employe the Muslims in the governance after the decleration of the Firman of Tanzimat in 1839. Armenians, Greks, Slavics, Bulgarians, Jews, and the members of other communities had opportunuties to get places even in the higher levels of the Ottoman Governemntal System. This expansive administrative approach addressing various sections of the society, eased the unity and togetherness of all those societal units and formed an integrity between them.

The Nineteenth Century was a period in which the Ottoman State experienced many changes. Some of the most important developments took place in this century are: the Egyptian Revolt, the abolishment of the Janissary Corps, the Grek Revolt, the Firman of Tanzimat, the Firman of Reforms, the Crimean War, the formation of the Provincial Regulations, the Regulation on Armenian Nation, the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878 and the announcment of the first Consitutional Monarchy.

Alike all the other elements, within the structure of the Ottoman State, the members of the Armenian Community had continued their lives in a complete freedom, peace and with all opportunuties at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century till the reign of the Mahmud the Second (1808-1839). Asserting “Among my subjects, I would like to see Muslims in mosques, Christians in churchs and Jews in synagogues”, Mahmud the Second, stated that all Ottoman citizens can practice the rituels and requirements of their beliefs in a complete freedom. Among other communities, Armenians were continuing to use and practice their own language, culture and religious lives and social relations, which they teach and learn in their own community schools. Within this context, the Tsardom of Russia purposed to use the Armenians as a political apparatus against the Ottoman State in the Nineteenth Century. And Russia gained the support of England and France for this political purpose.

This study aims to reveal the activities of the American Missionary Boards in the land of the Ottomans starting at 1811 and continuing through the whole Nineteenth Century. The activities covered in this study, include American Missionary actions in Armenian schools, their influence on the development of Armenian Nationalism and their support to Armenian Community against the Otoman State.

Christian Union Project And Ermenians At The End Of The Seventeeth Century
Dr. Selim Hilmi ÖZKAN
Ministry of Education

The friendship relatıon between the Ottoman State and France had begun in the time of Kanuni and gone on as a two-ally state in the Mediterranean Sea besides, having no old intimary. Even if, the presedent of France, Mazarin (1602-1661), had struggled with his Christıan Union project for the fact that Grate hadn’t been capruted by Turks. But, that Grete surrounded for a long time by Turks, had been gotten by Turks, besides the connection between the Ottoman and France had become strained in the second half of seventeenth cencury. There had become close again after the second Viyana Seige. Because, in this term both states had looked for ally on the side of them for they had fight with Austria.

British’s first relations with Ottoman were fillied on economic and commercial areas. While Ottoman State was fighting the West after the second Viana siega in 1683, England preferred to stay neutral. However, because of the conflicts between England and France. England struggled to finish the war between Ottoman and Austria and to let Austria and was freely against France.

As other Chirstıan groups, lived in the Ottoman lands and Armenian often had been expolited by the western states. Today, they also have been expolited by many western states especially, by France the states, which have been trying to protect and watch for Armenian today, had struggled to spoil the belief stystem of Armenian by means of nissionaries at the begınnings of eighteenth cencury.

Role Of England In The Occurrence Of Armenian Rebellions And Its Reasons
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Selma YEL - Assist. Prof. Dr. Ahmet GÜNDÜZ
Gazi University, Faculty of Education

England, which was a great empire in the 19th century, tried to find different ways in order to sustain its domination on Ottoman State and carry on its power. It tried to control Anatolia indirectly by pretending to patronize Armenia upon Russia’s similar intentions to extend itself towards Ottoman geography and on the other hand, Germany’s following opposing politics against England. The role of England in the riot and rebellion attempts of the minorities in Yozgat, Sivas and Merzifon, which is the main topic of our paper, will be tried to research under the light of the archive documents of prime ministry.

Reform Movements Held In The Eastern Cities In The Framework Of British Policy Towards Ottoman Armenians
Dr. Serdar SAKİN
Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

British policy about the Armenians has changed after the Berlin Congress. The Great Britain, especially Liberal Party and the Gladstone Government, has left the policy defensing the territorial integrity of Ottoman Empire and has tried to launch into the policy sundering Ottoman Empire and establishing national states bound to itself on the Otoman Empire’s territories since then.

Britain, up to her policy, has thought to make the Ottoman Armenians be near them and it has held various operations for this. For example; it has alleged that there is an auspices right - under the name of the reform - on the Ottoman territories Armenians have existed by interpreting the Berlin pact at the advantage of itself.

Sir Sandison, who is the head translator of England Embassy, has promised reforms in the Anatolian cities where Armenians live by coming to the Sublime Porte; additionally, has requested Ottoman Government to prevent the other missionaries’ activities about this.

On the other hand, the British ambassador Lord Daffry has met with the Sultan and requested him to assign a Christian vali to the cities inhabited by the Armenians.

On all occasions, some policies such as giving autonomy to the Armenians are discussed in the British Parliament and in private meetings. However, Britain has also sent some assurance letters and likewise articles regarding their not supporting the Armenians to the Sublime Porte in order not to cause Ottoman Empire to suspect while doing its activities.

In addition to these; Anatolian Armenians have received support from the Britain’s attitude. Taking the advantage of their being supported by the Britain’s adversary legion, they have blackened the Ottoman Empire and complained about its actions so as to make British interfere with the administration of the government.

In this announcement, the fact that the new policy of Britain mainly affected the speed up of Armenian problem after 1878 and that the Armenian Problem, therefore, launched to be in the forefront in the Europian policy will be held. This topic will be evaluated in the frame of why and how England has applied its policy about Armenians, the attitude and behaviour of the Armenians towards this approach and Ottoman Empire’s reaction.

The Propaganda For Armania Of William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister Of Britain, And Evangelism
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Taha Niyazi KARACA
Bozok University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The one of most important politicians, affected political issues of XIX century, was William Ewart Gladstone. He served four terms as prime minister in years 1868-1874; 1880-1885; February-July 1886; between 1892 and 1894. At the term of the first prime minister he revived issue of freedom of Christian people in Balkans. When he became prime minister for the second time his most important project was freedom of Armenain people in Ottoman Empire. He wanted to apply the same project for the Armenian people it had fulfilled for Bulgarians in Balkans, already. By 1894 he made propaganda against Turks. Thus he wanted to keep alive Armenian issue

in the area of international relations.

The one of most important factors of his political manner aimed to Balkans and East was his evangelic faiths. William Ewart Gladstone was born in an evangelic family, believed along the whole life that Christians and the holy lands must relief from domination of the Turks.

In this paper will be put forward the politics of William Ewart Gladstone aimed to Armenian freedom and his evangelic faith which shaped his political thoughts and manners.

Answer To Claims Of Historan Nikolay Hovhannisyan On Armenian Problem
Gazi University

Nikolay Hovhanisyan is the most famous historian of Armanians. He definetely owns his fame to his oppinions about claims on Armanian Genocide. Ideas of this researcher, who studies as an academician at universities of such countries as Syria and U.S.A., continue to occupy the agenda of the country. In 2005, his book named Armanian Genocide was published by Pencere Publication. In our presentation we are trying to present the viewpoints of senior states on Armanian Problem from the eye of Hovhannisyan by putting forth the incoherent sides of these opinions.

Identity Evulation Of Alaçam Armenians Since The Last Decades Of The 19th Century
Ankara University, PhD Student

Nationalism is a problem of identity. Thus it is also possible to see nationalism movement as a quest for identification. While identity of Armenian evolution was supporting itself with different beliefs, language, and ethnicity in the 19th century; within the new description of identity in modern times’ postmodern world, they have focused on Armenian problem to distinguish themselves from the others.

While Anatolia, at the last decades of 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century, was witnessing political and ethnical conflicts, Alaçam, a town in Samsun city in the middle of the Black Sea Region, seemed to be a place where Turks, Greeks and Armenians lived in harmony and peace. Even Alaçam had a less populated Armenian community than Çarşamba, another town in Samsun city; it is a good example to show the results of nationalism movement of Anatolian Armenians, consciousness of identification, and missionary activities in Anatolia.

Alaçam Armenians, who did deal with commerce, displayed a synergy in economy and culture with other groups. The wake of Armenian nationalism in 19th century was going to reach Alaçam at the start of 20th century; Armenian community here was to be under effect of Missionary activities, American Protestant Church and American College in Merzifon because of its being geographically closer. As a result of these events, they had to migrate with Greeks in Alaçam and settled in California, the USA.

The study includes not only reports achieved by Alaçam-originned Armenians who dwell in California, but also conclusions supported by second-hand sources. This is also a reference to prove that how a game, which great powers took place, succeeded to play off different ethnic groups, who lived in peace for centuries, against each other using nationalist movements even in Alaçam, in where lived a few Armenians.

In The Light Of Internatİonal Petroleum Challenge, French Middleeast Policy And Armenian Concept
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ulvi Keser
Turkish Military Academy

Throughout the World War I, the mutual relation between the United Kingdom (Britain) and France is all about the interest and the process of dispute in the Middle-East. Starting before the war, some clandestine agreements between the above-mentioned countries have had only one purpose that is to share the area. On the contrary, these countries have had to fight against each other in the field of politics due to their interest. Similar to the previous periods, as long as the national interests appear, the conflicts and the disputes between those colonialist countries come to the surface once more, and those above-mentioned countries start making mostly use of some ‘ways’ to increase and to protect their interests. Those mostly degenerated and used by the colonialist countries are the Armenians living in the area. This research is going to be prepared to enlighten the period especially coming to Ankara Treaty between Turkey and France.

The sources to be used are as follows,
ATASE Archieve
KTMA Archive
Foreign Office Archive
Published Sources

Relations Between Armenian Nationalists And The Young Turks On The Rising Of Armenian Nationalism
Yakup KAYA
Erciyes University, PhD. Student

The events occurred in the last quarter period of the 19th century caused the new beginning in Turkish-Armenian relations in the late Ottoman history. Armenian nationalist movement increased in the Ottoman Empire because of Berlin agreement (1878) including a matter about reforms in Armenian’s region in the ottoman state and Armenian revolutionist communities which were founded by Armenian nationalists in the same era.

In this process, The Young Turks who were unpleasant with the policy of Sultan Abdülhamit II demanded the realization of the re-proclamation of Ottoman parliamentary system and Taşnaksutyun founded by Armenian nationalists were together with them against Abdülhamit II.

After the abolishment of the first Ottoman Parliamentary system and constitution by Sultan Abdülhamit II because of some certain reasons the Young Turks who had acted in the Ottoman country as well as abroad since 1896 started to endeavor to resurrect parliament and proclaim the constitution again.

In this phase, some of the Armenian nationalist communities who were unpleasant with Sultan’s authoritarian administration aimed to join Ottoman Parliament and thought to become more liberate and preferred the same thought as the Young-Turks and The Union and Progress Society did.

Taşnaksutyun, an Armenian revolutionist community, struggled to proclaim the Ottoman parliamentary system as the Young Turk intellectuals did.

Hınçak Community, another Armenian nationalist community, didn’t advocate the Young-Turks in this struggle against Sultan.

In this study, the information given here briefly will be widened deeply. Especially, in the period of 1894-1902 and 1902-1908 alliances and relations between Armenian communities and the Young Turks will become the main point of this study.

The importance of rapprochement and alliance of Armenian nationalists and revolutionist communities with the Young Turks in their activities in Ottoman Empire before the re-proclamation will be deduced.

Armenian-French Relations 1879-1918 In The Ottoman Documents Published By State Archives
Euro-Asian Stratejic Research Center (ASAM)

As known, the spread of nationalism was realized after the French Revolutions. Nationalist movements reached the Ottoman Empire over the Balkans, influenced some minorities and resulted in the eruption of the Serbian and Greek Revolts. As a result of these revolts, the Ottoman Empire lost territories significance. After the independence of Greece and Bulgaria other minorities were affected from nationalist tendencies within this context it can be said that Armenian nationalism owed much to French Revolution. In this article in the light of archival documents the migration of Armenians to France, Armenian conscription in the French army, Armenian activities in France against the Ottoman Empire, their publication and their support to Armenian revolts in the Empire as well as French support to the Armenian and the connection between French missionaries and Armenians will be examined.

Religious-National Elements And External Connection In Formation Of The Armenian Terrorist Organization
(According to Testimony Registrations)
Assist. Prof. Dr. Yunus ÖZGER
Bozok University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

In this study, emergence of the Armenian terrorist organization will be examined on the basis of testimony registrations. The organizations became the most important actor for beginning of the Armenian activities and they followed different methods to increase number of their members. They especially exploited national feelings of the Armenian people. It is noteworthy in this sense that a document placed among the testimony registrations was named as ‘the Declaration of the Armenian National Unity’.

The brigands initiated a compulsory donation campaign with the aim of independent Armenia-according to their expression; to make lands Armenia. In order to increase participation to the campaign, they used homeland, nation and religion concepts. At the beginning of the Declaration, the aim of collecting money was explained with ‘for love to nation’, ‘for our homeland’ and ‘for shaded bloods of the Armenians’. Moreover, a religious character was given to the matter by stressing that the Armenians will get real beneficence from God in response to their aids.

It is often used such expressions as patriot brothers, for the nation, for the religion in the declarations. Additionally, it is seen that there were external connections in formation of the Armenian organizations. Especially, the prominent Armenians in America were sending newspapers within envelops and they were leading the organization undertakings. The members’ taking oath over the Holy Bible was another important point in this context.

Role Of Russia In Rise Of The Armenian Question
Prof. Dr. Yusuf SARINAY
General Directorate of State Archives

The Armenians aroused the Russian interest from the mid-17th century till the First World War in a gradually increasing growing form. Behind Russia’s interest there was its traditional policy of southern expansion. The Russian target to effectuate this policy was creating an area of influence on Anatolia via the Armenians. Likewise, the Armenians dreamed getting their independence through making use of being a part of the mentioned Russian policy. In other words, Russo-Armenian relations, especially in the last era of the Ottoman Empire, developed as cooperation on interest of two nations having different ambitions on the Ottoman lands.

Because of their serious need for support of a foreign power to get their independence, the Armenians regarded Russia as the power they had been looking for.

Thus, it has been historically observed that in the Turco-Russian struggles, the Armenians took position mostly in favor of the Russians. They joined the Russian armies and even fought against their own state, the Ottoman Empire. The Armenians who guided and fought with the Russian forces in Anatolia during the First World War are clear examples of the Russo-Armenian alliance against the Empire. In addition, hundred thousands of the Armenians supplied human power to Russia by migrating to the Russian territories. As is understood, in order to get their independence, the Armenians voluntarily accepted to be instrument of the expensionist Russian policies and struggled for it.

Their cooperation with Russia gave Armenians the occasion to come to the international agenda and draw attention of the Great Powers through the Hagia Stephanos and Berlin agreements. However, Great Powers usually considered the Armenians as the pawn of their great games. In this paper, then, the Russian role in the rise of the Armenian question shall be evaluated in the light of archival documents.

Armenian Question In Internationasl Treaties And Congresses According To German Sources: (San Stefano, Berlin And Lausanne)
Res. Assist. Zafer Atar
Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

This study evaluates in a comparative way how the Armenian question was dealt in the Treaty of San Stefano and in Berlin and Lausanne Congresses. The Armenian question entered in political agenda with the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-78 and turned into an internationally political issue in post-war treaties.

Exploration of how western powers approached towards the Armenian question prior to the Ottoman-Russian War and during the treaties and the congresses will help under what conditions and with which concerns great powers including England, Russia, France and Germany conducted their relations with the Armenians in accordance with their own interests.

Armenians Who Were Westernized Early
Assist. Prof. Dr. Zekeriya BAŞKAL
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Arsts and Sciences

In this paper, based on the writings of Armenian authors, I examined the attitudes of Armenians especially in Anatolia towards Europe and United States. The works used are mostly memoirs. Missionary works, commercial relations, educational models have created a sense of seeing Europe and United States as ideal countries and on the part of Armenians identifying themselves with these countries. This case is very similar to that of some Turkish intellectuals at the same period. The case is much more common and early for Armenians. In memories, we found interesting and significant examples of seeing Europe and United States as an ideal place, the results of this thought, and a comparison between these places and what they call old country, which is Turkey.

Anglo-Armenian Association
Res. Assist. Zeynep Cumhur İSKEFİYELİ
Sakarya University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Anglo-Armenian Association was established by James Bryce and some Parliament members who felt an interest in Armenian affairs. In the statutory meeting Bryce announced that the association was established because of giving precise information to the English people, securing the application of the 61st article Berlin Treaty and the interference to the Ottoman Empire in the case of necessity. The Association members were composed of the English and Armenians. Among the English members of the association there were many ministers of Gladstone cabinet and the Parliament members. In this proceeding, the association’s activations, especially between the years of 1893-1895, will be tried to be examined. In this period, the all European and US public opinion, especially English, were put in action in favour of the Armenians and against the Ottomans by meetings, books and brochures which were held and published by the association. The association members who were in the Parliament almost undertook the protection of Armenians by bringing the Armenian issue to the agenda of the House of Lords and the House of Commons.


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